Purpose of an introduction in essay writing
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. The ApplyTexas college application has many different essay prompts—and each of the most popular colleges in Texas has different requirements for which essays they expect students to answer. So how do you get advice on writing your best ApplyTexas essays, no matter which school you are hoping to get into? Look no further than this article, which totally unpacks all five possible ApplyTexas essay prompts. I will explain what each essay prompt is purpose introduction writing, looking for, what admissions officers are hoping to learn about solving you, give you great strategies for of an introduction in essay making sure your essay meets all of advantages essay, these expectations, and help you come up with your best essay topics. To help you navigate through this long guide, you can use these links. The ApplyTexas application is basically the Texas state version of the Common Application that many U.S. colleges use: it’s a unified college application process that's accepted by all Texas public universities and many private ones. Note, however, that some schools that accept ApplyTexas applications also accept the Common App. The ApplyTexas website is a good source for figuring out purpose of an introduction in essay writing whether your target college accepts the ApplyTexas application, but the best way to what civil confirm exactly what your school expects to of an see is to on art go to its admissions website. Why Do Colleges Want You to Write Essays?
Admissions officers are trying to put together classes full of interesting, vibrant students who have different backgrounds, strengths and weaknesses, goals, and purpose of an in essay dreams. One tool for colleges to of the english identify a diverse set of perspectives is through the college essay. What does this mean for you? These essays are a chance for you to show admissions officers those sides of yourself that aren’t reflected in of an writing the rest of your application. This is where you describe where you come from, what you believe in, what you value, and what has shaped you. This is also where you make yourself sound mature and insightful, two key qualities that colleges are looking for in their applicants because they want to essay your place make sure to introduction in essay find young people who will thrive when faced with the what was the war essay independence of college life. Purpose In Essay Writing? Filling a freshman class is solving, like dealing with those Every-Flavor jelly beans from Harry Potter : admissions just wants to make sure to avoid the ones that taste like earwax. There are 4 essay prompts on the ApplyTexas application for freshman admission (Topics A, B, C, and D), and three essay prompts that aren't on the ApplyTexas application, but are extra essay options for of an introduction UT Austin (Topics N, S, and W). There are no word limits for the essays, but colleges suggest keeping the essays somewhere between 1 to problem teams 1 ? pages long. All Texas colleges and universities have different application requirements, including the essays. Some require essays, some list them as optional, while others use a combination of required and optional essays.
Several schools use the purpose introduction in essay essays to determine scholarship awards, honors program eligibility, or admission to specific majors. Here are some essay submission requirement examples from a range of teams, schools. Purpose Introduction? You are required to problem solving write an essay on Topic A. You also have to write one other essay on Topic B, C, D, N, S, or W. If you're applying to Architecture or the Fine Arts’ Department of Art and Art History, your second essay has to be on Topic D. If you're applying to the Nursing program, you need to write your second essay on topic N. If you're applying to purpose writing the Social Work program, your second essay needs to be on topic W. Steps? You have to write essays on Topic A and purpose introduction in essay writing Topic B. If you don't meet automatic admission standards, Texas AM recommends (but doesn't require) that you write an mass effect 2 assignments essay on Topic C. Southern Methodist University essay requirements: You can write about any of the ApplyTexas prompts for purpose of an introduction in essay writing your essay, per SMU's FAQ. SMU also accepts the Common App and has its own online application, so you have the option to effect 2 assignments pick and choose the application you most want to fill out. Texas Christian University essay requirements: You have to write one essay, but it can be on any of the topics.
TCU also accepts the Common App and has its own online application, so it's another school where you can figure out purpose introduction writing which application makes the most sense for you. Dazzled by her options, she was overcome with hopeful optimism. And cuteness. Comparing ApplyTexas Essay Prompts A, B, and C. There are three ApplyTexas essay topics that try to get to the heart of what makes you the person that you are in three different ways. But since Topics A, B, and C all focus on things that are essential to you as a person, it can be difficult to come up with a totally different idea for essays each—especially since on a first read-through, these prompts can sound fairly similar. So, before I dissect all five of the ApplyTexas essay prompts one by one in writing the next section of this article, let’s see how A, B, and C are different from one another. This way, you can keep these differences in mind when trying to come up with ideas of what to write about. Essay Describing Your Favourite Place? (Topics D and S are distinct enough from the purpose introduction in essay others that you’re unlikely to have trouble distinguishing them.) What was the environment in which you were raised? Describe your family, home, neighborhood, or community, and explain how it has shaped you as a person.
Most students have and identity, interest, or a talent that describes them in steps a critical an essential way. Of An Writing? Tell us about yourself. You've got a ticket in your hand—where will you go? What will you do? What will happen when you get there? How to Tell Topics A, B, and C Apart. One helpful way to keep these topics separate in essay your place your mind is to create a big picture category for each one: Topic A is purpose introduction in essay writing, outside, Topic B is inside, and Topic C is the future . In other words, topic A is asking about the impact of the outside world on you and and disadvantages essay how you handled that impact.
On the other hand, topic B is asking about your inner passions and how those passions define you. In Essay Writing? Finally, topic C wants to know about where you're going from what was the cause of the civil, here. These very broad categories will help when you’re brainstorming ideas and life experiences to write about for purpose of an introduction your essay. Of course, it's true that many of the stories you think of can be shaped to fit each of these prompts. Still, think about what the experience most reveals about you. If it’s overall about steps essay how your external community shaped you, it’s a good fit for topic A. If it’s best described as a story about your passions, it should probably be for purpose of an introduction writing topic B. And if it’s primarily about an event that you think predicts your future, it will work well for topic C. That time a spilled crate of 2 assignments, stuffed frogs made you want to learn everything there is to know about French cooking? Probably Topic C. Purpose Introduction In Essay? Now, I will do a thorough deconstruction of essay your place, everything you need to know about Topic A, the purpose introduction in essay first ApplyTexas essay prompt. What was the environment in for writing a critical which you were raised? Describe your family, home, neighborhood or community, and writing explain how it has shaped you as a person. This prompt wants to see how your external environment shaped you. You can tell from the fact that the prompt is split up into a critical, two sentences that your essay answer will have two distinct, but interconnected parts.
The first part of the prompt is about identifying and describing the overall environment in which you grew up. Of course, you'll need to of an writing hone in on particular aspects of your environment to keep your essay from being too vague. The prompt suggests using your family, home, neighborhood, or community to for writing essay focuse your essay. You'll want to choose some aspect of your environment that you can describe vividly and that is really important to you. It doesn't necessarily have to be important in a positive way, but it does have to in essay have had a significant impact on essay describing your favourite, your personal development. It should also be some aspect of your environment that has been or was a part of your life for a long time. You're describing where you were raised, after all.
You shouldn't just describe your environment. You also need to discuss how that environment impacted you as a person. How did the aspect of purpose introduction writing, your environment that you selected to effect 2 assignments write about turn you into the person you are now? It's best if you can think of purpose of an, one or two concrete anecdotes or stories about how your environment has shaped you. For example, don't just say that your family made you a hard-working person—describe in detail how watching your mother come home from a full day of essay, work just to get ready to go to purpose introduction in essay nighttime classes helped show you that working towards goals is worthwhile even when it's hard. 2 Assignments? What Are Readers Hoping to of an introduction writing Learn About You? Being a tomato in a peapod was hard on Frank, who could never really quite understand the peas' obsession with photosynthesis. Readers are looking for two main things. First, they want to see that you can be mature and thoughtful about your surroundings. Are you sufficiently curious about the world around you? If you have really observed and engaged with your surroundings, you will be able to describe the people and places that have impacted you as you have grown up in a nuanced, insightful way.
Second, they want to see how you stand out from your own environment. This can be accomplished in two ways: first, you can emphasize how you are somehow different from your environment and how that impacted you. Second, you can emphasize how you learned positive qualities from the environment around you. Basically, how did your environment turn you into a special, interesting person? How Can Your Essay Give Them What They Want? So how can you make sure your essay is really answering the and disadvantages essay question? Here are some strategies. Purpose? Pick a specific aspect of your environment. You'll need to select something particular in your overall surroundings growing up to essay describing favourite hone in on.
The prompt suggests focusing on your family, home, neighborhood, or community. You could take most of introduction in essay, these suggestions in several directions. Solving? Your family could describe your immediate family, your extended family, or a found family. Your home could be the specific house or houses where you grew up, but it could also be your home town, your block, your apartment building, or even your home country. Your neighborhood could be your street, subdivision, cul-de-sac, an urban neighborhood, or the rural countryside.
Your community could be any community you've been a part of, from your school community to purpose of an introduction in essay writing your church community to your city. When you consider what aspect of your environment to choose, think about significant things that happened to essays on art theft you in connection with your environment. Remember, you'll need to of an in essay get beyond just describing how the setting is essay, important to you to show how it makes you important. How did it make you special? Then you need to consider what about your environment turned you into introduction in essay writing, a person who stands out. Again, this can be about how you overcame some aspect of your environment or how your environment positively fostered qualities or traits in you. You want to make sure that you have a clear message that links your environment to maybe one-three special traits you have. T hink about specific stories and advantages of newspapers essay anecdotes related to your interactions with your environment and thoughfully analyze those to consider what they show about you. Important adults in your life can help you brainstorm. Think of the essay like a movie. Purpose Of An? Like a good movie script, a college essay needs characters, some action, and steps a critical lens essay a poignant but ultimately happy ending.
When you’re planning your personal statement out, try thinking of the story you’re telling in movie terms. This way you can make sure your essay has: Setting. Of An Introduction In Essay? Since you are describing your environment, taking some time to vividly give a sense of place is important. This could be accomplished by describing the actual physical surroundings, the main characters in your community, or some combination of both. Stakes.
Movies propel the action forward by giving characters high stakes. Problem? You know: win or lose, life or death. Purpose? Even if you are describing your environment in positive terms, there needs to be some sense of conflict or dynamic change. And Disadvantages Of Newspapers? In the anecdote(s) you've selected to write about, what did you stand to gain or lose? External conflict resolution. If there is an external conflict of some kind (with a neighbor, a family member, a friend, a city council, etc.) you do need to show some level of resolution. Internal conflict resolution. Inner conflict is introduction, essentially about on art theft how you changed in response to the event or experience. You'll need to purpose introduction in essay clearly lay out advantages and disadvantages of newspapers essay what happened within you and how those changes have carried you forward as a person. Did you feel ALL the feelings?
Can you even name all of these feelings? Oh, yeah? Then what's the one on the bottom right called? Add details, description, and examples. For example, imagine Karima decides to describe how learning to navigate public transit at a young age made her resourceful and helped her explore the introduction in essay writing city environment where she grew up, and what was the english civil how exploring the city impacted her. How should she frame her experience? I was nervous about taking the purpose writing El by myself for the first time.
At the station, there were lots of commuters and adults who seemed impatient but confident. At first I was very afraid of getting lost, but over time I became as confident as those commuters. Problem Solving? I felt a mixture of nerves and excitement walking up the of an introduction writing Howard red line turnstile for the first time. What if I got lost on my way to the museum? I was worried that I would just seem like a nuisance to all of the frowning commuters who crowded the platform.
If I needed help, would they help me? Was I even brave enough to ask? When the solving teams metal doors opened, I pressed my nails into my palms and purpose in essay rushed in after a woman with a red briefcase. What Cause English Civil War Essay? Success! At least for the first step. I found a sideways-facing seat and clutched my macrame bag with my notebook and sketching supplies in introduction writing my lap. Solving Teams? A map hung above my seat.
Pressing my finger to the colorful grid, I found my stop and counted how many I still had to go. I spent the entire train ride staring at that map, straining my ears for everything the conductor said. Now, when I think about the first time I rode the El by myself, I smile. What seemed so scary at purpose of an introduction writing, the time is just an everyday way to advantages get around now. But I always look around on the platform to purpose of an in essay see if any nervous kids linger at the edges of the commuter crowds and offer them a smile. Both versions set up the same story, plot-wise, but the second makes the train ride (and because of mass effect, this, the purpose in essay author) come alive through the effect 2 assignments addition of of an writing, specific, individualizing details:
Visual cues. The reader sees what the authors saw through descriptions like frowning commuters who crowded the platform, woman with a red briefcase, and colorful grid. Emotional responses. On Art Theft? We experience the author’s feelings: she felt a mixture of nerves and excitement. She wonders if she's brave enough to ask for purpose introduction help. The train ride was so scary at the time but feels everyday now. Differentiation. Even though the commuters are mostly a monolithic group, we get to see some individuals, like the woman with a red brief case. There's no one best topic for for writing lens essay this essay prompt (or any other), but I've included some potential ideas below, to introduction in essay writing help you get started with your own brainstorming. Describing a time that you organized the people around you around some common local cause Honing in on a close relationship with one or more family members Identifying a particularly significant place in mass effect your neighborhood (like a certain park or tree) and why it has been so important in purpose introduction writing your life Being a minority in your school or neighborhood Going through a cultural or religious rite-of-passage Moving from one place to somewhere totally different and essay your place handling your culture shock.
And that's when I realized that I too had become an purpose in essay writing ostrich, accepted by and adapted into their culture of pecking and running. What Cause Of The War Essay? Dissecting ApplyTexas Essay Topic B. Let's go through the in essay same process for ApplyTexas Topic B, taking it apart brick by brick and effect putting it back together again. Purpose Of An In Essay? Most students have an was the main civil war essay identity, an of an in essay writing interest, or a talent that defines them in an essential way. Tell us about yourself. At first glance, this prompt seems pretty vague. Tell us about yourself is not exactly the most detailed set of instructions available. But if we drill down a little, there are actually two pretty specific things this question is essays on art, asking. This prompts posits that most students—which probably includes you—have some kind of defining trait. This could be an identity, interest, or talent. So you need to express what that defining trait is.
Are you an amazing knitter? Do you spend all your free time researching cephalopods? Are you a connoisseur of indie movies or mystery novels? Or maybe you have a religious, cultural, ethnic, or LGBTQ+ identity that's very important to purpose of an introduction you. Any of these things could plausibly be the main, framing theme of advantages of newspapers essay, this essay. 2. How Does That Defining Trait Fit Into You Overall? Even though you have some kind of defining trait, that's not the entirety of you.
Essentially, you need to contextualize your defining trait within your broader personality and purpose of an writing identity. This is where the steps for writing a critical lens essay tell us about yourself part comes in. What does your defining trait say about you as a person overall? How does it fit into purpose of an in essay writing, your overall personality, values, and dreams? Only deep in the woods could she explore her one true passion: moss.
What Are Readers Hoping to Learn About You? They are hoping to learn two main things: 1. Advantages And Disadvantages Essay? What you're passionate about. It's essential that this essay communicate genuine passion for whatever you choose to write about. College is a lot of in essay writing, work, and passion is an important driving force when things get busy. Readers are looking for students who are really engaged in mass effect the world around them and excited about things! 2. How you view yourself (and how successfully you can communicate that). A strong, well-developed sense of self goes a long way towards helping you weather all of the changes you're going to of an writing experience when you go to school. Even though you will change and grow a lot as a person during your college years, having a sense of your own core traits and values will help those changes be exciting as opposed to problem solving scary.
So colleges are looking for introduction writing that developed sense of self. Additionally, they are looking for of newspapers students who can communicate messages about themselves in a clear, confident, cohesive way. How Can Your Essay Give Them What They Want? The challenge with this prompt is giving a complete picture of you as a person while still staying on message about your defining trait. You need to be focused yet comprehensive. Let's explore the purpose introduction in essay writing best ways to lens show off your passion and frame your identity. Purpose Introduction Writing? Define the core message. First, you need to select that defining trait. This could be pretty much anything just so long as you are genuinely very invested in this trait and feel that it represents some core aspect of essay your place, you. It should also be something that you can describe through stories and anecdotes.
Just saying, I'm a redhead and that defines me makes for a pretty boring essay. A story about how you started a photography project that's all portraits of redheads like you and what you learned about yourself from that experience is much more interesting. You should be careful here to introduction select something that presents you in a broadly positive light. If you select a trait that doesn't seem very serious, like your enduring and eternal love of effect, onion rings, you risk seeming at best immature and at purpose in essay writing, worst outright disrespectful. You also want to pick something realistic—don't claim that you are the greatest mathematician who ever lived unless you are, in advantages fact, the greatest mathematician who ever lived (and you probably aren't). Otherwise you'll seem out of purpose introduction, touch. Fit it into a larger picture.
Then think about how you can use that trait to paint a more complete picture of you at on art theft, a person. It's great that you are passionate about skiing and on the ski team, but what else does that say about of an introduction writing you? Are you an adventurous daredevil who loves to take (reasonable) risks? Are you a nature lover with a taste for exploration? Do you love being part of essay favourite, a team? Select at least two-three postive messages you want to communicate about yourself within your essay about your key trait. Brody added his special brand of XYZ to everything he ever made for that bro-tisanal touch. Purpose Writing? Show, don't tell. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Newspapers Essay? It's much more interesting to of an read about things that you do that demonstrate your key traits than it is to hear you list them. Don't just say, Everyone asks me for advice because I'm level-headed and advantages reasonable. Actually describe situations that show people asking you for advice and of an introduction you giving that level-headed, reasonable advice.
Watch your tone. It's important to watch your tone when you are writing an essay your place essay that's pretty overtly about how great you are. You want to show your own special qualities without seeming glib, staid, self-aggrandizing, or narcissistic. Introduction Writing? For example, let’s say Andrew wants to write about figuring out how to grow a garden despite his yard being in full shade and of newspapers essay how that turned into a passion for horticulture. He could launch into purpose writing, a rant about the garden store employees not knowing which plants are right for which light, and the previous house owner’s terrible habit of using the yard for a pet bathroom, and the achy knee that prevented him from essay, proper weeding posture, and so on.
Or, he could describe doing research on the complex gardens of royal palaces, planning the garden based on plant color and height, using trial and purpose error to see which plants would flourish, and getting so involved with the work that he would lose track of time. One of these makes him sound whiny and self-centered, and the other makes him sound like someone who can take charge of a difficult situation . Again, there's no single best approach here, but I've outlined some potential topics below: Are you known for being really good at something or an essays on art expert on purpose of an writing, a particular topic? How does it impact your identity? Discuss how you got involved in a particular extracurricular activity and what it means to you. What have you learned from participating? Describe something you've done lots of research on in your free time. How did you discover that interest? What have you learned? What's your most evident personality trait? How has that trait impacted your life? (You can ask friends and problem solving relatives for help with this one) Relate the importance of your LGBTQ identity. Discuss your religious or cultural background and how it defines you.
Describe your experience as a member of a minority community. Are you a diamond in a world of hearts? Dissecting ApplyTexas Essay Topic C. Now we can take apart Topic C to purpose writing get a good handle on how to and disadvantages essay tackle this future-facing essay. You've got a ticket in your hand—where will you go? What will you do? What will happen when you get there? If ApplyTexas Topic A and Topic B were all about your past experiences, Topic C wants you to give readers a glimpse of your imagined possibilities.
There are basically two potential approaches to purpose of an writing this question. We'll break them down here. One approach to advantages of newspapers this question is purpose of an introduction, just to use this as a chance to essays theft describe your long-term goals for your career and life. For some students, this will be an extremely straightforward endeavor. For example, say you’ve always wanted to be a doctor, and purpose you spend your whole life volunteering at hospitals, helping out in your mom’s practice, and studying biology during the summer time. Then you can just frame your ticket as a ticket to medical school, pick a few of the most gripping moments from these past experiences and discuss the overall trajectory of steps a critical lens essay, your interests, and your essay will be a winner.
But what if you’re not sure about lifetime goals? Or if you feel like you really don't know where you're going next week, let alone next year or ten years from now? You can still use this prompt! Read on. Purpose Of An In Essay? 2. Demonstrating Thoughtful Imagination. While you can certainly interpret this as a straightforward question about your future, you can also use it as a chance to problem teams be more imaginative. Purpose Introduction In Essay Writing? Note that this entire question rests on the metaphor of the steps for writing lens essay ticket.
The ticket can be to anywhere; you decide. So the ticket could be to a very real place, like your grandmother's house or the of an introduction writing highlands of Scotland or the Metropolitan Museum. Or it could be somewhere fantastical, like a time machine to on art the Paleolithic. The important thing here is that you use the destination you select—and what you plan to do there—to demonstrate that you are a thoughtful person who is excited and engaged with the world around you. Renata doesn't want a train ticket, she just wants a boat. What Are Readers Hoping to of an in essay Learn About You?
If you are on a direct path to a specific field of study or career pursuit, admissions officers definitely want to know that. Having driven, goal oriented, and passionate students is essays, a huge plus for a university. Purpose Of An Introduction In Essay? So if this is you, be sure that your essay conveys not just your interest but also your deep and abiding love of the subject, and any related clubs, activities, and hobbies that you’ve done during high school. However, if you take the describing more creative approach to purpose of an this prompt, realize that in this essay, like in all the other essays, the how matters much more than the problem solving what . Don't worry that you don't have a specific goal in mind yet: no matter where your eventual academic, career, or other pursuits may lie, every activity that you have done up to now has taught you something. You learned about things like work ethic, mastering a skill, practice, learning from a mentor, interacting with peers, dealing with setbacks, understanding your own learning style, and of an in essay perseverance. Your essay is a chance to show off that knowledge and maturity. So n o matter what destination you choose for your ticket (the what ), you want to communicate that you can think about future (and imagined!) possibilities in a compelling way based on your past experiences (the how ). Whether you take where you are going and problem what you are doing in a more literal direction or move the purpose of an introduction writing prompt towards somewhere more abstract and creative, the admissions office wants to make sure that no matter what you study, you will be able to make something meaningful out of it. They want to advantages and disadvantages see that you’re not simply floating through life on the surface, but that you are absorbing the qualities, skills, and know-how you will need to purpose in essay writing succeed in the world. How Can Your Essay Give Them What They Want?
Here are some ideas for advantages and disadvantages of newspapers how to show that you have thoughtful and of an introduction in essay compelling visions of possible futures. Pick where you're going. Is this going to be a more straightforward interpretation of your goals (my ticket is to the judge's bench) or a more creative one (my ticket is to Narnia)? Whichever one you choose, make sure that you choose a destination that is genuinely compelling to you. The last thing you want is to come off sounding bored or disingenuous. Don’t overreach. It’s fine to say that you’d like to be involved in politics, for example, but it’s a little too self-aggrandizing to claim that you’re definitely going to be president of the United States. Make sure that whatever destination you select for your ticket, it doesn’t come off as unnecessary bragging rather than simple aspiration. Don’t underreach. At the same time, make sure that the destination you've chosen here is one that makes sense in the context of a college essay.
Maybe what you really want is a ticket to the potato chip factory, but this may not be the place to expound upon that imagined possibility. Mass? You can choose a whimsical location, but you need to be able to purpose of an introduction in essay ground it in a real vision of the mass effect kind of person you want to purpose introduction become. After all, you always have to remember your audience. Solving? In this case, it's college admissions officers who want to find students who are eager to learn and purpose writing be exposed to new thoughts and ideas (and not just new potato chips). Flesh it out. Once you pick a destination, it's time to consider the other components of the question: what are you going to do once you reach your destination? What will happen there? Pick some key messages that relate back to you, your talents, and your goals. Ground your journey in specific anecdotes and examples. The way that this question is main of the civil war essay, framed is very abstract. So it's important that you ground your thoughts about your destination (whether it's more straightforward or more creative) in concrete anecdotes and purpose of an introduction writing examples that show that you are thoughtful, engaged, passionate, and problem driven.
This is even more important if you go the introduction in essay writing creative route and choose an unusual location. If you don't keep things somewhat grounded in reality, your essay may come across as frivolous. You want to make the most of your opportunity to problem solving share some concrete examples of your desirable qualities in your essay. Purpose In Essay? Imagine Eleanor’s essay is about how she wants a ticket to theft Starfleet Academy (for the purpose of an introduction writing uninitiated, this is the fictional school in the Star Trek universe where people train to be Starfleet officers). Essay Describing Place? Which essay conveys more about her potential as a student? My ticket is to Starfleet Academy. There, I would train to become part of the Command division so I could command a starship. Once I was captain of my own starship, I would explore the deepest reaches of space to interact with alien life and learn more about the purpose universe. I've loved Star Trek since my dad started playing VHS copies of problem solving teams, old episodes for me in our ancient VCR.
So if I could have a ticket to anywhere, it would be to Starfleet Academy to train in the command division. I know I would make a superb command officer. My ten years of experience in writing hapkido have taught me discipline and how to think on my feet. Working as a hapkido instructor in advantages of newspapers essay my dojo the past two years has honed my leadership and teaching qualities, which are essential for purpose introduction in essay any starship commander. Additionally, I have the steps curiosity and sense of adventure necessary for a long career in the unknown reaches of space. Right now, I exercise my thirst for of an writing exploration through my photography blog. Using my DSLR camera, I track down and what was the main civil photograph obscure and hidden places I find in purpose introduction writing my town, on family trips, and even on day trips to nearby cities. I carefully catalogue the location so other people can follow in for writing a critical lens essay my footsteps. Purpose In Essay? Documentation, after all, is another important part of exploring space in describing your place a starship.
Both versions communicate the same things about the imagined destination, but the seond essay does a much better job showing who Eleanor is purpose introduction in essay, as a person. All we really learn from the first excerpt is that Eleanor must like Star Trek. We can infer that she probably likes leadership, exploration, and on art theft adventure since she says she wants to captain a starship, but we don't really know that. Admissions officers shouldn't have to infer who you are from purpose, your essay: your essay should lay it out for them. In the second essay, on the other hand, Eleanor clearly lays out the qualities that would make her a great Command officer and 2 assignments then provides examples of how she exemplifies those qualities.
She ties the purpose abstract destination to concrete things from advantages and disadvantages essay, her life, like hapkido and purpose writing photography. This provides a much better picture of what Eleanor might bring to the student body and the school at large. Eleanor just wants to explore the final frontier . I've come up with some sample essay ideas for and disadvantages essay the two different approaches to this prompt. Possibility 1: Your Concrete Goals. Describe your goal to purpose in essay pursue a particular academic field or career and discuss how specific classes and/or extracurricular activities ignited that passion Discuss how your plans to pursue politics, project management, or another leadeship role were fostered by an experience of leadership (could be a straightforward leadership position in and disadvantages essay a club or a job, or a more indirect or unplanned leadership experience like suddenly having to take charge of a group)e Discuss how your desire to teach or train in the future was sparked by an experience of teaching someone to of an do something (e.g. by being a tutor or by helping a sibling deal with a particularly challenging class or learning issue) Describe your goal to perform on for writing a critical lens essay, stage in the future and discuss how your past experiences of public creativity (e.g. being in a play, staging an art show, performing an orchestra, or being involved in dance) led you to that goal. Possibility 2: Creative/Abstract Destination. Of An Introduction In Essay Writing? What would you do if you could visit the world of a favorite childhood book or television series? What qualities does that show about you? Is there a relative or friend you would like to visit with your ticket? Is there a particular historical period you would like to time-travel to?
Is there a destination that you've always wanted to essays on art travel to? Remember to tie your imaginative destination to concrete details about your special qualities! A future as a driving coach for of an in essay writing motorcoach drivers was a no-brainer for the founding member of the homonym club. Dissecting ApplyTexas Essay Topic D. If you're applying to problem solving one of several fine art fields, this mandatory essay is a way to comment on your influences. Personal interaction with objects, images and spaces can be so powerful as to change the way one thinks about purpose of an introduction in essay particular issues or topics.
For your intended area of steps a critical essay, study (architecture, art history, design, studio art, visual art studies/art education), describe an purpose of an in essay writing experience where instruction in that area or your personal interaction with an object, image or space effected this type of change in your thinking. What did you do to act upon your new thinking and favourite place what have you done to prepare yourself for further study in this area? If you’re applying to study architecture, art, or art history at UT Austin, one of the essays you must write is introduction writing, this one. This essay topic is trying to ask as broadly as possible about an experience with art that has moved you in some way. This means that your options for answering the question are quite varied. So what are the two different parts of this prompt? Think back to one of the of newspapers times you felt that blown-away feeling when looking at something man-made. Purpose? This is the feeling, experience, and situation that the was the cause english civil war essay first part of the essay wants you to recreate. The prompt is primarily interested in your ability to describe and pinpoint exactly what quality made you stop in your tracks. Of An Introduction In Essay Writing? The huge set of inspiring object options the prompt offers tells us that your taste level won't be judged here.
You can focus on a learning experience, which includes both your in-school classes and extracurricular activities. Or you can focus on a direct experience, where you encountered an object or space without the contextualizing and mediation of a class or a teacher. The only advantages, limit to your focus object is of an, that it is something made by someone other than you. Your reaction needs to be in conversation with the original artist, not a form of navel-gazing. The key for this part of the essay is that your description needs to segue into a story of change and transformation. What the essay topic is asking you to show isn’t just that you were struck by something you saw or learned about, but that you also absorbed something from this experience that impacted your own art going forward. Main English? When you see the Angkor Wat Temple, you can't help but be psyched that at least humans haven't wasted all their time on earth. This brings us to the second part of the essay prompt.
This is where you need to move from the of an introduction writing past into the present, and then at least gesture meaningfully toward the future. It’s one thing to look at a piece of art, sculpture, or architecture and be moved by its grace, boldness, or vision. Essay Describing Favourite Place? But it’s a sign of introduction, a mature creative mind to was the main cause of the english be able to really take to purpose introduction writing heart what is teams, meaningful to you about this work and writing somehow transmute your experience into mass 2 assignments, your own work . Purpose Of An Introduction Writing? This essay wants to advantages of newspapers essay see that developing maturity in you. So, in this part of the essay, you should explain exactly how your own creative vision has changed after you had the meaningful encounter that you described. What qualities, philosophy, or themes do you now try to infuse into what you create? More than that, though, this essay prompt asserts that being affected by something once isn’t enough. That’s why in of an introduction this second part of the topic, you will also need to explain what you’ve been doing to keep having moving encounters with the creative work of advantages, others . There is some choice here as well. “What have you done to introduction writing prepare yourself for further study in this area” can be answered by advantages of newspapers essay describing how you’ve sought out other work by the same artist who moved you the first time. Or you can describe investigating new media or techniques to emulate something you saw. Or you could talk about learning about the period, genre, school, or philosophical theory that the original piece of art comes from in order to purpose in essay give yourself more contextualized understanding.
What Are Readers Hoping to Learn About You? If you’re planning an academic career in the visual arts or architecture, then you’re entering into a long conversation started by our cave-painting ancestors and solving teams continuing through every human culture and society since. Purpose? This essay wants to and disadvantages make sure that you aren’t creating in a vacuum, but that you have had enough education and awareness to be inspired by others. By demonstrating how you react to work that moves you – not with jealousy or dismissal, but with appreciation and introduction in essay recognition of another’s talent and ability – you show that you are ready to start participating in on art theft this ongoing conversation. Purpose In Essay? At the same time, the essay is asking you to describing your favourite show your own creative readiness. Of An In Essay? Describe not only the work you have produced, but also your ability to introduce new elements into that work – in this case, inspired by the piece you described.
That way, you can demonstrate that you aren’t a one-note artist, but are instead someone who is mature enough to alter and 2 assignments develop what you make. Inspired by Michaelangelo's supposed advice to just chip away the in essay writing marble that isn't the theft sculpture, I will now write my essay by purpose of an in essay just not using the words that aren't supposed to be on the page. How Can Your Essay Give Them What They Want? What are some best practices for essays theft teasing out the complexities of art in written form? Pick one piece of art or one learning experience. Once you’ve chosen between these two contexts, narrow down your selection even further. If you are writing about an introduction in essay writing educational encounter, don’t forget that it doesn’t have to come from your place, a formal situation. Instead, you could write about something you learned on your own from a documentary, museum visit, or art book.
If you're writing about a direct experience of art, don't necessarily fixate on a classical piece. Instead, you could discuss an introduction in essay unexpected piece of public sculpture, a particularly striking building or bridge you saw traveling, or a gallery exhibition. Whatever you end up writing about, make sure you know some of the identifying details. You don’t need to know the effect 2 assignments answer to all of these questions, but do your best to research at least 2-3: who was the artist, where is the piece, what kind of work is it, what are the materials used, when was it made? Figure out why you were struck by this work in particular.
The make-it-or-break-it moment in this essay will be your ability to explain what you were affected by in of an introduction writing the object that you end up writing about. Why is it different from other works that you’ve seen? Do you think it (or you) were in the right place at the right time to be moved by it, or would this have affected you similarly no matter where/when you saw it? Did it speak to you because it shares some of your ideals/philosophies/tastes, or because it was so different from them? Be careful with your explanation, since it can easily get either so vague as to be meaningless, or so obscure and “deep” that you lose your reader. So, before you start trying to put that down on paper, my advice is to try to steps essay talk out what you plan to say either with a friend, a parent, or a teacher. Do they understand what you’re saying, and does it make sense? Do a timeline of your own creative work.
When you think about what you have been making or thinking about making during your high school career, what is the trajectory of your ideas? How have you changed your understanding of the materials you want to introduction work with? The message you want your work to convey? The way you want your work to be seen by others? The reason that you feel compelled to be creative? Now that you’ve formulated this idea timeline, try to essays see if your changing thoughts overlap with the art experience that you are planning on describing. Is there a way that you can combine what was so exciting to purpose writing you about the other work with the way you’ve seen your own ideas about steps a critical lens your art changing over of an in essay writing time? Use a mix of concreteness and comparisons in your description. It might be true that just as nothing ruins a joke like explaining it, so nothing ruins the wordless experience of looking at art like talking it to death.
Still, you need to find a way to use words to give the reader a sense of what the piece that moved you actually looks like – particularly if they don’t happen be familiar with the your favourite particular work, or with the artist that created it. Purpose In Essay? Here is my suggested trick for writing well about problem solving art. Purpose Of An Introduction In Essay? First, you have to be both extremely specific about the physical object. Discuss its colors, size, what it appears to for writing lens be made of, what your eye goes to first (bright colors vs darker, more muted ones, for example), what it is purpose writing, representative of (if it’s figurative), where it is in relation to the viewer, whether or not you can see marks of the tools used (brush strokes, scrapes from sculpting tools). Problem? Second, you have to step away from the concrete and introduction writing let some flights of fancy into your language through comparative description that relies on your imagination to create emotionally resonant similes . And Disadvantages Of Newspapers? Is there a form of movement (flying, crawling, tumbling) that this piece feels like? A piece of the natural world (a falling leaf, forest canopy being moved by wind, waves, sand dunes shifting)? If the purpose introduction writing work is figurative, imagine what has been happening just before the advantages and disadvantages of newspapers moment in time it captures. What happened just after? Using these kinds of non-literal descriptors will let your reader understand both the in essay actual physical object and its appeal.
The Stormtrooper's hypnotic performance was like plunging into a diamond-studded Sarlacc pit to be slowly digested over a thousand years by disco music. Dissecting UT Austin Essay Topic S. The University of Texas at Austin gives its applicants the option to write a different essay explaining a relevant piece of their background. Effect? There may be personal information that you want considered as part of your admissions application. Write an purpose of an introduction essay describing that information. You might include exceptional hardships, challenges, or opportunities that have shaped or impacted your abilities or academic credentials, personal responsibilities, exceptional achievements or talents, educational goals, or ways in which you might contribute to an institution committed to creating a diverse learning environment.
The University of Texas at Austin allows its applicants to mix and problem teams match essays from the ApplyTexas application from its own option – Topic S. Purpose Introduction Writing? If your particular experience doesn’t quite fit under the rubrics of the was the cause english war essay other essay topics, or if there is something the of an in essay writing admissions officers need to understand about your background in order to consider your application in the right context, then this is the essay for you. The prompt for this essay clarifies that the problem teams additional information you may want to share with the admissions team can be either positive or negative – just as long as it qualifies as “exceptional” in some way. Purpose Introduction Writing? They mean this distinction so deeply that the prompt actually uses the problem teams word “exceptional” twice, to really cement the idea that the purpose introduction in essay writing everyday challenges or successes of and disadvantages essay, regular life aren’t what this essay is supposed to of an in essay writing highlight. What this means is that evaluating whether your experiences qualify for this essay is a matter of was the main war essay, degrees. Introduction In Essay? For example, did you manage to thrive despite being raised by a hardworking single parent? That’s a hardship that could easily be written about for Topic B. Did you manage to thrive despite living in a succession of advantages of newspapers, foster families only to of an in essay writing age out for writing lens of the system in the middle of your senior year of purpose of an introduction in essay writing, high school? That’s a narrative of problem solving, overcoming hardship that easily belongs to Topic S. On the flip side, did you win a state-wide karate championship? Well done, and feel free to tell your story under Topic C. Were you the youngest black belt in the history of the sport to of an introduction in essay writing win a national title?
Then feel free to main of the civil write about of an introduction in essay it for Topic S. What Are Readers Hoping to Learn About You? This is pretty straightforward. Steps A Critical Lens Essay? They are trying to identify students that have unique and amazing stories to tell about who they are and where they come from. If you’re a student like this, then the admissions people want to know: what happened to you who, besides you, was affected when and where it happened how you participated or were involved in the situation how it affected you as a person how it affected your schoolwork how the experience will be reflected in purpose introduction the point of view you bring to campus. The reasons that the university wants this information are: it gives context to applications that otherwise might seem mediocre or even subpar it can help explain times in a transcript where grades significantly drop it creates them the effect 2 assignments opportunity to build a lot of diversity into the incoming class it’s a way of finding unique talents and abilities that otherwise wouldn’t show up on other application materials. If you're one of those two guys, you definitely qualify for this essay topic. How Can Your Essay Give Them What They Want? Let's run through a few tricks for making sure your essay makes the most of your particular exceptionalism. Double-check your uniqueness.
There are many experiences in all of our lives that are traumatic, enormously moving, and dramatically emotionally impactful, but which are also very common. Conversely, there are many experiences that make us feel elated, accomplished, and purpose of an extremely competent, that are also near-universal. This essay isn’t trying to take the validity of your strong feelings away from you, but it really is looking for stories that are on a different scale. Main Cause English? Wondering whether what you went through counts? This might be a good time to run your Topic S idea by a parent, school counselor, or trusted teacher. Do they think your experience is widespread? Or do they agree that you truly lived a life less ordinary?
Connect outward. Introduction In Essay Writing? The vast majority of your answer to essay the Topic S prompt should be telling your story and its impact on you and your life. Of An Introduction In Essay? But the essay should also point toward how your particular experiences will shape your potential future interactions at UT Austin. One of the reasons that the admissions office wants to find out which of the what was the english civil applicants has been through something unlike most other people is that they are hoping to increase the number of points of view in the student body. Purpose Of An Introduction In Essay Writing? Think about, and include in your essay, how you will impact campus life. This can be very literal – if you are a jazz singer who has released several acclaimed albums, then maybe you will perform on campus. Or it can be much more oblique – if you are disabled, then you will be able to what was the main war essay offer a perspective that differs from the able-bodied majority. Purpose Of An Writing? Be direct, specific, and honest. Problem Solving Teams? It doesn't matter whether you’re explaining that your GPA fell during your sophomore year because of the death of purpose of an writing, someone close to you, or whether you’re telling the story of steps lens, how you came to the US as a refugee, or whether you’re sharing your Olympic medal win. Nothing will make your voice sound more appealing than writing without embellishment or verbal flourishes. This is the one case where what you’re telling is just as – if not more – important than how you’re telling it.
So the purpose writing best strategy is to essays be as straightforward in your writing as possible. This means using description to situate your reader in a place/time/experience that they would never get to see firsthand. You can do this by picking a specific moment during your hardship or accomplishment to narrate as a small short story, and not shying away from explaining your emotions throughout the purpose of an in essay experience. Your goal is to make the extraordinary into lens, something at least somewhat relatable – and introduction in essay writing the way you do that is by making your writing down to describing your favourite place earth. As I've already described, the most important feature of any topic for purpose introduction in essay this prompt is that it must be genuinely exceptional. I've listed some examples below. Possibility 1: Exceptional Hardships or Challenges. coping with a physical or mental disability growing up in poverty, or with an absent or otherwise problematic parent facing the death of a sibling or parent being a refugee to the US surviving a natural disaster, war, or other crisis being the essays on art victim of a serious crime spending time in jail or in juvenile detention living with a chronic illness, or overcoming a very serious illness spending some period of time being homeless. Purpose Of An Introduction Writing? Possibility 2: Exceptional Opportunities. Essay Describing Favourite Place? being the purpose child of what was the of the war essay, a famous actor, musician, or politician growing up unusually wealthy getting the of an introduction chance to intern at the White House, at the UN, or NASA. Possibility 3: Personal Responsibilities. taking care of younger siblings in the absence of essay your, parents or parental figures having to work in purpose in essay order to support the family rather than for personal income being a teenage parent getting emancipated from parents as a minor living alone and solving having to fend for of an introduction in essay writing yourself. Possibility 4: Exceptional Achievements or Talents. possessing an unusual level of talent in the performing or visual arts being a chess grandmaster playing sports at an Olympic or close-to Olympic level winning a national or international award for describing your favourite academic work, or getting national or international recognition for an achievement getting a book published, or getting a piece published in a prestigious magazine or journal.
Or maybe instead of writing the essay, you could just send them this selfie. UT Austin also has two special prompts specifically for nursing applicants (topic N) and for social work applicants (topic W). They are quite similar, and we will go over both of them briefly here. Considering nursing as your first-choice major, discuss how your current and purpose introduction future academic activities, extracurricular pursuits and life experiences will help you achieve your goals. Discuss the reasons you chose social work as your first-choice major and problem how a social work degree from UT Austin will prepare you for the future. Both of these prompts are essentially asking you two things: First, how have your relevant experiences up to this point led you to want to study nursing/social work? Second, what do you plan on introduction writing, doing with your nursing/social work degree from UT Austin? How Can You Give Them What They Want?
Admissions officers will be looking for evidence that you are really interested in this particular career and that you have an aptitude for it. So i f you have any relevant clinical, research, or volunteer experience, admissions officers definitely want to know this! It's definitely okay to take a broad view of what's relevant here. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Newspapers? Anything that involves working with people is a good experience for either prospective nursing or social work students. They also want to introduction know that you are really interested in the UT Austin program, so be sure to identify things about the particular program (nursing or social work) that appeal to you. Why UT Austin? And what makes you a good fit there? Finally, they are looking for individuals with clear goals and a good idea of advantages and disadvantages of newspapers, what they want to of an in essay writing do once they get the degree. Are you interested in working with a specific population or specialty? Why?
What led you to that conclusion? The Bottom Line: Tips for mass 2 assignments Writing ApplyTexas Essays. The ApplyTexas application features four essay prompts (Topics A, B, C, and D), with different schools requiring different combinations of mandatory and purpose in essay writing optional essays . Was The Cause Of The English War Essay? UT Austin also includes its own prompt, Topic S, as one of the choices. UT Austin also has prompts N and W for nursing and social work applicants. One way to purpose introduction in essay keep the three similar-sounding 3 essay topics (A, B, and C) separate in your mind is to create a big picture category for each one: Topic A is effect, about your outside, topic B is purpose in essay writing, your inside, and on art topic C is about your future.
Essay Topic A wants you to purpose introduction writing describe the environment you grew up in your favourite place and how it shaped you as a person. Pick a specific aspect of your environment Describe how it made you special Describe the setting, stakes, and conflict resolution Add details, description, and examples Essay Topic B is a chance to describe a defining trait and how it fits into the larger vision of you. Define the core message. Fit that core message of of an introduction writing, your into the larger picture. Show things about yourself, don’t tell. Watch your tone to make sure you show your great qualities without seeming narcissistic, boring, glib, or self-aggrandizing.
Essay Topic C asks you to describe “where you are going” in problem either a fairly literal, goal-oriented sense or in an imaginative sense. Pick where you’re going, but don’t over- or under-reach. Flesh out your destination. How does it relate back to you? Ground your “journey” in specific anecdotes and examples. Essay Topic D wants you to of an in essay describe being affected by a work of describing your favourite, art or an introduction writing artistic experience to make sure that you are ready to enter a fine arts field. Pick one piece of art or one specific experience of mass effect 2 assignments, learning about art Figure out exactly why this work or event struck you Examine your own work to see how this artwork has affected your creativity Use a mix of concrete descriptions and comparisons when writing about the piece of writing, art Essay Topic S is a way for admissions officers to find students with extraordinary life stories or to give context to for writing a critical lens essay otherwise lackluster applications. Double-check that your experience (whether negative or positive) is unique and doesn't quite fit under any of the other essay topics Explain how your background will contribute to diversity on the UT Austin campus Be direct, specific, honest, and straightforward Essay Topics N and purpose in essay writing W are specific to nursing and social work applicants at UT Austin.
Describe your relevant experiences and interests up to this point. Describe what about the UT Austin program appeals to you and how you will use your degree (your future goals). What Civil? Curious about the other essay choices out there? If your target college also accepts the Common App, check out of an introduction in essay our guide to the Common App essay prompts to see whether they would be a better fit. Interested to see how other people tackled this part of the application? We have a roundup of of newspapers, 129 accepted essays from over purpose of an introduction in essay 15 different colleges. Stuck on what to write about? Read our suggestions for how to come up with great essay ideas. What Was The Main Of The? Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?
We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at purpose of an introduction in essay, improving your score. Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Anna scored in the 99th percentile on her SATs in high school, and went on of the civil war essay, to major in English at Princeton and to get her doctorate in purpose in essay English Literature at Columbia. Problem Solving Teams? She is passionate about improving student access to higher education. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to introduction writing 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics!
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How to introduction in essay writing, Construct a Killer Resume, From Start to Finish. Last week, I wrote a controversial article about resume tips that got a lot of solving teams, readers fired up. As a result, I thought it would be worthwhile to purpose of an introduction writing, go through the entire process of creating a strong resume, step by step. Step 0: Do NOT fire up Microsoft Word and use a generic resume template. Absolutely, positively , do NOT do this, no matter what.
Microsoft Word is essays on art theft, a powerful program, but just firing it up and of an introduction opening up one of the included resume templates does one thing and one thing alone – make your resume look like everyone else’s. You want your resume to mass effect, look unique and memorable, but classy – Word’s default templates will not cut the purpose introduction in essay, mustard. Step 1: Open a plain text document and start listing all of the information you might ever include on a resume. List the details of for writing a critical essay, every job, including every possible relevant accomplishment at of an introduction each one. List every organized activity you’ve ever participated in, and every noteworthy honor you’ve received in on art your life. List everything . Tip #1: If you don’t know where to start, include the introduction in essay writing, following in this order: Work experience (dates, names of employers, location, tasks, accomplishments) Education (dates, degrees obtained, location)
Honors and on art theft awards. Other activities of note (professional organizations, special skills, etc.) This is of an introduction in essay writing, essentially your “default resume.” You’re never going to send it to anyone. Instead, you’re going to use it to quickly build the essay describing your, real resumes that you will send to potential employers. Step 2: Read and research the job you’re interested in applying for.
Once you’ve found a job that you’re actually interested in applying for, do a few minutes’ worth of research. Find out as much as you can quickly about the job itself and the employer. Introduction Writing? If you don’t understand fully what you’re applying for essays on art and who your employer is going to be, you’re essentially tossing things at the wall and of an introduction hoping it will stick. Tip #2: Before you actually start assembling a resume for a job, make sure you can answer these five questions, at the very least. What is the was the main cause, likely primary function of the purpose introduction in essay, job? What are you being hired to on art theft, do? This isn’t your job title, but what you will actually be doing. What is the organization that I’m applying to? Sure, you know the name of the organization, but what is that organization’s function?
Do they produce certain products? Do they provide certain services? What is the reputation of in essay writing, this organization? Applying to Google and to “Joe’s Desperate Search Engine” are two completely different things, even though the jobs may appear very similar on advantages and disadvantages of newspapers, paper. Joe is purpose introduction in essay, probably seeking a programmer with very specific skills, while Google is looking for people who exhibit exceptional problem solving skills. What is my role within this organization? If you accept this job, what will your role be? Will you be working on developing the for writing, product directly, or will you be providing services to the public?
Perhaps you will even be providing services to the people who make the products. What skills and attributes point to success with this specific organization in the role I’m going to fill? Basically, knowing what you know about the job, what sorts of things would make you a really great candidate? Step 3: Open a new copy of your default resume and eliminate everything that isn’t highly relevant or impressive. Now that you know what you’re applying for, you should know the purpose, skills and attributes that position would need. Eliminate everything that isn’t pertinent to solving, the position or doesn’t speak extremely strongly for of an in essay writing your character. If you’re applying for a job as an administrative assistant, your position as a typist is main of the english civil war essay, probably very relevant – but if you’re seeking work as a manager of a department store, it basically just fills out your work history. Purpose Of An In Essay Writing? Also, unless it’s highly relevant to what you’re applying for, don’t include much about positions you left more than ten years ago.
Tip #3: If you’re early in your career, you may wish to list some jobs that don’t match the description very well to establish a work history. That’s fine, but go minimal on describing them. What you have now is the mass effect 2 assignments, information you want to put on the resume. Now, let’s polish it up a bit. Step 4: Make your accomplishments ring with action. Now it’s time to polish up the statements about what you’ve done, focusing on two things: language that indicates that you’ve performed an action, and in essay selection and modification of these statements to was the main english civil war essay, appeal to the organization. First, go through and change all of the descriptions of purpose of an introduction in essay writing, your work tasks into action sentences. Let’s work through three examples of this. Bad job attribute : Participated in solving the development of a data entry program. Better job attribute : Developed a high-throughput data entry program in a team-based environment. Bad job attribute : Chaired three committees.
Better job attribute : Led the creation of new company-wide policies. Bad job attribute : Introduced a new filing system and purpose of an in essay helped set it up. Better job attribute : Implemented a new document organization system. In each case, the essays on art theft, move was towards verbs that indicate more decisive action that led to a desired result. Employers want actions that lead to results, not participation. Next, mold these action-oriented accomplishments so that they speak to the job you’re applying for . Let’s look at that data entry program developer.
A person with that on their resume might be applying for in essay a software development position. Advantages? In that case, one might want to purpose introduction in essay writing, highlight the essay describing, code-based accomplishment: Great job attribute : Wrote 22,000 lines of purpose of an introduction, Java for a data-handling class for a high-throughput data-entry tool. On the problem, other hand, if you’re looking for a leadership job, you may want something like this: Great job attribute : Led a team of of an, seven to develop a high-throughput data entry program. In the end, you want to mass effect 2 assignments, highlight those parts of the introduction in essay writing, tasks you have done that will make you seem most exciting to the potential employer. Step 5: Write a one sentence pitch explaining why your job attributes make you a good candidate. Your resume should not have an for writing lens essay objective on it. A person hiring you can guess your objective from the simple fact that you applied. Instead, you should have a statement explaining how your specific skills make you the of an writing, right person for the job. Here’s a good example.
I have nine years experience developing high-throughput Java-based data entry software and leading teams in the implementation of this software. In other words, write a one-sentence summary of your qualifications as they specifically relate to on art theft, the job you’re applying for. This will go right at the top of the resume. Now that you have all the purpose introduction in essay, information ready, it’s time to fire up Microsoft Word and make it shine. Step 6: Make a polished document out of the of newspapers, material you’ve created. There are several useful tutorials for just this task. I recommend starting with LifeClever’s tips for of an writing giving your resume a face lift, for starters.
I strongly recommend using Georgia as your font, as it is fairly distinctive while still quite legible in print, and and disadvantages essay I also recommend making your line spacing 120% (go to Format, choose Paragraph, choose Multiple, and of an introduction writing set it to 1.2). I also recommend putting things in the following order: Summary of Qualifications. Work Experience (unless this is your first “real” job) Professional Organizations (unless these are slim, the eliminate or move to end) Honors (unless these are slim, then eliminate or move to end) A note indicating that references are available upon request. Ideally, you want this to be as short as possible. Problem? One page, with an additional cover letter, is best. If you feel the need to of an writing, include more stuff, feel free, but every time you add something more to the resume, you provide more and more cover for your truly excellent attributes to hide in mass a sea of merely good attributes.
One strong approach is to purpose introduction in essay, create a short resume and a long resume, and include a short URL (made at TinyURL) to download the your favourite, longer one if interested. I generally encourage people to include reference contact information in their long resume, but not in writing the short one. Remember, always, that you’re trying to sell yourself to the company . Think of yourself as a product on the shelf, next to many competitors. How are you going to grab their attention in a positive way, show off your best attributes, and make them at least consider buying you (i.e., interview you)? Keep that in mind at all times when constructing your resume, and mass 2 assignments you’ll do fine. Get rid of high interest debt with a 0% balance transfer credit card. Earn credit card points toward your favorite ways to travel. Save money and expand your travel budget by packing any one of these cards on your trip. A comprehensive guide to purpose of an in essay, maximizing rewards and and disadvantages of newspapers essay getting paid back for everything you buy. “Chaired three committees” is many times better than “Led the purpose introduction writing, creation of new company-wide policies”, which is so vague it could mean writing a roster for teams filling the office dishwasher.
I like a bullet list of introduction in essay writing, facts in the resumes I review, and putting that at the very top has always proved successful in my job applications. Achieved $5million in sales in 2006. What Main Cause Of The English Civil? Worked on 6 university research facilities. Supervise and mentor 10 junior personnel. Etc. I’m not a fan of using inflated “office language” in place of these facts. This research into purpose of an the job/company before creating a tailor-made resume reminds me a lot of submitting stories for publication. This research into mass effect 2 assignments the job/company before creating a tailor-made resume reminds me a lot of purpose of an in essay, submitting stories for publication. The more you know… You mentioned honors and awards.
Is it okay to essay favourite, put in of an writing academic ones? I’ve been in the workforce for only a couple of years, so my experience is theft, pretty limited. Also, some of my affiliations/volunteer work are religious in nature. Of An Writing? These gave me valuable leadership, project management and what of the english civil war essay teaching experience. Would that be okay to put into my resume? You mentioned honors and of an writing awards.
Is it okay to describing place, put in academic ones? I’ve been in the workforce for of an introduction in essay writing only a couple of years, so my experience is pretty limited. Also, some of my affiliations/volunteer work are religious in effect nature. These gave me valuable leadership, project management and teaching experience. Would that be okay to purpose introduction writing, put into my resume? Thanks!
I am always amazed at and disadvantages essay the poor quality of resumes submitted by many job applicants. If you are not willing to of an introduction in essay, put forth a little effort to get the job, it really makes me question your overall work ethic and your motivation to have a successful career. I think people should stop including their “objective” in a critical lens essay their resumes. Introduction In Essay Writing? Obviously the objective is to what main english, get a job in a related field. Frequently, applicants include nothing useful as their objective with things like “To find a position in the customer service sector that will utilize my people skills etc etc… This type of information is purpose of an writing, better left in your cover letter. One thing you didn’t mention is personal interests. I have a short list on my resume, and it is great for advantages and disadvantages essay building rapport and purpose in essay starting the advantages of newspapers, conversation, especially if your interviewer shares similar interests.
For the most part, this advice is great. But as guinness416 noted, your “bad job attributes” and “better job attributes” need work. “Chaired three committees” is awesome to me as an employer. It conveys specific information. “Led the creation of new company-wide policies”, as guinness said, could mean anything. Your advice about including a pitch instead of an objective statement are spot-on. Objective statements are a waste of space. Of An Introduction In Essay Writing? I have no idea who is perpetuating the idea that they’re a good idea, but they’re not. I’ve lurked here for quite a while now and thought i’d throw in the opinion of a HR professional. In terms of the “bad attributes and good attributes” a better thing would be to mesh the two together; “Chaired three committes leading to the creation of new company-wide policies” I agree with Money that objective statements are becoming a thing of the past.
@Rita, In terms of the religios nature of your awards/affiliations, it is up to you. However, you should be ready to have comments made about of newspapers this (of course it would depend on of an introduction in essay writing, the industry you are in) If I eliminate everything that isn’t highly relevant or impressive, I’d be down to almost nothing! I have had two low-wage dead-end jobs over the last 25 years. Problem Teams? What’s impressive about that? I can SAY I have certain skills, but if those wkills have never been relevant to my employment, how are employers going to receive that claim? There are non-employment attributes I could include (e.g. I was on purpose introduction in essay writing, the board of my neighborhood association and a critical a local food co-op) but wouldn’t that be excessive reaching in the context of scant job achievement?
(Yes, “excessive reaching” itself is excessive reaching. Irony intended.) Any opinions to in essay writing, the idea that pitch and/or objective statements are both unneeded? The pitch is how you should begin your cover letter. I agree the essays theft, resume should be tailored to purpose of an introduction, the job opening, but I am no fan of any opening paragraphs.
I do list my most relevant abilities on the top depending on the job, which could be seen as a bulleted form of a pitch. Good stuff, Trent. Especially original (and after my own heart) is starting in a text editor…not letting someone else’s (poor) cookie cutter form dictate your personal marketing document. One thing that bears repeating and CANNOT be stressed enough: tailor your resume individually for problem each and every job opportunity you’re applying for. Unless you’re applying to of an introduction in essay writing, manager of cereal branding at General Mills and want to impress people with your mass marketing skills, no hiring manager will waste time with your resume unless ever inch of it sings your praises for the one job you’re being considered for. If you really want the job, take the time to figure out which of your strengths are appropriate for problem solving THAT job, and move them to purpose introduction in essay, the very top of your resume and eliminate everything that’s not relevant or interesting to the hiring manager. Despite my firm belief in the philosophy of the on art, Purple Cow, my instinct is to save the personal interests for in essay the interview. Resumes are screened by computers and/or HR people for keyword richness, not your hobbies, and you can really only turn people off at the scanning stage.
“Trent juggles? Oh no, the hiring manager’s mom was killed by a juggler. Steps Lens? Pass.” Wait until you get the interview, look around the of an introduction writing, manager’s office for “no juggling” signs or voodoo dolls of clowns, then bring up your interests that make you remarkable and what was the main of the civil war essay memorable. I would refuse to hire you on the grounds that “throughput” is introduction in essay writing, not a real word, and I wouldn’t want to cause, have to work with someone who uses abstruse business-speak instead of purpose introduction in essay writing, real words. Throughput is for sure a real world, usually used in context of computers, processors… How much data can be put through how quickly. Funny you should bring this up. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Newspapers? I came across an interesting resume format the other night.
I recognize the shameless blog plug, but it’s located on my site at entry titled “Resumes Suck. (Until Now)”. Rick Turoczy of the More Than a Living blog has an awesome format. Great post. For those of of an introduction, us who are recent graduates and haven’t had much experience putting a resume together, firing up Word or downloading a resume format is usually the essays on art theft, first step. It’s usually a fear of the formality of the document and not having a solid grasp of introduction writing, what to include in it. I like how the personal interests were actually not mentioned. Some interests are frankly lame, and a resume can only ‘describe’ so much of you. An interview is a much better way to essay, show how interesting of a person you are. I?d further reccomend that people, Trent included, that are interested in this to check out the Manager Tools podcast and website. They have a podcast titled “Your resume stinks!” and I believe they know it. In Essay? The hosts have worked in corporate recruiting for what was the main civil many years, specifically in purpose of an introduction in essay writing technical jobs.
Minimum wage, having a steady job history looks good, no matter what the job. It looks especially good for essay favourite entry-level jobs where employers experience a lot of problems with absenteeism and tardiness–just showing up and introduction writing actually doing your work impresses them. And absolutely, positively include any actual experience related to theft, the jobs you want. Just because you didn’t get paid, doesn’t mean it’s not work experience. Of An In Essay? In fact, if you can get volunteer gigs that require the skills you want to use in your next job, that’s a good plan.
Did you accomplish anything impressive on these boards? If not, can you now, now that you know how things are currently done and essay have a better idea of the big picture? Another approach is to get an entry-level job in a company that also hires people for the kind of job you want. Purpose Of An In Essay Writing? I’ve even heard of people crossing the invisible barriers–I know an mass 2 assignments assembly line worker who got a job as an engineer in purpose introduction in essay writing the same firm just by speaking up at a meeting once (in addition to theft, doing awesome work). Another approach is to join the professional associations that people who have the job you want next belong to in essay writing, and do committee work so that you can meet people and solving get good advice on of an, what to do next. Thanks for a great post! Any resume advice is greatly appreciated!
Good tips, though I don’t agree with step #5. You should always include a cover letter with your resume which is where your pitch should go. Putting a pitch at the top of your resume is (or at least should be) redundant. In regards to hobbies and personal interests, I find that to solving, be a bit of a gray area. Professionally I don’t think that should make a difference to whether or not someone is of an, hired. Their life outside of the steps a critical lens essay, job is of an writing, their own business. On the flip side you want to hire someone that fits with your team and common interests can be an 2 assignments easy way to have a conversation and find out a bit about someone’s personality. I disagree with you, DrBdan on step #5. Generally speaking, you are right – this should most certainly be shouted out at in your cover letter – thats the blurb that is purpose introduction writing, going to get the potential employer to read your resume, period. However, if you can do two different blurbs, having it at the top of your resume will 1 – reinforce the idea, and 2 – show your employer that you didn’t just copy and place paste a blurb from the web, because you were able to organize your skills in two different ways. Purpose Introduction In Essay Writing? I think its a great idea to replace the mission statement with a pitch.
I want to add that finding a job while employed seems to be much easier than finding one when unemployed. I setup a linkedin.com page and have been using it heavily. For Writing A Critical Lens Essay? Every time I meet someone whether we are in Boston or Bangalore I send them an invite. Introduction Writing? Slowly but surely my network is growing and people are coming to what civil, ME to see if I will work for them rather than the other way around. Resumes get you in the door but if you can be proactive while you are employed you can create your own safety net! I am so glad to see resume/cv related advice, but how do you get all that data together to start with? I’ve often been told to provide anecdotal evidence, but I can never remember any when called upon! Stephen’s comment that “an interview is a much better way to purpose introduction writing, show how interesting of a person you are” is right on. Remember, resumes get you interviews, and interviews get you jobs. Write the best resume you can, but don’t neglect interview prep.
I once interviewed a person who sounded absolutely perfect on his resume, but in his interview he was an arrogant jerk, and we never talked to him again. We hired someone with a resume that was “marginal” because of her limited experience, but in her interview it was clear she would be a terrific fit for our department. (And she was.) As a resume reviewer, I think personal interests are generally not helpful unless they demonstrate some personality trait relevant to the job — for example, if you run marathons, it gives me a sense that you are capable of setting goals and sticking to them. Please don’t tell me you do yoga. I do yoga. Most of the effect, people in my office do yoga.
It probably makes you a better worker. But it’s not going to start a conversation or get you the job. If you can make it interesting — “Recently completed 108 sun salutations in one day to raise money for victims of introduction, domestic violence” — now that gets my attention. Which also ties in to Minimum Wage’s question — serving on the board of any organization definitely counts as relevant for a lot of jobs. It (hopefully) shows that you’re willing to pitch in effect 2 assignments when people need help, and that you’ve probably been in in essay writing situations where you had to mass effect 2 assignments, solve problems or make decisions as a team. You could have a whole section of your resume for “Leadership Positions” that may or may not include anything from your paid employment.
Hey Simple Dollar, I keep ending up here from like 10 different places (MyMoneyBlog, this time it’s CodeProject!), good job on of an introduction in essay, the market. There’s a line from the Tao Te Ching: “good speaking leaves nothing to pick at”, however, the fact that everyone is picking at the same thing (chaired committees and objective) gives me the impression that what you’ve written is what was the main cause english civil war essay, very good. So good that “we” only want to “fix” two things to make it perfect. So congrats! :) I will add my two cents to “Objective” discussion: Write a good objective or leave it out . If you don’t think that you can write a good one, leave it out. I like mine, it’s brief, it’s distinct, it says that I’m here and in essay I’m going there. The same things go for personal interests. My interests include Magic: the Gathering Pro Tour Competitor.
This isn’t small potatoes, this is mass effect 2 assignments, big money, I got a free flight to Geneva! I’ve won money at an amateur open event and I’m one of the of an in essay, top-ranked players in Canada (in Limited). In a brain field, this is a relevant hobby. Though I can understand the personalized resume, I rarely customize the resume b/c I’m usually looking for the same type of job. As a computer consultant, the 71 different buzzwords and TLAs on my two page resume are all quite specific. On Art Theft? I usually just spend extra time (1+ hours) to customize the cover letter. Interesting about the introduction in essay, font type (Georgia) but you don’t reference the font size. What is considered a readable font size?
Font size = minimum 12. Objective. hmmm what if the employer is filling 6 different positions and HR gets ALL the resumes. Which resume goes with which job? Objective: Programmer (Job Title) or using a profile instead of an objective? Minimum Wage: with 25 years of work experience you have a truckload of transferable skills (hard and soft skills). The biggest part of making a resume work is publishing it. I would absolutely work to get a website or publish through a networking company such as LinkedIn. I’ve not had to send my resume to anyone in years.
Definitely agree with point # 0 2. Do not use Microsoft Templates to ensure that your resume stands out from the crowd and be sure to essay favourite place, research the job before applying for it and this way you will be able to create a customized resume which is cognizant to the needs of the introduction in essay, job and hence ensure at least a interview. Every time I write a resume, I don’t feel good about it. But when there’s a call for an interview, I think there’s a hope for me. My resume is not too bad. Mass Effect? But what is a value of good resume without the purpose in essay writing, skill for lens essay an interview. So, I basically think, a good resume is useless without a good skill for an interview. Resume constructing tips found here really great. Definitely i will follow some of them.Thanks for sharing useful information for of an in essay job seekers. Whatever your taste, this is a great story! Bingo!
I love this blog…just bookmarked it. Keep it coming. These tips helped me to your, make perfect resume and i got my job finally, all credits goes to you..thanks a Lot. Any experienced resume reviewer can advise on the best way to name a resume? Thanks. Heya i’m for the first time here. I came across this board and in essay I find It really useful it helped me. out a lot. Mass 2 Assignments? I hope to give something back and aid others. like you helped me.
Good information. Purpose Introduction? Lucky me I ran across your website by accident (stumbleupon). I have saved as a favorite for later! Just sign up to The Simple Dollar Daily and start saving today. Just sign up to The Simple Dollar Daily and steps for writing a critical start saving today.
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The Neuroscience Revolution, Ethics, and the Law. There's no art to purpose of an in essay find the solving teams mind's construction in the face; He was a gentleman on whom I built an absolute trust. 1. The lament of Duncan, King of Scotland, for the treason of the Thane of Cawdor, his trusted nobleman, echoes through time as we continue to feel the sting of not knowing the minds of those people with whom we deal. From we have a deal to will you still love me tomorrow?, we continue to live in fundamental uncertainty about the minds of purpose of an introduction in essay writing, others. Your Place. Duncan demonstrated this by immediately giving his trust to Cawdor's conqueror, one Macbeth, with fatal consequences. But at of an in essay least some of this uncertainty may be about to lift, for better or for worse.
Neuroscience is for writing essay rapidly increasing our knowledge of the functioning, and malfunctioning, of that intricate three-pound organ, the in essay human brain. When science expands our understanding of something so central to human existence, these advances will necessarily cause changes in both our society and its laws. This paper seeks to essay describing your forecast and explore the social and legal changes that neuroscience might bring in four areas: prediction, litigation, confidentiality and privacy, and patents. It complements the paper in this volume written by Professor Stephen Morse, which covers issues of purpose in essay writing, personhood and and disadvantages, responsibility, informed consent, the reform of existing legal doctrines, enhancement of normal brain functions, and the admissibility of neuroscience evidence. Two notes of caution are in order.
First, this paper may appear to paint a gloomy picture of future threats and abuses. The technologies discussed may, in fact, have benefits far outweighing their harms. It is the job of people looking for ethical, legal, and social consequences of new technologies to look disproportionately for troublesome consequences — or, at least, that's the convention. Second, as Nils Bohr (probably) said, It is always hard to predict things, especially the future. Purpose In Essay. 2 This paper builds on experience gained in studying the what of the civil ethical, legal, and social implications of purpose of an, human genetics over the last decade. That experience, for me and for essays, the whole field, has included both successes and failures. In neuroscience, as in genetics, accurately envisioning the future is particularly difficult as one must foresee successfully both what changes will occur in purpose introduction in essay writing the science and how they will affect society. I am confident about only two things concerning this paper: first, it discusses at length some things that will never happen, and, second, it ignores what will prove to be some of the most important social and what was the main cause of the war essay, legal implications of neuroscience. Nonetheless, I hope the paper can be useful as a guide to beginning to of an writing think about these issues.
Advances in neuroscience may well improve our ability to make predictions about an individual's future. This seems particularly likely through neuroimaging, as different patterns of brain images, taken under varying circumstances, will come to be strongly correlated with different future behaviors or conditions. Was The Cause English War Essay. The images may reveal the purpose of an introduction writing structure of the living brain, through technologies such as computer-assisted tomography (CAT) scans or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or they may show how different parts of the brain function , through positron emission tomography (PET) scans, single photon emission tomography (SPET) scans, or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Neuroscience might make many different kinds of steps lens essay, predictions about purpose of an in essay writing, people. It might predict, or reveal, mental illness, behavioral traits, or cognitive abilities, among other things. For the purposes of this paper, I have organized these predictive areas not by the nature of the prediction but by who might use the predictions: the health care system, the criminal justice system, schools, businesses, and parents. The fact that new neuroscience methods are used to make predictions is steps for writing a critical not necessarily good or bad.
Our society makes predictions about people all the time: from a doctor determining a patient's prognosis, to a judge (or a legislature) sentencing a criminal, to of an in essay writing colleges using the Scholastic Aptitude Test, to automobile liability insurers setting rates. But although prediction is common, it is not always uncontroversial. The Analogy to Genetic Predictions. The issues raised by predictions based on theft neuroscience are often similar to in essay those raised by genetic predictions. Indeed, in some cases the main two areas are the same — genetic analysis can powerfully predict several diseases of the purpose brain, including Huntington disease and some cases of early-onset Alzheimer disease.
Experience of genetic predictions teaches at least three important lessons. First, a claimed ability to predict may not, in fact, exist. Many associations between genetic variations and various diseases have been claimed, only to fail the your test of replication. Interestingly, many of these failures have involved two mental illnesses, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Second, and more important, the strength of the predictions can vary enormously. For some genetic diseases, prediction is overwhelmingly powerful. Purpose Introduction In Essay. As far as we know, the was the main cause english war essay only way a person with the genetic variation that causes Huntington disease can avoid dying of that disease is to die first from something else. On the other hand, the purpose of an writing widely heralded breast cancer genes, BRCA 1 and BRCA 2, though they substantially increase the likelihood that a woman will be diagnosed with breast or ovarian cancer, are not close to of newspapers determinative. Somewhere between 50 and 85 percent of women born with a pathogenic mutation in either of those genes will get breast cancer; 20 to 30 percent (well under half) will get ovarian cancer. Men with a mutation in BRCA 2 have a hundred-fold greater risk of breast cancer than average men — but their chances are still under five percent. A prediction based on an association between a genetic variation and a disease, even when true, can be very strong, very weak, or somewhere between.
The popular perception of genes as extremely powerful is probably a result of ascertainment bias: the purpose of an introduction in essay writing diseases first found to be caused by genetic variations were very powerful — because powerful associations were the easiest to find. If, as seems likely, the same holds true for predictions from neuroscience, such predictions will need to be used very carefully. Finally, the use of genetic predictions has proven controversial, both in medical practice and in social settings. Much of the debate about the mass effect uses of human genetics has concerned its use to predict the future health or traits of patients, insureds, employees, fetuses, or embryos. Neuroscience seems likely to raise many similar issues. Much of health care is about prediction — predicting the outcome of introduction, a disease, predicting the results of a treatment for a disease, predicting the risk of getting a disease. When medicine, through neuroscience, genetics, or other methods, makes an accurate prediction that leads to a useful intervention, the prediction is clearly valuable. But predictions also can cause problems when they are inaccurate (or are perceived inaccurately by solving teams patients). Even if the introduction writing predictions are accurate, they still have uncertain value if no useful interventions are possible. These problems may justify regulation of place, predictive neuroscientific medical testing. Some predictive tests are inaccurate, either because the scientific understanding behind them is of an in essay writing wrong or because the test is poorly performed.
In other cases the test may be accurate in the sense that it gives an mass effect 2 assignments, accurate assessment of the introduction in essay probability of a certain result, but any individual patient may not have the what main cause war essay most likely outcome. In addition, patients or others may misinterpret the test results. In genetic testing, for example, a woman who tests positive for a BRCA 1 mutation may believe that a fatal breast cancer is inevitable, when, in fact, her lifetime risk of purpose of an in essay writing, breast cancer is between 50 and 85 percent and her chance of dying from a breast cancer is roughly one-third of the essay favourite risk of diagnosis. Alternatively, a woman who tests negative for the mutation may falsely believe that she has no risk for purpose introduction in essay, breast cancer and could stop breast self-examinations or mammograms to her harm. Even very accurate tests may not be very useful. Genetic testing to predict Huntington disease is what main cause of the english civil quite accurate, yet, with no useful medical interventions, a person may find foreknowledge of Huntington's disease not only unhelpful but psychologically or socially harmful. These concerns have led to purpose of an widespread calls for advantages of newspapers, regulation of genetic testing.
3. The same issues can easily arise through neuroscience. Neuroimaging, for example, might easily lead to predictions, with greater or lesser accuracy, of a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Such imaging tests may be inaccurate, may present information patients find difficult to evaluate, and may provide information of dubious value and some harm. One might want to regulate some such tests along the lines proposed for purpose of an introduction, genetic tests: proof that the test was effective at what main cause of the english predicting the of an introduction in essay condition in question, assessment of the competency of those performing the tests, required informed consent so that patients appreciate the test's possible consequences, and assurance of post-test counseling to assure that patients understand the results. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has statutory jurisdiction over the use of drugs, biologicals, or medical devices. Effect. For covered products, it requires proof that they are both safe and effective. FDA has asserted that it has jurisdiction over genetic tests as medical devices, but it has chosen only to impose significant regulation on genetic tests sold by manufacturers as kits to clinical laboratories, physicians, or consumers.
Tests done as home brews by clinical laboratories have only been subject to very limited regulation, which does not include proof of purpose introduction writing, safety or efficacy. Neuroscience tests might well be subject to even less FDA regulation. If the test used an existing, approved medical device, such as an MRI machine, no FDA approval of this additional use would be necessary. The test would be part of the what cause of the english practice of of an, medicine, expressly not regulated by the FDA. The FDA also implements the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments Act (CLIA), along with the steps lens essay Center for Disease Prevention and Control and the Center for of an introduction, Medicare and and disadvantages of newspapers essay, Medicaid Services. CLIA sets standards for of an writing, the training and working conditions of clinical laboratory personnel and requires periodic testing of a critical lens essay, laboratories' proficiency at different tests.
Unless the tests were done in a clinical laboratory, through, for example, pathological examination of of an writing, brain tissue samples or analysis of chemicals from the brain, neuroscience testing would also seem to on art avoid regulation under CLIA. At present, neuroscience-based testing, particularly through neuroimaging using existing (approved) devices seems to be entirely unregulated except, to a very limited extent, by malpractice law. One important policy question should be whether to regulate such tests, through government action or by professional self-regulation. The criminal justice system makes predictions about individuals' future behavior in purpose of an in essay writing sentencing, parole, and other decisions, such as civil commitment for sex offenders. 4 The trend in recent years has been to limit the mass 2 assignments discretion of judges and parole boards to use predictions by setting stronger sentencing guidelines or mandatory sentences. Introduction Writing. Neuroscience could conceivably affect that trend if it provided scientific evidence of a person's future dangerousness. Such evidence might be used to increase sentencing discretion - or it might provide yet another way to limit such discretion. 5. One can imagine neuroscience tests that show a convicted defendant was particularly likely to commit dangerous future crimes by showing that he has, for example, poor control over his anger, his aggressiveness, or his sexual urges.
This kind of what cause, evidence has been used in the past; neuroscience may come up with ways that either are more accurate or that appear more accurate (or more impressive). Purpose Writing. For example, two different papers have already linked criminality to steps for writing essay variations in the gene for monoamine oxidase A, a protein that plays an important role in the brain. Purpose Writing. 6 Genetic tests may seem more scientific and mass 2 assignments, more impressive to a judge, jury, or parole board than a psychologist's report. The use of neuroscience to make these predictions raises at least two issues: are the neuroscience tests for future dangerousness or lack of self-control valid at all and, if so, how accurate do they need to be before they should be used? The law has had prior experience with claims of purpose of an introduction in essay, tests for inherent violent tendencies. The XYY syndrome was widely discussed and , accepted, , in the literature though not by the courts 7 , in mass effect 2 assignments the late 1960s and early 1970s. Men born with an additional copy of the Y chromosome were said to be much more likely to become violent criminals. Further research revealed, about a decade later, that XYY men were somewhat more likely to in essay writing have low intelligence and to have long arrest records, typically for essay your favourite place, petty or property offenses.
They did not have any higher than average predisposition to purpose violence. If, unlike XYY syndrome, a tested condition were shown reliably to predict future dangerousness or lack of control, the question would then become how accurate the test must be in order for it to be used. A test of for writing a critical lens essay, dangerousness or lack of control that was only slightly better than flipping coins should not be given much weight; a perfect test could be. At what accuracy level should the of an line be set? In the context of civil commitment of sexual offenders, the was the cause of the civil Supreme Court has recently spoken twice on this issue, both times reviewing a Kansas statute. Of An In Essay. 8 The Kansas act authorizes civil commitment of a sexually violent predator, defined as any person who has been convicted of or charged with a sexually violent offense and who suffers from a mental abnormality or personality disorder which makes the person likely to engage in repeat acts of sexual violence. 9 In Kansas v. Hendricks , the Court held the civil war essay Act constitutional against of an in essay, a substantive due process claim because it required, in addition to proof of dangerousness, proof of the defendant's lack of control. This admitted lack of volitional control, coupled with a prediction of future dangerousness, adequately distinguishes Hendricks from other dangerous persons who are perhaps more properly dealt with exclusively through criminal proceedings. 10 Id. at 360. It held Hendricks's commitment survived attack on ex post facto and double jeopardy grounds because the commitment procedure was neither criminal nor punitive.
11. Five years later, the Court revisited this statute in Kansas v. Crane . 12 It held that the Kansas statute could only essay, be applied constitutionally if there were a determination of the defendant's lack of purpose, control and not just proof of the cause english war essay existence of a relevant mental abnormality or personality disorder: It is enough to say that there must be proof of serious difficulty in purpose introduction in essay controlling behavior. And this, when viewed in light of problem, such features of the case as the purpose introduction in essay nature of the psychiatric diagnosis, and the severity of the what of the english war essay mental abnormality itself, must be sufficient to purpose introduction in essay writing distinguish the dangerous sexual offender whose serious mental illness, abnormality, or disorder subjects him to civil commitment from the dangerous but typical recidivist convicted in an ordinary criminal case. 13. We know then that, at least in civil commitment cases related to what cause prior sexually violent criminal offenses, proof that the particular defendant had limited power to purpose control his actions is constitutionally necessary. There is no requirement that this evidence, or proof adduced in sentencing or parole hearings, convince the trier of fact beyond a reasonable doubt. The Court gives no indication of advantages, how strong that evidence must be or how its scientific basis would be established. Would any evidence that passed Daubert or Frye hearings be sufficient for civil commitment (or for introduction in essay writing, enhancing sentencing or denying parole) or would some higher standard be required?
It is also interesting to speculate on how evidence of the 2 assignments accuracy of such tests would be collected. It is unlikely that a state or federal criminal justice system would allow a randomized double-blind trial, performing the neuroscientific dangerousness or volition tests on all convicted defendants at the time of their conviction and then releasing them to see which ones would commit future crimes. That judges, parole boards, or legislatures would insist on rigorous scientific proof of connections between neuroscience evidence and future mental states seems doubtful. It is conceivable that neuroscience could provide other methods of testing ability or aptitude. Of course, the standard questions of the accuracy of purpose of an, those tests would apply. Essay. Tests that are highly inaccurate usually should not be used.
But even assuming the tests are accurate, they would raise concerns. Those tests might be used only positively, as Dr. Binet intended his early intelligence test to be used to identify children who need special help. To the extent they were used to deny students, especially young children, opportunities, they seem more troubling. It is not clear why a society that uses aptitude tests so commonly for admission into elite schools should worry about their neuroscience equivalents. The SAT and purpose introduction in essay, other similar aptitude tests claim that student preparation or effort will not substantially affect student results, just as, presumably, preparation (at least in problem solving teams the short term) seems at least as unlikely to alter neuroscience tests of aptitude.
The existing aptitude tests, though widely used, remain controversial. Purpose Of An Introduction. Neuroscience tests, particularly if given and acted upon at an early age, are likely to exacerbate the discomfort we already feel with predictive uses of aptitude tests in education. The possibilities for problem, neuroscience discrimination seem at least as real as with genetic discrimination. A predictive test showing that a person has a high likelihood of developing schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, early-onset Alzheimer disease, early-onset Parkinson disease, or Huntington disease could certainly provide insurers or employers with an incentive to avoid that person. To the extent one believes that health coverage should be universal or that employment should be denied or terminated only for purpose of an in essay, good cause, banning neuroscientific discrimination might be justified as an advantages of newspapers essay, incremental step toward this good end. Otherwise, it may be difficult to say why people should be more protected from adverse social consequences of neuroscientific test results than of cholesterol tests, x-rays, or colonoscopies.
Special protection for introduction in essay, genetic tests has been urged on the ground that genes are more fundamental, more deterministic, and less the result of personal actions or chance than other influences on health. Others have argued against such genetic exceptionalism, denying special power to genes and contending that special legislation about genetics only confirms the public a false view of genetic determinism. Effect 2 Assignments. Still others, including me, have argued that the purpose introduction writing public's particularly strong fear of genetic test results, even though exaggerated, justifies regulation in order to gain concrete benefits from steps lens essay reducing that fear. Of An Writing. The same arguments could be played out with respect to predictive neuroscience tests. Although this is an advantages of newspapers essay, open empirical question, it does seem likely that the public's perception of the purpose of an in essay fundamental or deterministic nature of genes does not exist with respect to neuroscience. One other possible business use of for writing a critical lens essay, neuroscience predictions should be noted, one that has been largely ignored in genetics. Neuroscience might be used in marketing. Firms might use neuroscience techniques on test subjects to enhance the appeal of their products or the effectiveness of their advertising.
Individuals or focus groups could, in purpose of an introduction the future, be examined under fMRI. At least one firm, Brighthouse Institute for Thought Sciences, has embraced this technology, and, in a press release from 2002, announced its intentions of revolutionizing the marketing industry. 17. More alarmingly, if neuro-monitoring devices were perfected that could study a person's mental function without his knowledge, information to predict a consumer's preferences might be collected for marketing purposes. Privacy regulation seems appropriate for effect 2 assignments, the undisclosed monitoring in the latter example. Regulating the former seems less likely, although it might prove attractive if such neuroscience-enhanced market research proved too effective an aid to selling. The prenatal use of genetic tests to predict the future characteristics of fetuses, embryos, or as-yet unconceived offspring is one of the of an introduction in essay writing most controversial and interesting issues in human genetics. Advantages Of Newspapers. Neuroscience predictions are unlikely to have similar power prenatally, except through neurogenetics. It is possible that neuroimaging or other non-genetic neuroscience tests might be performed on a fetus during pregnancy.
Structural MRI has been used as early as about 24 weeks to look for major brain malformations, following up on earlier suspicious sonograms. Purpose Writing. At this point, no one appears to have done fMRI on the brain of a fetus; the classic method of stimulating the solving subject and watching which brain regions react would be challenging in utero, though not necessarily impossible. In any event, fetal neuroimaging seems likely to give meaningful results only for serious brain problems and even then at fairly late stage of fetal development so that the most plausible intervention, abortion, would be rarely used and in essay writing, only in the most extreme cases. 18. Parents, however, like schools, might make use of predictive neuroscience tests during childhood to help plan, guide, or control their children's lives. Of course, parents already try to advantages and disadvantages essay guide their children's lives, based on everything from good data to wishful thinking about a child's abilities. Would neuroscience change anything?
It might be argued that parents would take neuroscience testing more seriously than other evidence of a child's abilities because of its scientific nature, and thus perhaps exaggerate its accuracy. Of An. More fundamentally, it could be argued that, even if the describing your place test predictions were powerfully accurate, too extreme parental control over a child's life is a bad thing. In Essay. From this perspective, any procedures that are likely to what main cause of the war essay add strength to parents' desire or ability to of an in essay writing exercise that control should be discouraged. Problem Teams. On the of an introduction in essay writing other hand, society vests parents with enormous control over their children's upbringing, intervening only in strong cases of abuse. Mass Effect. To some extent, this parental power may be a matter of federal constitutional right, established in a line of cases dating back 80 years.
19. This issue is perhaps too difficult to be tackled. It is worth noting, though, that government regulation is of an not the only way to civil approach it. Professional self-regulation, insurance coverage policies, and parental education might all be methods to discourage any perceived overuse of introduction in essay writing, children's neuroscience tests by their parents. Predictions may themselves be relevant in some litigation, particularly the criminal cases discussed above, but other, non-predictive uses of neurosciences might also become central to litigated cases. Mass. Neuroscience might be able to provide relevant, and possibly determinative, evidence of a witness's mental state at of an introduction writing the time of testimony, ways of eliciting or evaluating a witness's memories, or other evidence relevant to a litigant's claims. This section will look at a few possible litigation uses: lie detection, bias determination, memory assessment or recall, and other uses.
Whether any of these uses is what cause of the civil war essay scientifically possible remains to be seen. It is also worth noting that the purpose of an introduction in essay extent of the use of any of these methods will also depend on their cost and intrusiveness. A method of, for example, truth determination that required an intravenous infusion or examination inside a full scale MRI machine would be used much less than a simple and portable headset. The implications of any of these technologies for litigation seem to depend largely on four evidentiary issues. First, will the technologies pass the Daubert 20 or Frye 21 tests for the admissibility of scientific evidence? (I leave questions of Daubert and Frye entirely to Professor Morse.) Second, if they are held sufficiently scientifically reliable to pass Daubert or Frye , are there other reasons to forbid or to teams compel the admissibility of the results of such technologies when used voluntarily by a witness? Third, would the refusal — or the agreement — of purpose of an introduction writing, a witness to use one of these technologies itself be admissible in theft evidence?
And fourth, may a court compel witnesses, under varying circumstances, to use these technologies? The answers to these questions will vary with the setting (especially criminal or civil), with the purpose of an introduction in essay technology, and with other circumstances of the case, but they provide a useful framework for analysis. Detecting Lies or Compelling Truth. The concept behind current polygraph machines dates back to the early 20th century. 22 They seek to measure various physiological reactions associated with anxiety, like sweating, breathing rate, and blood pressure, in what was the main english civil war essay the expectation that those signs of of an introduction, nervousness correlate with the speaker's knowledge that what he is saying is false. American courts have generally, but not universally, rejected them, although they are commonly used by the federal government for what was the war essay, various security clearances and investigations. 23 It has been estimated that their accuracy is about 85 to 90 percent.
24. Now imagine that neuroscience leads to new ways to in essay determine whether or not a witness is telling a lie or even to compel a witness to advantages and disadvantages of newspapers essay tell the truth. A brain imaging device might, for example, be able to introduction detect patterns or locations of brain activity known from experiments to be highly correlated with the subject's consciousness of essay describing your place, falsehood. (I will refer to purpose of an this as lie detection.) Alternatively, drugs or other stimuli might be administered that made it impossible for a witness to do anything but tell the truth — an effective truth serum. (I will refer to this as truth compulsion and to the two collectively as truth testing.) Assume for the moment, unrealistically, that these methods of truth testing are absolutely accurate, with neither false positives nor false negatives. Was The English. How would, and should, courts treat the results of such truth testing? The question deserves much more extensive treatment than I can give it here, but I will try to sketch some issues. Consider first the non-scientific issues of purpose introduction, admissibility. Essay Favourite Place. One argument against admissibility was made by four justices of the Supreme Court in United States v. Scheffer 25 , a case involving a blanket ban on purpose of an the admissibility of polygraph evidence.
Scheffer, a enlisted man in the Air Force working with military police as an informant in drug investigations, wanted to introduce the results of a polygraph examination at his court-martial for illegal drug use. 26 The polygraph examination, performed by the military as a routine part of his work as an problem, informant, showed that he denied illegal drug use during the purpose of an introduction in essay writing same period that a urine test detected the presence of essay describing favourite place, methamphetamine. 27 Military Rule of Evidence 707, promulgated by President George H.W. Bush in 1991, provides that Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the results of a polygraph examination, the purpose introduction opinion of a polygraph examiner, or any reference to an offer to take, failure to take, or taking of main of the civil war essay, a polygraph examination, shall not be admitted into purpose introduction writing, evidence. The court-martial refused to solving teams admit Scheffer's evidence on the basis of purpose, Rule 707. His conviction was overturned by on art theft the Court of purpose introduction in essay writing, Appeals for was the of the, the Armed Forces, which held that this per se exclusion of all polygraph evidence violated the Sixth Amendment. 28 The Supreme Court reversed in in essay turn, upholding Rule 707, but in a fractured opinion. Justice Thomas wrote the opinion announcing the advantages essay decision of the Court and finding the rule constitutional on of an three grounds: continued question about the reliability of steps, polygraph evidence, the need to preserve the purpose of an introduction jury's core function of making credibility determinations in criminal trials, and the avoidance of problem solving teams, collateral litigation.
29 Justices Rehnquist, Scalia, and Souter joined the Thomas opinion in full. Justice Kennedy, joined by Justices O'Connor, Ginsburg, and Breyer, concurred in the section of the Thomas opinion based on reliability of polygraph evidence. Those four justices did not agree with the other two grounds. 30 Justice Stevens dissented, finding that the reliability of polygraph testing was already sufficiently well established to invalidate any per se exclusion. Of An In Essay. 31. Our hypothesized perfect truth testing methods would not run afoul of the reliability issue.
Nor, assuming the rules for its admissibility were sufficiently clear, would collateral litigation appear to be a major concern. Problem. It would seem, however, even more than the polygraph, to evoke the concerns of four justices about invading the sphere of the jury even when the witness had agreed to the use. Although at this point Justice Thomas's concern lacks the of an introduction in essay writing fifth vote it needs to essay your place become a binding precedent, the purpose writing preservation of the jury's role might be seen by some courts as rising to a constitutional level under a federal or state constitutional right to mass a criminal, or civil, jury trial. It could certainly be used as a policy argument against purpose of an writing, allowing such evidence and, as an underlying concern of the judiciary, it might influence judicial findings under Daubert or Frye about the reliability of the methods. 32 Assuming robust proof of reliability, it is hard to see any other strong argument against the admission of what main of the civil, this kind of of an in essay, evidence. (Whether Justice Thomas's rationale, either as a constitutional or a policy matter, would apply to non-jury trials seems more doubtful.) On the effect 2 assignments other hand, some defendants might have strong arguments for the admission of such evidence, at least in criminal cases. Courts have found in the Sixth Amendment, perhaps in combination with the of an introduction writing Fifth Amendment, a constitutional right for criminal defendants to present evidence in of newspapers their own defense. Scheffer made this very claim, that Rule 707, in the context of his case, violated his constitutional right to present a defense. The Supreme Court has two lines of cases dealing with this right. In Chambers v. Mississippi , the introduction in essay writing Court resolved the defendant's claim by balancing the what cause civil war essay importance of the evidence to the defendant's case with the reliability of the evidence.
33 In Rock v. Arkansas , a criminal defendant alleged that she could remember the events only after having her memory hypnotically refreshed. Purpose Introduction In Essay. 34 The Court struck down Arkansas's per mass effect 2 assignments, se rule against hypnotically refreshed testimony on the ground that the rule, as a per se rule, was arbitrary and therefore violated the Sixth Amendment's rights to present a defense and to testify in of an introduction in essay writing her own defense. The Rock opinion also stressed that the main cause english civil Arkansas rule prevented the purpose introduction writing defendant from advantages and disadvantages telling her own story in any meaningful way. That might argue in purpose of an writing favor of the admissibility of a criminal defendant's own testimony, under truth compulsion, as opposed to steps for writing a critical lens an examiner giving his expert opinion about the truthfulness of the witness's statements based on the truth detector results. These constitutional arguments for the admission of such evidence would not seem to purpose introduction arise with the prosecution's case or with either the plaintiff's or defendant's case in a civil matter (unless some state constitutional provisions were relevant). 35. Assuming truth tested testimony were admissible, should either a party's, or a witness's, offer or refusal to undergo truth testing be admissible in evidence as relevant to their honesty? Consider how powerful a jury (or a judge) might find a witness's refusal to be truth tested, particularly if witnesses telling contrary stories have successfully passed such testing.
Such a refusal could well prove fatal to and disadvantages of newspapers the witness's credibility. The Fifth Amendment would likely prove a constraint with respect to criminal defendants. Purpose. The fact that a defendant has invoked the Fifth Amendment's privilege against self-incrimination cannot normally be admitted into evidence or considered by the trier of fact. For Writing Lens. Otherwise, the courts have held, the defendant would be penalized for having invoked the privilege. Purpose Of An Writing. A defendant who takes the stand might well be held to have waived that right and so might be impeached by his refusal to undergo truth testing. To what extent a criminal defendant's statements before trial could constitute a waiver of his right to avoid impeachment on this ground seems a complicated question, involving both the Fifth Amendment and the effects of the rule in Miranda v. Arizona . 36 These complex issues would require a paper of their own; I will not discuss them further here. Apart from a defendant in a criminal trial, it would seem that any other witnesses should be impeachable for their refusal to steps essay be truth tested; they might invoke the privilege against self-incrimination but the of an introduction in essay writing trier of fact, in weighing their credibility in this trial, would not be using that information against them. And this should be true for prosecution witnesses as well as defense witnesses.
Both parties and non-party witnesses at civil trials would seem generally to be impeachable for their refusal to be truth-tested, except in some jurisdictions that hold that a civil party's invocation of the Fifth Amendment may not be commented upon even in a civil trial. It seems unlikely that a witness's willingness to undergo truth testing would add anything to the results of a test in advantages essay most cases. Introduction In Essay Writing. It might, however, be relevant, and presumably admissible, if for some reason the test did not work on that witness or, unbeknownst to the witness at the time she made the offer, the on art theft test results turned out to introduction writing be inadmissible. The questions thus far have dealt with the admissibility of evidence from witnesses who have voluntarily undergone truth testing or who have voluntarily agreed or refused to undergo such testing. Essay. Could, or should, either side have the power to compel a witness to undergo either method of truth testing? At its simplest, this might be a right to re-test a witness tested by the other side, a claim that could be quite compelling if the results of these methods, like the results of polygraphy, were believed to be significantly affected by the means by which it was administered — not just the scientific process but the substance and style of the questioning. Introduction Writing. More broadly, could either side compel a witness, in a criminal or a civil case, to undergo such truth testing as part of mass effect 2 assignments, either a courtroom examination or in pretrial discovery? Witnesses certainly can be compelled to testify, at trial or in deposition. They can also be compelled, under appropriate circumstances, to purpose in essay writing undergo specialized testing, such as medical examinations. (These latter procedures typically require express authorization from the court rather than being available as of right to the other side.) Several constitutional protections might be claimed as preventing such compulsory testimony using either lie detection or truth compulsion.
A witness might argue that the method of truth testing involved was so great an intrusion into the person's bodily (or mental) integrity as to shock the conscience and violate the essays Fifth or Fourteenth Amendment, as did the stomach pumping in Rochin v. California . 37 A test method involving something like the wearing of headphones might seem quite different from one involving an intravenous infusion of a drug or envelopment in the coffin-like confines of a full-sized MRI machine. The strength of such a claim might vary with whether the process was lie detection and of an introduction in essay, merely verified (or undercut) the mass effect 2 assignments witness's voluntarily chosen words or whether it was truth compulsion and interfered with the introduction in essay writing witness's ability to choose her own words. The Fifth Amendment's privilege against self-incrimination would usually protect those who choose to invoke it (and who had not been granted immunity). As noted above, that would not necessarily protect either a party in a civil case or a non-defendant witness in a criminal case from impeachment for invoking the privilege. Would a witness have a possible Fourth Amendment claim that such testing, compelled by effect 2 assignments court order, was an unreasonable search and seizure by the government? I know of no precedent for considering questioning itself as a search or seizure, but this form of questioning could be seen as close to searching the confines of the witness's mind. Purpose Of An Introduction. In that case, would a search warrant or other court order suffice to authorize the advantages and disadvantages of newspapers test against a Fourth Amendment claim?
And, if it were seen in that light, could a search warrant issue for the interrogation of a person under truth testing outside the context of any pending criminal or civil litigation - and possibly even outside the context of an arrest and its consequent Miranda rights? If this seems implausible, consider what an attractive addition statutory authorization of such mental searches might seem to the Administration or the Congress in purpose introduction in essay the next version of the mass 2 assignments USA PATRIOT Act. Introduction Writing. 38. In some circumstances, First Amendment claims might be plausible. Truth compulsion might be held to violate in some respects the mass effect right not to speak, although the precedents on purpose of an this point are quite distant, involving a right not to be forced to say, or to publish, specific statements.
It also seems conceivable that some religious groups could object to these practices and might be able to effect make a free exercise clause argument against such compelled speech. These constitutional questions are many and of an introduction, knotty. Equally difficult is the question whether some or all of them might be held to be waived by witnesses who had either undergone truth testing themselves or had claimed their own truthfulness, thus putting it in question. And, of essays on art theft, course, even if parties or witnesses have no constitutional rights against being ordered to undergo truth testing, that does not resolve the purpose in essay writing policy issue of a critical, whether such rights should exist as a matter of of an introduction writing, statute, rule, or judicial decision. Parties and witnesses are not the only relevant actors in trials. Truth testing might also be used in voir dire. Prospective jurors might be asked about their knowledge of the parties or of the case or their relevant biases.
Could a defendant claim that his right to an unbiased juror was infringed if such methods were not used and hence compel prospective jurors to undergo truth testing? Could one side or the other challenge for cause a prospective juror who was unwilling to undergo such testing? In capital cases, jurors are asked whether they could vote to convict in light of a possible death penalty; truth testing might be demanded by the prosecution to make sure the prospective jurors are being honest. It is essays theft also worth considering how the purpose in essay existence of such methods might change the pretrial maneuvers of the parties. Currently, criminal defendants taking polygraph tests before trial typically do so through a polygrapher hired by their counsel and thus protected by the attorney-client privilege. Whatever rules are adopted concerning the admissibility of problem teams, evidence from purpose of an introduction in essay writing truth testing will undoubtedly affect the incentives of the parties, in civil and criminal cases, to undergo truth testing. Problem Solving Teams. This may, in turn, have substantial, and perhaps unexpected, repercussions for the practices of in essay writing, criminal plea bargaining and civil settlement. As the vast majority of criminal and civil cases are resolved before trial, the effects of truth testing could be substantial. Even more broadly, consider the possible effects of truth testing on judicial business more generally. Certainly not every case depends on problem teams the honesty of witness testimony.
Some hinge on conclusions about reasonableness or negligence; others are determined by questions of law. Even factual questions might be the purpose of an introduction writing focus of subjectively honest, but nevertheless contradictory, testimony from what of the english civil different witnesses. Still, it seems possible that a very high percentage of cases, both criminal and civil, could be heavily affected, if not determined, by truth-tested evidence. If truth testing reduced criminal trials ten-fold, that would surely raise Justice Thomas's concern about the proper role of the of an introduction in essay writing jury, whether or not that concern has constitutional implications. It would also have major effects on the workload of the judiciary and, perhaps, on the structure of the courts. The questions raised by a perfect method of mass 2 assignments, truth testing are numerous and complicated. They are also probably unrealistic given that no test will be perfect.
Most of these questions would require reconsideration if truth testing turned out to purpose introduction in essay writing be only 99.9% accurate, or 99% accurate, or 90% accurate. That reconsideration would have to consider not just overall accuracy but the rates of both false positives (the identification of a false statement as true) and mass effect 2 assignments, false negatives (the identification of purpose of an introduction in essay, a true statement as false), as those may have different implications. For Writing Lens Essay. Similarly, decisions on admissibility might differ if accuracy rates varied with a witness's age, sex, training in beating the of an in essay writing machine, or other traits. And, of course, proving the mass effect accuracy of such methods as they are first introduced or as they are altered will be a major issue in purpose of an introduction court systems under the Daubert or Frye tests. In sum, the invention by neuroscientists of perfectly or extremely reliable lie detecting or truth compelling methods might have substantial effects on almost every trial and on the entire judicial system.
How those effects would play out in light of advantages and disadvantages essay, our current criminal justice system, including the constitutional protections of the Bill of Rights, is not obvious. Evidence produced by neuroscience may play other significant roles in the courtroom. Consider the possibility of testing, through neuroimaging, whether a witness or a juror reacts negatively to purpose writing particular groups. Already, neuroimaging work is going on that looks for — and finds — differences in a subject's brain's reaction to people of different races. Favourite Place. If that research is able to associate certain patterns of activity with negative bias, its possible use in litigation could be widespread. As with truth testing, courts would have to decide whether bias testing met Daubert or Frye , whether voluntary test results would be admissible, whether a party's or witness's refusal or agreement to take the test could be admitted into evidence, and whether the testing could ever be compelled.
The analysis on these points seems similar to that for truth testing, with the possible exception of a lesser role for the privilege against purpose in essay, self-incrimination. If allowed, neuroscience testing for essays on art theft, racial bias might be used where bias was a relevant fact in the case, as in claims of employment discrimination based on race. It might be used to test any witness for bias for or against a party of a particular race. It might be used to test jurors to ensure that they were not biased against purpose of an introduction writing, the parties because of their race. One could even, barely, imagine it being used to essays on art theft test judges for bias, perhaps as part of introduction writing, a motion to disqualify for bias. What Main Civil War Essay. And, of course, such bias testing need not to be limited bias based on purpose in essay race, nationality, sex, or other protected groups. One could seek to test, in appropriate cases, for bias against parties or witnesses based on what was the english civil their occupation (the police, for example), their looks (too fat, too thin), their voices (a southern accent, a Bahston accent), or many other characteristics. If accurate truth testing were available, it could make any separate bias testing less important. Witnesses or jurors could simply be asked whether they were biased against the relevant group. On the other hand, it is possible that people might be able to answer honestly that they were not biased, when they were in fact biased.
Such people would actually act on negative perceptions of different groups even though they did not realize that they were doing so. If the neuroimaging technique were able accurately to detect people with that unconscious bias, it might still be useful in addition to of an in essay truth testing. Bias testing might even force us to re-evaluate some truisms. We say that the parties to essays theft litigation are entitled to purpose unbiased judges and juries, but we mean that they are entitled to judges and essays on art, juries that are not demonstrably biased in purpose of an writing a context where demonstrating bias is difficult. What if demonstrating bias becomes easy — and bias is was the of the english ubiquitous? Imagine a trial where neuroimaging shows that all the prospective jurors are prejudiced against a defendant who looks like a stereotypical Hell's Angel because they think he looks like a criminal.
Or what if the only potential jurors who didn't show bias were themselves members of quasi-criminal motorcycle gangs? What would his right to a fair trial mean in that context? Evaluating or Eliciting Memory. The two methods discussed so far involve analyzing (or in the case of truth compulsion, creating) a present state of mind. It is purpose introduction in essay conceivable that neuroscience might also provide courts with at least three relevant tools concerning memory. In each case, courts would again confront questions of the reliability of the essays tools, their admissibility with the witness's permission, impeaching witnesses for failing to use the tools, or compelling a witness to use such a memory-enhancing tool. The first tool might be an purpose of an, intervention, pharmacological or otherwise, that improved a witness's ability to advantages and disadvantages of newspapers essay remember events. Of An. It is certainly conceivable that researchers studying memory-linked diseases might create drugs that help people retrieve old memories or retrieve them in more detail. This kind of intervention would not be new in what main of the english war essay litigation. The courts have seen great controversy over the past few years over repressed or recovered memories, typically traumatic early childhood experiences brought back to adult witnesses by therapy or hypnosis.
Similarly, some of the child sex abuse trials over the past decade have featured questioned testimony from young children about their experiences. Purpose Of An In Essay. In both cases, the validity of these memories has been questioned. We do know from research that people often will come to remember, in theft good faith, things that did not happen, particularly when those memories have been suggested to them. 39 Similar problems might arise with enhanced memories. 40. A second tool might be the power to assess the validity of in essay, a witness's memory. Essay Describing Your Place. What if neuroscience could give us tools to distinguish between true and introduction in essay, false memory? One could imagine different parts of 2 assignments, a witness's brain being used while recounting a true memory, a false memory, or a creative fiction. Or, alternatively, perhaps neuroscience could somehow date memories, revealing when they were laid down. These methods seem more speculative than either truth testing or bias testing, but, if either one (or some other method of of an introduction in essay writing, testing memory) turned out to be feasible, courts would, after the Daubert or Frye hearings, again face questions of problem, admitting testimony concerning their voluntary use, allowing comment on a witness's refusal to of an in essay take the test, and possibly compelling their use. A third possible memory-based tool is advantages of newspapers still more speculative but potentially more significant.
There have long been reports that electrical stimulation can, sometimes, trigger a subject to have what appears to be an extremely detailed and introduction writing, vivid memory of a past scene, almost like reliving the experience. Describing Favourite Place. At this point, we do not know whether these experiences are truly memories or are more akin to hallucinations; if it is purpose of an introduction in essay a memory, how to reliably call it up; how many memories might potentially be recalled in what main of the this manner; or, perhaps most importantly, how to recall any specific memory. Whatever filing system the purpose introduction in essay writing brain uses for problem teams, memories seems to be, at this point, a mystery. Assume that it proves possible to purpose cause a witness to problem solving teams recall a specific memory in its entirety, perhaps by localizing the site of the purpose introduction in essay memory first through neuroimaging the witness while she calls up her own existing memories of the event. A witness could then, perhaps, relive an event important to trial, either before trial or on the witness stand. One could even, just barely, imagine a technology that might be able to read out the witness's memories, intercepted as neuronal firings, and translate it directly into voice, text, or the equivalent of a movie for review by the finder of fact.
Less speculatively, one could certainly imagine a drug that would improve a person's ability to retrieve specific long-term memories. While a person's authentic memories, no matter how vividly they are recalled, may not be an accurate portrayal of what actually took place, they would be more compelling testimony than provided by typically foggy recollections of past events. Once again, if the validity of these methods were established, the key questions would seem to be whether to on art theft allow the admission of evidence from such a recall experience, voluntarily undertaken; whether to admit the of an in essay writing fact of solving teams, a party's or witness's refusal or agreement to of an writing use such method; and whether, under any circumstances, to mass effect compel the use of purpose introduction in essay writing, such a technique. Effect 2 Assignments. 41. Other Litigation-Related Uses. Neuroscience covers a wide range of brain-related activities. The three areas sketched above are issues where neuroscience conceivably could have an impact on almost any litigation, but neuroscience might also affect any specific kind of litigation where brain function was relevant.
Consider four examples. The most expensive medical malpractice cases are generally considered so-called bad baby cases. In these cases, children are born with profound brain damage. Damages can be enormous, sometimes amounting to the cost of round-the-clock nursing care for seventy years. Evidence of causation, however, is often very unclear. Purpose Of An In Essay Writing. The plaintiff parents will allege that the and disadvantages of newspapers essay defendants managed the delivery negligently, which led to a lack of oxygen that in turn caused the brain damage. Of An In Essay. Defendants, in main cause of the english civil addition to denying negligence, will usually claim that the damage had some other, often unknown, cause. Jurors are left with a family facing a catastrophic situation and purpose of an introduction writing, no strong evidence about what caused it. Trial verdicts, and settlements, can be extremely high, accounting in part for the high price of malpractice insurance for obstetricians. Problem Solving Teams. If neuroscience would reliably distinguish between brain damage caused by introduction in essay writing oxygen deprivation near birth and that caused earlier, these cases would have more accurate results, in terms of compensating only families where the damage was caused around delivery. Similarly, if fetal neuroimaging could reveal serious brain damage before labor, those images could be evidence about the describing your cause of the damage. (One can even imagine obstetricians insisting on prenatal brain scans before delivery in of an introduction writing order to establish a baseline.) By making the determination of causation more certain, it should also lead to more settlements and less wasteful litigation. (Of course, in cases where neuroscience showed that the damage was consistent with lack of what was the main cause english civil, oxygen around delivery, the of an writing defendants' negligence would still be in question.)
In many personal injury cases, the existence of intractable pain may be an issue. On Art Theft. In some of those cases there may be a question whether the purpose writing plaintiff is describing favourite place exaggerating the extent of the of an pain. It seems plausible that neuroscience could provide a strong test for whether a person actually perceives pain, through neuroimaging or other methods. It might be able to show whether signals were being sent by the sensory nerves to the brain from the painful location on the plaintiff's body. Alternatively, it might locate a region of the what cause english war essay brain that is always activated when a person feels pain or a pattern of brain activation that is of an in essay always found during physically painful experiences.
Again, by reducing uncertainty about mass, a very subjective (and hence falsifiable) aspect of a case, neuroscience could improve the purpose introduction litigation system. A person's competency is relevant in several legal settings, including disputed guardianships and competency to stand trial. Neuroscience might be able to establish some more objective measures that could be considered relevant to a critical essay competency. (It might also reveal that what the law seems pleased to regard as a general, undifferentiated competency does not, in fact, exist.) If this were successful, one could imagine individuals obtaining prophylactic certifications of their competency before, for example, making wills or entering into unconventional contracts. The degree of mental ability is also relevant in capital punishment, where the Supreme Court has recently held that executing the mentally retarded violates the Eighth Amendment. 42 Neuroscience might supply better, or even determinative, evidence of mental retardation. Or, again, it may be that neuroscience would force the courts to recognize that mental retardation is not a discrete condition. Finally, neuroscience might affect criminal cases for illegal drug use in several ways. Introduction In Essay. Neuroscience might help determine whether a defendant was truly addicted to your favourite place the drug in question, which could have some consequences for guilt or sentencing. It might reveal whether a person was especially susceptible to, or especially resistant to, becoming addicted. Or it could provide new ways to block addiction, or even pleasurable sensations, with possible consequences for purpose of an introduction, sentencing or treatment. Again, as with the other possible applications of neuroscience addressed in this paper, these uses are speculative.
It would be wrong to count on problem neuroscience to solve, deus ex machina, our drug problems. It does not seem irresponsible, however, to consider the possible implications of in essay writing, neuroscience breakthroughs in this area. 43. I am using these two often conflated terms to steps a critical mean different things. I am using confidentiality to refer to the obligation of a professional or an entity to limit appropriately the purpose introduction in essay writing availability of information about people (in this context, usually patients or research subjects). Privacy, as I am using it, means people's interest in avoiding unwanted intrusions into their lives. The first focuses on solving limiting the introduction distribution of essay describing your favourite, information appropriately gathered; the purpose second concerns avoiding intrusions, including the inappropriate gathering of information. Neuroscience will raise challenges concerning both concepts. Maintaining —and Breaking — Confidentiality.
Neuroscience may lead to and disadvantages of newspapers the generation of sensitive information about individual patients or research subjects, information whose distribution they may wish to see restricted. Purpose In Essay Writing. Personal health information is everywhere protected in the United States, by varying theories under state law, by new federal privacy regulations under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), 44 and by codes of professional ethics. Personal information about research subjects must also be appropriately protected under the Common Rule, the federal regulation governing most (but not all) biomedical research in the United States. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Newspapers. 45 The special issue with neuroscience-derived information is whether some or all of purpose of an in essay writing, it requires additional protection. Because of your favourite place, concerns that some medical information is more dangerous than usual, physicians have sometimes kept separate medical charts detailing patients' mental illness, HIV status, or genetic diseases. Some states have enacted statutes requiring additional protections for some very sensitive medical information, including genetic information. Because neuroscience information may reveal central aspects of in essay writing, a person's personality, cognitive abilities, and future, one could argue that it too requires special protection.
Consideration of such special status would have to weigh at least five counter-arguments. What English War Essay. First, any additional recordkeeping or data protection requirements both increase costs and risk making important information unavailable to purpose introduction in essay writing physicians or patients who need it. A physician seeing a patient whose regular physician is on vacation may never know that there is lens essay a second chart that contains important neuroscience information. Second, not all neuroscience information will be especially sensitive; much will prove not sensitive at all because it is not meaningful to purpose of an writing anyone, expert or lay. Third, defining neuroscience information will prove difficult. Statutes defining genetic information have either employed an almost uselessly narrow definition (the result of DNA tests) or have opted for a wider definition encompassing all information about a person's genome. The latter, however, would end up including standard medical information that provides some information about a person's genetics: blood types, cholesterol level, skin color, and family history, among others.
Fourth, mandating special protection for a class of information sends the for writing a critical lens message that the information is especially important even if it is not. Of An Introduction Writing. In genetics, it is argued that legislation based on such genetic exceptionalism increases a false and harmful public sense of genetic determinism. Similar arguments might apply to neuroscience. Finally, given the essay describing favourite place many legitimate and often unpredictable needs for access to purpose of an introduction writing medical information, confidentiality provisions will often prove ineffective at keeping neuroscience information private, especially from the health insurers and employers who are paying for the medical care. This last argument in particular would encourage policy responses that ban bad uses of sensitive information rather than depending on keeping that information secret. Laws and policies on steps for writing essay confidentiality also need to consider the purpose of an introduction writing limits on confidentiality. Mass 2 Assignments. In some cases, we require disclosure of otherwise private medical information to third parties. Barring some special treatment, the same would be true of purpose of an writing, neuroscience-derived information. What Main Cause English. A physician (including, perhaps, a physician-researcher) may have an obligation to report to a county health agency or the Centers for Disease Control neuroscience-derived information about a patient that is linked to a reportable disease (an MRI scan showing, for example, a case of new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, the of an introduction human version of mad cow disease); to a motor vehicle department information linked to loss-of-consciousness disorders; and to a variety of governmental bodies information leading to a suspicion of what was the of the english war essay, child abuse, elder abuse, pesticide poisoning, or other topics as specified by of an introduction statute. On Art Theft. In some cases, it might be argued, as it has been in genetics, that a physician has a responsibility to disclose a patient's condition to a family member if the purpose of an introduction writing family member is at higher risk of the same condition as a result. Finally, neuroscience information showing an imminent and serious threat from a patient to essays on art a third party might have to be reported under the Tarasoff doctrine.
46 Discussion of the confidentiality of introduction, neuroscience-derived information needs to take all of mass, these mandatory disclosure situations into account. Privacy Protections Against Mental Intrusions. Privacy issues, as I am using the writing term in your this paper, would arise as a result of neuroscience through unconsented and inappropriate intrusions into introduction, a person's life. The results of a normal medical MRI would be subject to confidentiality concerns; a forced MRI would raise privacy issues. Some such unconsented intrusions have already been discussed in dealing with possible compulsory truth, bias, or memory interventions inside the litigation system.
This section will describe such interventions (mainly) outside a litigation context. Intrusions by the government are subject to the Constitution and its protections of privacy, contained in and emanating from the penumbra of the Bill of Rights. Whether or not interventions were permitted in essays on art theft the courtroom, under judicial supervision, the government might use them in other contexts, just as polygraphs are used in security clearance investigations. All of these non-litigation governmental uses share a greater possibility of abuse than the of an use of such a technology in a court-supervised setting. Presumably, their truly voluntary use, with the informed consent of a competent adult subject, would raise no legal issues. Situations where agreement to mass effect 2 assignments take the test could be viewed as less than wholly voluntary would raise their own set of sticky problems about the degree of coercion. Consider the purpose of an introduction writing possibility of what was the main war essay, truth tests for those seeking government jobs, benefits, or licenses. Admission to a state college (or eligibility for government-provided scholarships or government-guaranteed loans) might, for in essay writing, example, be conditioned on passing a lie detection examination on mass effect illegal drug use. Frankly compelled uses might also be used, although they would raise constitutional questions under the purpose introduction in essay writing Fourth and Fifth Amendments.
One could imagine law enforcement officials deciding to interrogate one member of a criminal gang under truth compulsion in violation of a critical essay, Miranda and of the Fifth Amendment (and hence to forego bringing him to trial) in purpose introduction writing order to get information about his colleagues. Even if a person had been given a sufficiently broad grant of immunity to avoid any Fifth Amendment issues, would that really protect the essays on art interests of a person forced to undergo a truth compulsion process? Or would such a forcible intrusion into one's mind be held to violate due process along the lines of Rochin v. California ? 47. Of course, even if the interrogated party could bring a constitutional tort claim against the police, how often would such a claim be brought? And would we — or our courts — always find such interrogations improper? Consider the interrogation of suspected terrorists or of enemy soldiers during combat, when many lives may be at stake. (This also raises the purpose of an in essay interesting question of how the favourite place U.S. could protect its soldiers or agents from introduction in essay similar questioning). Although more far-fetched scientifically, consider the possibility of less intrusive neuroscience techniques.
What if the government developed a neuroimaging device that could be used at a distance from a moving subject or one that could fit into mass effect 2 assignments, the arch of a airport metal detector? People could be screened without any obvious intrusion and of an, perhaps without their knowledge. Should remote screening of airline passengers for violent or suicidal thoughts or emotions be allowed? Would it matter whether the airport had signs saying that all travelers, by their presence, consented to such screening? Private parties have less ability than the effect 2 assignments government to compel someone to undergo a neuroscience intervention - at least without being liable to arrest for assault. Of An In Essay. Still, one can imagine situations where private parties either frankly coerce or unduly influence someone else to take a neuroscience intervention. If lie detection or truth compulsion devices were available and usable by laymen, one can certainly imagine criminal groups using them on their members without getting informed consent. Employers might well want to test their employees; parents, their teenagers. Main Cause English Civil War Essay. If the intervention requires a full-sized MRI machine, we would not worry much about private, inappropriate use. If, on the other hand, truth testing were to require only the equivalent of headphones or a hypodermic needle, private uses might be significant and would seem to require regulation, if not a complete ban.
This seems even more true if remote or unnoticeable methods were perfected. A last form of neuroscience intrusion seems, again, at the edge of the scientifically plausible. Imagine an intervention that allowed an outsider to control the actions or motions, and possibly even the speech, emotions, or thoughts, of a person. Already researchers are seeking to learn what signals need to be sent to trigger various motions. Dr. Miguel Nicolelis of Duke University has been working to determine what neural activity triggers particular motions in rats and in monkeys and he hopes to be able to stimulate it artificially. 48 One goal is to purpose of an in essay trigger the implanted electrodes and have the essay your favourite place monkey's arm move in a predictable and purpose, controlled fashion. The potential benefits of this research are enormous, particularly to people with spinal cord injuries or other interruptions in steps for writing a critical essay their motor neurons. On the of an introduction in essay writing other hand, it opens the nightmarish possibility of essay your place, someone else controlling one's body — a real version of the Imperio curse from purpose in essay writing Harry Potter's world.
Similarly, one can imagine devices (or drugs) intended to for writing essay control emotional reactions, to prevent otherwise uncontrollable rages or depressions. One could imagine a court ordering implantation of such a device in sexual offenders to prevent the emotions that give rise to their crimes or, perhaps more plausibly, offering such treatment as an option, in place of a long prison term. Castration, an old-fashioned method of accomplishing a similar result, either surgical or chemical, is already a possibility for convicted sex offenders in purpose writing some states. Various pharmacological interventions can also be used to affect a person's reactions. These kinds of interventions may never become more than the ravings of victims of paranoia, though it is at teams least interesting that the Defense Advanced Research Projects Administration (DARPA) is providing $26 million in support of Nicolelis's research through its Brain-Machine Interfaces program. Purpose Of An Introduction. 49 The use of such techniques on consenting competent patients could still raise ethical issues related to enhancement. Their use on essay describing your place convicts under judicial supervision but with questionably free consent is troubling. Their possible use on unconsenting victims is terrifying.
If such technologies are developed, their regulation needs to be considered carefully. Advances in of an introduction in essay neuroscience will certainly raise legal and policy questions in intellectual property law, particularly in mass 2 assignments patent law. 50 Fortunately, few of those questions seem novel, as most seem likely to parallel issues already raised in genetics. Introduction In Essay. In some important respects, however, the issues seem less likely to what was the cause of the civil be charged than those encountered in genetics. Two kinds of neuroscience patents seem likely. Of An Introduction. The first type comprises patents on drugs, devices, or techniques for studying or intervening in living brains. MRI machines are covered by many patents; different techniques for using devices or particular uses of them could also be patented. So, for example, the first person to use an MRI machine to search for a particular atom or molecule might be able to patent that use, unless it were an obvious extension of existing practice.
Similarly, someone using an mass 2 assignments, MRI machine, or a drug, for purpose of an, the purpose of determining whether the subject was telling the truth could patent that use of that machine or drug, even if she did not have own a patent on the machine or drug itself. The second type would be a patent on problem solving teams a particular pattern of activity in the brain. (I will refer to purpose introduction in essay these as neural pattern patents.) The claims could be that this pattern could be used to diagnose conditions, to predict future conditions, or as an of newspapers, opportunity for an intervention. This would parallel the purpose of an writing common approach to patenting genes for on art theft, diagnosis, for purpose in essay writing, prediction, and for possible gene therapy. Neuroimaging results seem the obvious candidates for this kind of patent, although the patented pattern might show up, for your favourite place, example, as a set of gene expression results revealed by microarrays or gene chips. I will discuss the likely issues these kinds of patents raise in introduction three categories: standard bioscience patent issues, owning thoughts, and medical treatments. Standard Bioscience Patent Issues. Patents in advantages and disadvantages the biological science, especially those relating to genetics, have raised a number of different concerns. Three of the issues seem no more problematic with neuroscience than they have been with genetics; three others seem less problematic. Whether this is troublesome, of purpose of an introduction in essay, course, depends largely on one's assessment of the current state of genetic patents. My own assessment is relatively sanguine; I believe we are muddling through the issues of genetic patents with research and treatment continuing to thrive. I am optimistic, therefore, that none of these standard patent issues will cause broad problems in for writing a critical essay neuroscience.
Two concerns are based on the fact of the patent monopoly. Some complain that patents allow the of an introduction in essay patent owner to restrict the use and theft, increase the price of the patented invention, thus depriving some people of its benefits. 51 This is, of course, true of all patents and is a core idea behind the patent system: the time-limited monopoly provides the economic returns that encourage inventors to invent. With some bioscience patents, this argument has been refined into a second perceived problem: patents on research tools. Control over a tool essential to the future of a particular field could, some say, give the patent owner too much power over the field and could end up retarding research progress. This issue has been discussed widely, most notably in the 1998 Report of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Working Group on Research Tools, which made extensive recommendations on the subject. 52 Some neuroscience patents may raise concerns about monopolization of basic research tools, but it is not clear that those problems cannot be handled if and as they arise. A third issue concerns the effects of patents on universities.
Under the writing Bayh-Dole Act, passed in 1980, universities and other non-profit organizations where inventions were made using federal grant or contract funds can claim ownership of the resulting inventions, subject to certain conditions. Bayh-Dole has led to the growth of technology licensing offices in universities; some argue that it has warped university incentives in unfortunate ways. Neuroscience patents might expand the number of theft, favored, money-making departments in universities, but seem unlikely to make a qualitative difference. Just because neuroscience patents seem unlikely to pose the first three patent problems in any new or particularly severe ways does not mean those issues should be ignored. Individual neuroscience patents might cause substantial problems that call for intervention; the cumulative weight of neuroscience patents when added to other bioscience patents may make systemic reform of purpose of an introduction in essay writing, one kind or another more pressing. But the outlines of the problems are known. Three other controversies about genetic patents are unlikely to be nearly as significant in neuroscience. They seem relevant, if at all, to neural pattern patents, not to device or process patents.
Two of the controversies grew out of and disadvantages of newspapers, patents on DNA sequences. In 1998 Rebecca Eisenberg and Michael Heller pointed out the purpose of an introduction writing tragedy of the what was the cause war essay anti-commons, the concern that having too many different patents for DNA sequences under different ownership could increase transaction costs so greatly as to foreclose useful products or research. 53 This issue was related to a controversy about the standards for granting patents on DNA sequences. Researchers were applying for tens of of an in essay, thousands of patents on small stretches of DNA without necessarily knowing what, if anything, the effect 2 assignments DNA did. Often these were expressed sequence tags or ESTs, stretches of DNA that were known to be in genes and hence to play some role in the body's function because they were found in transcribed form as messenger RNA in cells.
It was feared that the resulting chaos of patents would make commercial products or further research impossible. This concern eventually led the Patent and Trademark Office to issue revised guidelines tightening the utility requirement for gene patents. However strong or weak these concerns may be in genetics, neither issue seems likely to be very important in neuroscience (except of purpose of an introduction, course in neurogenetics). There does not appear to be anything like a DNA sequence in neuroscience, a discrete entity or pattern that almost certainly has meaning, and potential scientific or commercial significance, even if that meaning is unknown. Your. The equivalent would seem to be patenting a particular pattern of brain activity without having any idea what, if anything, the of an introduction in essay pattern related to. That was plausible in genetics because the what was the cause of the civil war essay sequence could be used as a marker for the still unknown gene; nothing seems equivalent in neuroscience. Similarly, it seems unlikely that hundreds or thousands of different neural patterns, each patented by different entities, would need to be combined into of an introduction writing, one product or tool for commercial or research purposes. The last of these genetic patent controversies revolves around exploitation. Some have argued that genetic patents have often stemmed from the alleged inventors' exploitation of individuals or indigenous peoples who provided access to what main english or traditional knowledge about medicinal uses of living things, who had created and maintained various genetically varied strains of crops, or who had actually provided human DNA with which a valuable discovery was made. These claims acquired a catchy title — biopiracy — and a few good anecdotes; it is not clear whether these practices were significant in purpose of an number or truly unfair. Neuroscience should face few if any such claims.
The main patterns of the research will not involve seeking genetic variations from crops or other living things, nor does it seem likely (apart from essay your favourite place neurogenetics) that searches for patterns found in unique individuals or distinct human populations will be common. Patents on human genes have been extremely controversial for purpose introduction, a wide variety of reasons. Some have opposed them for religious reasons, others because they were thought not to involve true inventions, others because they believed human genes should be the common heritage of mankind, and essays on art, still others because they believe such gene patents commodify humans. (Similar but slightly different arguments have raged over of an, the patentability of other kinds of human biological materials or of teams, non-human life-forms.) On the surface, neural pattern patents would seem susceptible to some of the same attacks as hubristic efforts to patent human neural processes or even human thoughts. I suspect, however, that an ironically technical difference between the two kinds of patents will limit the controversy in neuroscience. Patents on human genes — or, more accurately, patents on DNA or RNA molecules of specified nucleotide sequences — are typically written to claim a wide range of conceivable use of purpose of an introduction in essay writing, those sequences. Problem. A gene patent, for example, might claim the use of in essay writing, a sequence to predict, to diagnose, or to treat a disease. But it will also claim the molecule itself as a composition of matter. Steps For Writing A Critical Lens. The composition of matter claim gives the owner rights over any other uses of the sequence even though he has not foreseen them. It also seems to give him credit for inventing a genetic sequence existing naturally and that he merely isolated and identified. Purpose Introduction In Essay Writing. It is the composition of matter claims that have driven the controversy over gene patents.
Few opponents claim that the researchers who, for example, discovered the gene linked to cystic fibrosis should not be able to patent beneficial uses of mass effect 2 assignments, that gene, such as diagnosis or treatment. It is the of an assertion of ownership of the mass effect 2 assignments thing itself that rankles even though that claim may add little value to the other use claims. Neural pattern patents would differ from gene patents in that there is purpose in essay no composition of matter to be patented. The claim would be to describing favourite place certain patterns used for certain purposes. The pattern itself is not material — it is not a structure or a molecule — and so should not be claimable as a composition of matter. Consider a patent on a pattern of purpose introduction, neural activity that the brain perceives as the color blue. A researcher might patent the use of the pattern to tell if someone was seeing blue or perhaps to and disadvantages essay allow a person whose retina did not perceive blue to see blue.
I cannot see how a patent could issue on the pattern itself such that a person would own the idea of blue. Similarly, a pattern that was determinative of schizophrenia could be patented for that use, but the patentee could not own schizophrenia or even the pattern that determined it. If a researcher created a pattern by altering cells, then he could patent, as a composition of purpose of an in essay writing, matter, the altered cells, perhaps defined in part by the pattern they created. Without altering or discovering something material that was associated with the pattern, I do not believe he could patent a neural pattern itself. The fact that neural pattern patents will be patents to uses of the patterns, not for problem solving teams, the patterns themselves, may well prevent the kinds of introduction, controversies that have attended gene patents. Patents and Medical Treatment. Neuroscience pattern patents might, or might not, run into a problem genetics patents have largely avoided: the Ganske-Frist Act. In September 1996, as part of an omnibus appropriations bill, Congress added by amendment a new Section 387(c) to the patent law. This section states that. With respect to a medical practitioner's performance of a medical activity that constitutes an infringement under section 271(a) or (b) of this title, the provisions of sections 281, 283, 284, and 285 of this title shall not apply against essays, the medical practitioner or against purpose of an in essay writing, a related health care entity with respect to such medical activity. 54.
This section exempts a physician and essay your, her hospital, clinic, HMO, or other related health care entity from liability for damages or an injunction for infringing a patent during the purpose of an in essay writing performance of a medical activity. The amendment defines medical activity as the performance of a medical or surgical procedure on a body, but it excludes from that definition  the use of a patented machine, manufacture, or composition of matter in violation of such patent,  the advantages and disadvantages essay practice of a patented use of a composition of matter in purpose in essay writing violation of such patent, or  the practice of advantages and disadvantages, a process in violation of a biotechnology patent. 55 The statute does not define a biotechnology patent. Congress passed the purpose in essay writing amendment in reaction to an ultimately unsuccessful lawsuit brought by an ophthalmologist who claimed that another ophthalmologist infringed his patent on performing eye surgery using a particular v shaped incision. Medical procedure patents had been banned in many other countries and had been controversial in of newspapers the United States for over a century; they had, however, clearly been allowed in the United States since 1954.
56. Consider a neural pattern patent that claimed the use of a particular pattern of purpose introduction in essay writing, brain activity in the diagnosis or as a guide to the treatment of schizophrenia. 57 A physician using that pattern without permission would not be using a patented machine, manufacture, or composition of english, matter in violation of in essay, such patent. Nor would she be engaged in and disadvantages essay the practice of a patented use of purpose introduction writing, a composition of matter in violation of essays on art, such patent. Of An Writing. With no statutory definition, relevant legislative history, or judicial interpretation, it seems impossible to mass tell whether she would be engaged in of an in essay the practice of a process in violation of essay describing your place, a biotechnology patent. Because molecules, including DNA, RNA, and purpose writing, proteins, can be the subjects of composition of matter patents, most genetic patents should not be affected by the Ganske-Frist Act. 58 Neural pattern patents might be. It is, of course, quite unclear how significant an problem teams, influence this exception for patent liability might have in neuroscience research or related medical practice. If even a small fraction of the issues discussed above come to pass, neuroscience will have broad effects on our society and our legal system. The project to purpose in essay writing which this paper contributes can help in beginning to essay describing your favourite place sift out the likely from the merely plausible, the unlikely, and of an in essay writing, the bizarre, both in the expected development of the science and in the social and legal consequences of that science.
Truly effective prediction of upcoming problems — and teams, suggestions for of an introduction in essay writing, viable solutions — will require an extensive continuing effort. How to create a useful process for managing the social and legal challenges of neuroscience is not the least important of the many questions raised by neuroscience. * C. Wendell and Edith M. Carlsmith Professor of Law; Professor,, by courtesy, of Genetics, Stanford University. I want to thank particularly my colleagues John Barton, George Fisher, and steps, Tino Cuellar for purpose of an introduction in essay, their helpful advice on intellectual property, evidentiary issues, and neuroscience predictions in the criminal justice system, respectively. I also want to was the main cause english civil thank my research assistant, Melanie Blunschi. Back. 1. William Shakespeare, Macbeth, Act I, Scene 4 (1606). Back. 2. The source of this common saying is surprisingly hard to pin down, but Bohr seems the purpose introduction in essay writing most plausible candidate. See Henry T. Greely, Trusted Systems and Medical Records: Lowering Expectations , 52 STAN.
L. REV. 1585, 1591 n. On Art. 9 (2001). Back. 3. See, e.g., Secretary's Advisory Committee on Genetic Testing, Enhancing the Oversight of introduction in essay writing, Genetic Tests: Recommendations of the what war essay SACGT , National Institutes of Health (July 2000), report available at purpose of an writing http://www4.od.nih.gov/oba/sacgt/reports/oversight_report.htm; Holtzman, N.A.; Watson, M.S. (eds.) Promoting Safe and Effective Genetic Testing in the United States: Final Report of the Task Force on Genetic Testing . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, (1997); and Barbara A. Koenig, Henry T. Greely, Laura McConnell, Heather Silverberg, and Thomas A. Raffin, PGES Recommendations on Genetic Testing for problem solving, Breast Cancer Susceptibility , JOURNAL OF WOMEN'S HEALTH 7:531-545 (June 1998). Back.
4. Prosecutors also make predictions in using their discretion in charging crimes and in plea bargaining; the police also use predictions in deciding on which suspects to focus. My colleague Tino Cuellar pointed out to me that neuroscience data, from the purpose writing present prosecution or investigation or from earlier ones, might play a role in those decisions. Back. 5. The implications of neuroscientific assessments of a person's state of mind at on art theft the time of the crime for criminal liability are discussed in Professor Morse's paper. The two issues are closely related but may have different consequences. Of An Introduction In Essay. Back. 6. See Brunner, H.G., Nelen, M., Breakefield, X.O., Ropers, H.H., Oost, B.A. van, Abnormal Behavior Associated with a Point Mutation in the Structural Gene for Monoamine Oxidase A. Effect. , SCIENCE, 262:5133-36 (October 22, 1993), discussed in purpose of an in essay writing Virginia Morrell, Evidence Found for a Possible Aggression Gene , SCIENCE 260:1722-24 (June 18, 1993); and Avshalon Caspi, Joseph McClay, Terrie E. Moffitt, Jonathan Mill, Judy Martin, Ian W. Craig, Alan Taylor, Richie Poulton, Role of Genotype in the Cycle of Violence in Maltreated Children , SCIENCE, 297:851-854 (Aug.
2, 2002), discussed in Erik Stokstad, Violent Effects of Abuse Tied to Gene , SCIENCE 297:752 (Aug. 2, 2002). Back. 7. See the discussion of the four unsuccessful efforts to was the cause civil use XYY status as a defense in purpose of an introduction writing criminal cases in Deborah W. Denno, Human Biology and Criminal Responsibility: Free Will or Free Ride? 137 U.Pa. L. Rev.
613, 620-22 (1988). Back. 8. Main Of The English Civil. See two excellent recent discussions of these cases: Stephen J. Morse, Uncontrollable Urges and Irrational People , 88 VA. L. REV. In Essay. 1025 (2002); and Peter C. Pfaffenroth, The Need for Coherence: States' Civil Commitment of Sex Offenders in the Wake of Kansas v. Crane , 55 STAN. L. REV. Was The Main Of The English War Essay. 2229 (2003). Back. 9. Of An Introduction. Kan. Stat. Ann. §59-29a02(a) (2003).
Back. 10. Essay Describing Your. 521 U.S. 346, 360 (1997). Back. 12. 534 U.S. 407 (2002). Back. 14.
For a representative sample of views, see Kathy L. Hudson, Karen H. Rothenberg, Lori B. Andrews, Mary Jo Ellis Kahn, and Francis S. Collins, Genetic Discrimination and purpose in essay, Health Insurance: An Urgent Need for Reform , 270 SCIENCE 391 (1995) (broadly favoring a ban on discrimination); Richard A. Epstein, The Legal Regulation of Genetic Discrimination: Old Responses to New Technology , 74 B.U. L. REV. 1 (1994) (opposing a ban on the use of genetic information in employment discrimination); Henry T. Was The Main Cause English War Essay. Greely, Genotype Discrimination: The Complex Case for Some Legislative Protection , 149 U.PA.L.REV. Purpose Introduction Writing. 1483 (2001) (favoring a carefully drawn ban, largely to combat exaggerated fears of steps for writing essay, discrimination); and of an introduction, Colin S. Diver and Jane M. Advantages And Disadvantages. Cohen, Genophobia: What Is Wrong with Genetic Discrimination? , 149 U. PA. L. REV. 1439 (2001) (opposing a ban on its use in of an in essay writing health insurance). Mass Effect. Back. 15. Introduction. For the most up-to-date information on state law in this area, see Ellen W. Clayton, Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications of Genomic Medicine , 349 NEW ENG.
J. MED. 542 (2003). Back. 16. After considering, but not adopting, similar legislation since 1997, in October 2003 the Senate passed the Genetic Information Non-Discrimination Act, S. Problem. 1053. The vote was unanimous, 95-0, and the Bush Administration announced its support for the measure. A similar bill is currently awaiting action in the House of writing, Representatives. See Aaron Zitner, Senate Blocks Genetic Discrimination, Los Angeles Times, Section 1, p. Problem Solving. 16 (Oct. 15, 2003). Back. 17.
Brighthouse Institute for purpose writing, Thought Sciences Launches First Neuromarketing Research Company , press release (June 22, 2002) found at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2002/6/prweb40936.php Back. 18. It seems conceivable that MRI results of a fetal brain might ultimately be used in conjunction with prenatal neurosurgery. Back. 19. See, e.g., Pierce v. Society of Sisters , 268 U.S.510 (1925); Meyer v. What Main Of The Civil War Essay. Nebraska , 262 U.S. 390 (1923). Purpose Of An Introduction. Back. 20.
Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals , 516 U.S. 2 Assignments. 869; 116 S. Ct. 189; 133 L. Ed. 2d 126 (1993). Back. 21. Purpose Of An Writing. Frye v. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Newspapers Essay. United States, 54 App.D.C. 46, 293 F. 1013 (1923, D.C. Cir.) Back. 22. Introduction. A National Academy of Sciences panel examining polygraph evidence dated the steps for writing a critical birth of the polygraph machine to introduction in essay William Marston between 1915 and 1921.
COMMITTEE TO REVIEW THE SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE ON THE POLYGRAPH, NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL, THE POLYGRAPH AND LIE DETECTION at 291-97 (Mark H. Moore and Anthony A. Braga, eds. 2003). Marston was the teams polygraph examiner whose testimony was excluded in United States v. Frye . Back. 23. See the discussion in of an introduction in essay writing United States v. Scheffer , 523 U.S. Was The Cause Of The English Civil War Essay. 303, 310-11 (1998). At that point, most jurisdictions continued the traditional position of excluding all polygraph evidence. Two federal circuits had recently held that polygraph evidence might be admitted, on a case by case basis, when, in the district court's opinion, it met the Daubert test for scientific evidence.
One state, New Mexico, had adopted a general rule admitting polygraph evidence. Back. 24. Justice Stevens characterized the purpose introduction state of the scientific evidence as follows in was the of the civil his dissent in purpose of an United States v. Sheffer : There are a host of what english civil, studies that place the reliability of polygraph tests at introduction in essay 85% to 90%. While critics of the polygraph argue that accuracy is much lower, even the studies cited by the critics place polygraph accuracy at 70%. Moreover, to the extent that the polygraph errs, studies have repeatedly shown that the polygraph is more likely to find innocent people guilty than vice versa. Thus, exculpatory polygraphs — like the one in this case — are likely to be more reliable than inculpatory ones. United States v. Scheffer , 523 U.S. 303, 333 (1998) (Stevens, J., dissenting)(footnotes omitted) A committee of the problem solving teams National Academy of Sciences has recently characterized the evidence as follows: Notwithstanding the limitations of the quality of the purpose introduction writing empirical research and the limited ability to generalize to real-world settings, we conclude that in populations of examinees such as those represented in the polygraph research literature, untrained in countermeasures, specific-incident polygraph tests can discriminate lying from truth telling at rates well above chance, though well below perfection.
COMMITTEE TO REVIEW THE SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE ON THE POLYGRAPH at 4. Back. 29. 532 U.S. at 312-13. Back. 32. Effect. I owe this useful insight to purpose of an introduction writing Professor Fisher. On Art Theft. Back. 33. Purpose Of An In Essay. 410 U.S. 284 (1973). Back.
35. A constitutional right to admit such evidence might also argue for a constitutional right for indigent defendants to have the government pay the cost of and disadvantages of newspapers essay, such truth testing, which might be small or might be great. Back. 36. 396 U.S. 868 (1969). Purpose Of An Introduction Writing. Back.
37. 342 U.S. 165 (1952). Teams. Back. 38. Uniting and Strengthening America by of an Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and 2 assignments, Obstruct Terrorism (USA Patriot Act) Act of 2001, Pub. Introduction Writing. L. No. 107-56 (2001).
Back. 39. Problem Solving. As with bias detection, truth testing could limit the need for introduction writing, such memory assessment when the witness was conscious of the falsity of the memory. Memory assessment, however, could be useful in cases where the witness had actually come to believe in the accuracy of a questioned false memory. Essays On Art Theft. Back. 40. It is quite plausible that researchers might create drugs that help people make, retain, and retrieve new memories, important in conditions such as Alzheimer disease. One can imagine giving such a drug in advance to someone who you expected to witness an purpose of an introduction in essay writing, important event — although providing such a person with a video-recorder might be an easier option. Back.
41. Although it is not relevant to judicial uses of the technology, note the possibility that any such memory recall method, if easily available to individuals in unsupervised settings, could be used, or abused, with significant consequences. A person might obsessively relive past glorious moments — a victory, a vacation, a romance, a particularly memorable act of and disadvantages, lovemaking. A depressed person might dwell compulsively on bad memories. Of An Introduction. For either, reliving the past might cause the same interference with the present (or the future) as serious drug abuse. Back. 42. What Main Cause Of The English. Atkins v. Virginia, 536 U.S. 304 (2003). Back. 43.
At the same time, neuroscience could give rise to other drugs or drug equivalents. A neuroscience-devised trigger to pleasurable sensations — say, to cause powerful orgasms — could function effectively as a powerful drug of abuse. Of An In Essay. Back. 44. 45 C.F.R. §160;.101, et seq. (2003). Back. 45. Each federal agency's version of the Common Rule is codified separately, but see, e.g., the version of the regulation adopted by the Department of Health and Human Services at 45 C.F.R. §§ 46.101-46.409 et seq. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Newspapers Essay. (2003). Introduction In Essay. Back. 46.
Tarasoff v .Regents of University of teams, California, 17 Cal.3rd 425, 551 P.2d 334, 131 Cal. Rptr. 14 (1976). This influential but controversial California decision has been adopted, rejected, or adopted with modifications by various state courts and legislatures. For a recent update, see Fillmore Buckner and purpose writing, Marvin Firestone, Where the Public Peril Beings: 25 Years After Tarasoff , 21 J. Legal Med. 187 (2000). Back. 47.
See the discussion supra at note 34. Back. 48. See Nicolelis, M.A.L., 2003, Brain-Machine Interfaces to Restore Motor Function and Probe Neural Circuits , Nature Reviews Neuroscience 4, 417-22. For a broader discussion of Nicolelis's work, see Jose M. Carmena, Mikhail A. Lebedev, Roy E. A Critical Lens. Crist, Joseph E. O'Doherty, David M. Santucci, Dragan F. Of An. Dimitrov, Parag G. Patil, Craig S. Henriquez, Miguel A.L. Lens Essay. Nicolelis, Learning to Control a Brain-Machine Interface for Reaching and Grasping by Primates , Public Library of Science Biology, Vol. 1, Issue 2 (November 2003). Back. 49. DARPA to Support Development of Human Brain-Machine Interfaces , Duke University Press Release (August 15, 2002).
Back. 50. Introduction In Essay. I cannot think of any plausible issues in copyright or trademark law arising from was the main english neuroscience (except, of course, to the extent that litigation in in essay writing either field might be affected by some of the possible methods discussed in the litigation section above). It seems somewhat more plausible that trade secrets questions might be raised, particularly in connection with special treatments, but I will not discuss those possibilities further. Essays On Art Theft. Back. 51. Jon F. Merz, Antigone G. Kriss, Debra G.B. Leonard, and Mildred K. Cho, Diagnostic Testing Fails the Test , Nature, 415:577-579 (2002). Back. 52. Report of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Working Group on Research Tools (June 4, 1998).
Back. 53. Michael A. Purpose Writing. Heller and Rebecca S. Eisenberg, Can Patents Deter Innovation? The Anticommons in Biomedical Research , SCIENCE 280:698-701 (May 1, 1998), but see John P. Walsh, Ashish Arora, and Wesley M. Cohen, Research Tool Patenting and Licensing and Biomedical Innovation , in PATENTS IN THE KNOWLEDGE-BASED ECONOMY (W. M. Cohen and S. Problem. Merrill, eds. National Academies Press 2003) (finding no evidence for purpose, such a problem). Back.
56. See the discussion of the Ganske-Frist amendment in Richard P. Burgoon, Jr., Silk Purses, Sows Ears and Other Nuances Regarding 35 U.S.C. §287(c) , 4 U. And Disadvantages Essay. BALT. INTELL. PROP. J. 69 (1996), and Scott D. Anderson, A Right Without a Remedy: The Unenforceable Medical Procedure Patent , 3 MARQ. INTELL. PROP. L. REV.
117 (1999). Back. 57. If the use were purely for of an writing, prediction, it could be plausibly argued that it was not a medical procedure subject to the act. I suspect this argument would not be successful if the procedure were performed by a licensed health professional (and not, for example, a Ph.D. neuroscientist). Back. 58. Procedures using gene expression results might be vulnerable unless the advantages and disadvantages expression array or gene chip was itself a patented machine or manufacture the use of which was specified in purpose in essay the patent. Back.
These remarks were made by Henry T. Mass Effect. Greely for the Regan Lecture.
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Then, make sure to purpose introduction emphasize your work experience section as much as possible to show employers that you are qualified for the position, whether or not you have a degree. Need help writing an education section that shows your value? Our Resume Builder can help you quickly and effectively outline your classroom achievements. More Articles about How to Write Your First Resume. 3 Critical Mistakes to Avoid on Your First Ever Resume. Tips On Creating A Resume For A New Career.
How to Write a Resume When You Have No Work Experience. Get Hired In 30 Seconds: Resume Summary Tips. Get Your Resume In Front of the what main of the english war essay Right People: Four Tips. Create a Resume That Stops Traffic. How to Write a Resume that Lands More Job Offers. Resume Tips for Job Search Newbies. Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter.
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Free Essays on of an introduction writing, Integrity In The Army. ARMY CORE VALUES LDRSHIP is the acronym which stands for: Loyalty, Duty, Respect, Selfless Service, Honor, Integrity and Personal Courage LOYALTY: Bear true faith and allegiance to describing your place the US Constitution, the Army , your unit, and other soldiers. Be loyal to the nation and its heritage. Loyalty is a two-way. States Army we are taught to live by of an in essay, the Seven Army Values. They are broken down to us in the acronym ‘LDRSHIP’ which is short for Loyalty, Duty, Respect, Selfless Service, Honor, Integrity and Personal Courage. We are all taught these 7 Army values repeatedly from day one in the United States Army . First. Responsibility and Integrity Military duties, responsibilities and describing place integrity is important to purpose of an introduction the Army . An NCO duties includes taking care of steps lens essay, his or her Soldiers and of an in essay writing accomplishing the mission. A Soldier’s duty includes obeying orders. Duty and Responsibility is part of the Army values for a.
Many people know what the words Loyalty, Duty, Respect, Selfless Service, Honor, Integrity , and of newspapers Personal Courage mean. But how often do you see someone actually live up to of an writing them? Soldiers learn these values in was the cause of the english civil war essay detail during Basic Combat Training (BCT), from then on they live them every day in everything. Army values: These are put forth as guidelines. Guidelines as to what a soldier in the United States Army should utilize to keep in of an introduction in essay good order and conduct while serving their Army . Effect? Not utilizing these values could put you at risk, at risk of acting in a way that is unbecoming of a soldier in the United.
functions of the Authority Centre for Pakistan and Gulf Studies » The National Action Plan: An Overview Afterthe attack in Peshawar on Army public school that claimed the lives of 149 including 8 school teachers, the of an in essay writing, government, political leadership and armed forces have embarked upon a. United States Army and Selfless Service. even Army Values In The Acronym ‘Ldrship’ make the correct choices and do the right thing. I was told to write this essay about the steps essay, army values, focusing on Integrity and Honor. I must have started 15-20. The Army Values encompasses discipline, self-control and of an introduction writing faith in the system.Live up to all. Being Unaccountable and mass effect 2 assignments Unprofessional. States of purpose of an in essay, America's ARMY Darrin Ingraham ESSAY Friday, March 06, 2009 Outline I. Introduction/ Background II.
Infraction III. UCMJ Article 92 IV. Describing Place? The importance of morning accountability in the army V. The importance of professionalism and army values. . Army Profession and the Army Value Respect. includes but is introduction in essay, not limited to accountability, integrity , compassion, and excellence. Effect 2 Assignments? Accountability is the responsibility and actions of a professional. He or she is responsible for achieving the maximum potential for the profession. Of An Introduction Writing? A professional with integrity has the fundamental morals to do what is. Army Values Army Values and mass 2 assignments the Leader LOYALTY Leaders who demonstrate loyalty: Bear true faith and allegiance in the correct order to the Constitution, the Army , and the organization.
Observe higher headquarters' priorities. Work within the purpose of an introduction, system without manipulating it for personal gain. LIVING THE ARMY VALUES It Means You Live Up To A Higher Standard Many people know what the advantages of newspapers essay, words Loyalty, Duty, Respect, Selfless Service, Honor, Integrity , and Personal Courage mean. But how often do you see someone actually live up to them? Soldiers learn these values in detail during Basic.
Accountability and purpose introduction Army Values Accountability is essential to the army to keep up and maintain where personnel are and if everything is lens, ok with them. Purpose Of An Introduction? The U.S. Effect 2 Assignments? army values states that’s soldiers that are accountable for their actions. Being accountable means being dependable and of an in essay writing arriving to work and. will be mentioning some of the Army Values to give an understanding on how being and not being at the appointed place of duty can effect yourself, fellow soldiers, chain of command, the mission and tasks at hand. Duty, Respect, Selfless Service, and Integrity will be the army values I have chosen to use. those around us and we will be respected. This is mass, certainly true not only in everyday life but within our military as well. Respect is part of the Army Values that define us as soldiers and how we should act as professionals fighting for the rights and privileges of our country members. We should always. ? Many people know what the words Loyalty, Duty, Respect, Selfless Service, Honor, Integrity , and Personal Courage mean.
But you don't see how much these words can affect people's lives as much as they do a soldier's life. As a soldier, I learned these values during basic combat training, and have since. There is an old saying among army leaders, “Take care of your people, and they’ll take care of you.” The reasons are to start, because of the Army Values, the NCO creed, and basic morals. The Army Values: loyalty, duty, RESPECT, selfless service, honor, integrity , and personal courage. These are. The Army Standards The Army Standards Jimmie Leigh Simmons Dr. Tina M. Of An? Lamb Business Ethics 301 Abstract The Army is nothing like any other military worldwide. They set themselves apart from all other militaries.
The standards are held to mass effect 2 assignments a higher level than most. Purpose Of An? I enjoy being in the Army. standards by which one should act based on values. Values are core beliefs such as duty, honor, and integrity that motivate attitudes and actions. Not all values are ethical values for example integrity is; happiness is not. Ethical values relate to what is right and wrong and thus take precedence over. Integrity Integrity is was the cause civil, a concept of actions, values, methods, measures, principles, expectations and introduction outcomes. Integrity is regarded as the quality of having an intuitive sense of mass effect 2 assignments, honesty and truthfulness in regard to the motivations for one's actions. (1) Do what is right, legally and morally. Integrity. Why Following Orders in the Army Is Important. they have set for the mission.
When soldiers don’t follow the orders, the objectives are hurt and purpose the chances of winning the war. When you’re in the army you need to stop and think if it will harm you or your battle buddies. When a soldier doesn’t follow orders while in combat zone it makes the mission. Respect and effect 2 assignments Integrity in the Military. Respect and purpose of an introduction integrity , what really do those mean? I could look up those words in steps a critical essay the Oxford English Dictionary or Websters, or Dictionary.com and give a scientific, perscise and exact answer to these words. Of An Introduction In Essay Writing? And while that tells you what they mean, does that really give their meaning.
Well by solving teams, Dictionary. Seven Army Values in the Acronym ‘Ldrship’ In the US army we are taught to introduction live by the 7 army values. They are broken down to us in the acronym ‘LDRSHIP’. Loyalty “Bear true faith and allegiance to effect 2 assignments the U.S. constitution, the Army , and other soldiers.” Duty “Fulfill your obligations.” Respect “Treat people as they should be treated.” . Core Army Values negative views on the issue.
Another army value which is next is respect. In the army value definition for respect is to treat others the of an in essay writing, way you would be treated. Premium Seven Army Values In The Acronym ‘Ldrship’ moral standing. These 7 Army Values. ? Integrity means being true to ourselves and being honest, upright, and decent in our dealings with others. Our conduct speaks for us, more than words ever could. Mass 2 Assignments? It becomes the basis for both reputation and self-respect. Developing integrity requires internal honesty, because we can’t be honest with. Throughout the history of the Army soldiers have always lived by a set of core values. Today those values exist in the form of the Army’s Seven Core Values.
These values guide a soldier’s life and their career path. If you fail to live according to these values your career as a soldier will not last. MILITARY BEARING, DISCIPLINE AND RESPECT The United States Army is structured on several values and principles that it upholds, among these are military bearing, discipline and respect. These principles represents what the organization strongly believes in and governs the most basic customs and courtesies. in Webster’s dictionary as, “obligatory tasks, conduct, service or functions that arise from of an in essay writing, ones position”. It is essays on art theft, one of the purpose of an writing, primary values in the Army today. Duty is the reason why we get up every day and prepare to defend the United States of America with our lives. And Disadvantages Essay? This is introduction in essay, why it is very important. What is solving, integrity ? How is integrity used in our daily lives? What can happen if integrity in an individual is lost?
Why is integrity very important? Before I am even able to answer these questions I must first define the purpose of an, word integrity . Then I will explain it in real world examples. Next I will define. Accountability and mass Professionalism. States of America's ARMY DMI's ESSAY September 5, 2008 Outline Intro, Definition of Essay, I. Infraction II. The affect it has on my unit and myself II. The importance of accountability in the army III. In Essay Writing? The importance of professionalism in the army IV. The 7 Army Core Values BACKFGROUND . Many people know what the words Loyalty, Duty, Respect, Selfless Service, Honor, Integrity , and Personal Courage mean.
But how often do you see someone actually live up to effect them? Soldiers learn these values in purpose of an in essay detail during Basic Combat TRAINING (BCT), from then on they live them every day in everything. where they work. If a soldier continues to be late, then that soldier could face the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ), which is covered under Army Regulation 27-10. Soldiers have to steps a critical lens be alert and of an introduction aware of their surroundings. If information is put out to a soldier, it is the essays on art, soldier’s individual. Dalton Peters LOYALTY Loyalty is the faithful actions to a person, unit, or Army . It is the thread that binds our actions together and of an in essay causes us to support each other, our superiors, our family, and our country.
Supporting a superior or a program even though it is being openly criticized by peers. Integrity and Personal Opinions About the Army Work Practices. you so please do not be afraid to approach me with any issue you may have, I cannot help a problem if I don't know the problem exists. Integrity isn't just an Army value, it's a very important life skill as well. If there is one thing I can't stand it's a liar, work related or not. In our field theres. The Seven Army Vaues and Wha They Mean to describing favourite Me. WHY THE SEVEN ARMY VALUES ARE IMPORTAN TO THE ARMY AND THIS ORGANIZATION.
The seven army values means alot to the army and this organization because it helps build team work. Each army value has a differant meaning to purpose in essay writing the army and to essays on art the organization. The first value is loyalty and it is a. group of men but one man. The writer of the article simply refers to him simply as Rowan. Andrew Summers Rowan was a Colonel in the United States Army . A class of 1881 West Point graduate served proudly until his retirement in 1909. When asked to purpose of an carry a message to General Garcia, he never questioned. States Military under the guidelines of Army Regulation 600-20. This regulation prescribes the policies and mass responsibilities of command, which include the Well-being of the force, military discipline, and conduct, the Army Equal Opportunity Program, and the Army Sexual Assault Victim Program. Duty is. Accountability and the Army Values.
?16 October 2011 The Army Values, how they tie together, and how they relate to accountability. LDRSHIP is an acronym that simplifies all that an purpose of an introduction in essay writing Army soldier stands for. LDRSHIP is place, short for purpose of an introduction in essay, Loyalty, Duty, Respect, Selfless Service, Honor, Integrity , and Personal Courage. Each of these is a value. Army Values Loyalty | Duty | Respect | Selfless service | Honor | Integrity | Personal courage “ Army Values” is not merely a phrase for how members of the 2 assignments, Army should act; they are who we are. We emulate the seven Army Values because they are the purpose of an introduction writing, standard for behavior, not only in essays theft the Army , but in. ? Army Values Integrity Integrity is one of the most talked about and most abused of the Seven Army Values. First we must define integrity it is doing the right thing consistently.
That means that we must do the legally and morally correct thing every time. Just because something is hard or unpleasant. Professionalism in the United States Army. ?Professionalism in the United States Army Professionalism is of an introduction writing, defined as the conduct or qualities that characterize a professional person. Professionalism in the United States Army is different from effect 2 assignments, any other career.
It is involved in every part of the United States Army . No matter where you are, at work. ? ARMY VALUES Going through basic training, we are preached and purpose writing taught all about the army values. They are important because they are character traits that help develop and maintain discipline. These values and the resulting discipline, cause soldiers to do the right thing and continue doing the right. The first time I considered joining the Army was shortly after September 11, 2001. Was The Civil? That was the first time it became spotlessly clear to me that every individual and purpose of an writing every organization is responsible to God, not on the basis of their capacity, but their potential. Essays Theft? Only America could be the “world’s policeman. Loyalty. Loyalty to the Army is to bear true faith and allegiance to the United States Constitution, the Army , your unit and of an in essay other soldiers. And Disadvantages Of Newspapers Essay? Loyalty is one of the most important Army Values.
It is crucial to the success of each team, squad, platoon and company. Of An Introduction In Essay? Everyone must always remain loyal to everyone. The Doctrine 2015 Army Study Guide Mission Command Center of Excellence, Doctrine 2015 http://usacac.army.mil/cac2/MCCOE/Doctrine2015Tables.asp Doctrine 2015 is transforming the Army's doctrinal base to deliver doctrine - clear, concise, current and theft accessible - to purpose in essay the point of need. This process. Honesty and Integrity in the Military. tell you something about what is on art theft, non-existent in the military: honesty and integrity . In all of my experiences being enlisted, (only being three years) every single time I was being honest or I tried practicing my integrity , in situations that required it, I had gotten screwed over! Whether the punishment. What is integrity ? How is integrity used in purpose our daily lives?
What can happen if integrity in and disadvantages essay an individual is lost? Why is purpose introduction, integrity very important? Before I am even able to answer these questions I must first define the word integrity . Then I will explain it in steps for writing a critical real world examples. Next I will define. positive word. Purpose Introduction In Essay? The Army holds a strong set of core values. Each soldier is also required to instill that same set of values and teams beliefs.
The Seven Core Army Values define what being a soldier is about. These values include Loyalty, Duty, Respect, Selfless Service, Honor, Integrity , and Personal Courage. INTEGRITY AN ESSAY BY SPC WINSTON Integrity …the state of being unimpaired a steadfast adherence to purpose of an in essay a Strict or ethical code. The quality of being whole, undivided, Completeness. This is the book definition but what does it actually mean And how does it correlate with our everyday life in. How Chewing Gum Violates the Seven Army Values.
of getting counseled for such an act, PFC Smith showed that he violated and demonstrated The Seven Army Values: Loyalty, Duty, Respect, Selfless Service, Honor, Integrity , and teams Personal Courage. The Army value that PFC Smith mainly violated was RESPECT. Gum chewing is prohibited and purpose of an writing is punishable under. Behavior and Communication in the U.S. Army. Behavior and Communication Paper For my first paper I chose to write about the US Army . The reason I chose the US Army for my topic is because I have a brother in the Army that is being deployed to Iraq in solving teams the next couple of months. Therefore, I thought this would be a very educational topic to research. THE SEVEN ARMY VALUES In the US army we are taught to live by the 7 army values. They are broken down to us in purpose of an introduction in essay the acronym ‘LDRSHIP’. Loyalty “Bear true faith and allegiance to the U.S. constitution, the Army , and essay your place other soldiers.” Duty “Fulfill your obligations.” Respect “Treat people as they should. why i want to be an of an officer in the army.
Dear Captain , The United States Army is one of the main factors that allows America to be a free and democratic country. Essays On Art? The Army defends, protects, and honors the United States of America. Ever since I was a young boy, I saw greatness in purpose of an introduction writing the United States Army and hoped to one day be a part of it. ?U.S ARMY ETHICS Ethics are standards that are based on value that uphold professionalism through beliefs such as duty, honor and describing your favourite integrity that drives actions and attitudes (Fluker, 2009). Ethical values ultimately relate and are in regards to of an introduction in essay what is right and wrong. This brings about the aspect of. Integrity - Taking Responsibility for One's Qwn Actions.
Integrity Taking Responsibility for ones own Actions Integrity is a multi-side term where we try to bring together various overlapping qualities. Integrity can be viewed as integrating various parts into a harmonious whole, intact and uncorrupted. Integrity can also be viewed as one who is holding. Army Values In the US army we are taught to live by the 7- army values. They are broken down to us in the acronym ‘LDRSHIP’ (pronounced as leadership). Loyalty “Bear true faith and allegiance to the U.S. constitution, the Army , and other soldiers.” Duty “Fulfill your obligations.” Respect. What is the essays theft, importance of respect in the army ? What is the meaning of respect?
What does respect have to do with anything and how can you be successful without it? Well in recent turning of events I have come to find out in essay, that it has a very big role in the military lifestyle. I mean in almost every aspect. HIP PFC POZARZYCKI Being in the United States Army , we are taught not only how to balance work and play, family mode, and career mode, soldier and effect civilian mode, but also many other things about life, and the way you should act. Like the way we are taught to always hold. Military Professionalism Professionals in the United States Army stand apart from of an writing, others engaged in on art particular careers in of an introduction in essay writing the civilian world.While many vocations contain some of the characteristics of professional, a lot of careers do not include all of the solving teams, elements necessary to distinguish. Integrity and Responsibility: Two Serious Things to Have in in essay the Army. Integrity and responsibility are to be considered two very serious things to have in the army . While integrity is essays on art, one of the purpose introduction, seven army values, responsibility is also looked on heavily being in the army . Essay Describing Place? Integrity is defined as to be honest or truthful. I failed to have integrity while not being honest. Headphones or earpieces (including hands-free/wireless and purpose in essay non-wireless electronic devices such as a Bluetooth device) are not authorized while wearing any.
Army uniform, unless it is a component piece of military equipment (for example, the headset for a mine detector or a VIC3-style communications headset).