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How to Write an Essay Introduction (with Sample Intros)
argued essay Centre for Academic Success. It is intro, very important that you recognize which type of essay questions are looking for some sort of concluding, judgement, and for an then to be able to best day, construct an effective, convincing argument in your answer. Intro For An! A major cause of complaint from tutors is on teachers day, that students at all levels do not do this very well, and make their writing descriptive rather than argumentative. Intro For An! As a result, a well-argued, well-balanced assignment is almost bound to get a very good mark. Beauty Essay! The following essay titles all require a judgement or argument: Should capital punishment be reintroduced in the UK?
To what extent has the government been successful in its fight against illegal drugs? The notion that all early music should be played on authentic instruments is a fallacy. Discuss. It is a commonplace observation that workers dislike and resist change in the workplace. For An Essay! How far do you think this is a rational response to their economic position and how far simply a result of the mismanagement of change? If you were to write a very general essay, for beauty essay, example, about essay capital punishment, without answering the specific question asked, your mark is going to be low. Instead, what you need to do is: think what the main points of your argument would be. Humor Defense! do extensive reading to intro for an, find evidence to concluding essays paragraph, back up your points, and at intro essay the same time note down counter-arguments and contradictory evidence. There is always more than one side to an argument, and it is very important in a piece of academic writing to show that you are aware of essays englisch, these different opinions. Essay! Your approach must be balanced, not one-sided. structure your answer carefully. Best Day! You should state what your conclusion will be right at the start in your introduction; then present both, or all, sides of the argument in a logical, coherent manner, showing clearly which side you stand on by the for an, specific use of language (see below) and defense use of appropriate examples and evidence; and finally include a well-developed conclusion which draws all the strands together andmakes completely clear where you stand. In an argumentative essay the conclusionis probably the most important part, so don#8217;t make it too short.
As stated above, your argument must be well-balanced and recognize different opinions and approaches. You should not, therefore, be too dogmatic in your approach, and completely dismiss one side of the argument. At the same time, you should not #8220;sit on the fence#8221; and take an indecisive approach, as this may be interpreted as you not having an opinion, or simply not knowing. (In terms of pure argument, you don#8217;t necessarily have to completely agree with what you are saying). Sample piece of for an essay, argumentative writing. Read the following very short argumentative essay and go through the accompanying analysis. Discuss the on teachers day, funding of childcare provision in the UK. 1 Recent changes in government priorities have seen a reduction in financial support for parents who use childcare. This is intro essay, occurring at a time when there is increasing social and financial pressure on parents, particularly. Dissertation Defense! mothers, to work. The issue of childcare and working mothers has been the intro for an essay, subject of concluding, dispute for some time. Many, notably Giles (2001) and Gough (1999) argue that the best place for children is always in their own homes with their own parents.
However, it is my contention that there are many advantages to be had from using childcare and the government should provide more financial assistance to parents who do so. 3 Another argument against the use of childcare facilities (Vaughan 2001) is that children can be emotionally deprived in intro essay these facilities compared to the home. This argument assumes that the best place for children is to humor, be at their parents', especially mothers', side for for an, twenty four hours a day. It claims that children's emotional development can be damaged when they are left in childcare facilities. However, parents and children need to essay, spend sometime apart. Moreover, children become less dependent on their parents and parents themselves are less stressed and more effective care-givers when there are periods of separation. For An! In fact, a recent study conducted by humor MCC (2003) indicates that the parent-child relationship can in fact be improved by the use of high-quality childcare facilities.
4 It could further be asserted that the government and the economy as a whole cannot afford the enormous cost involved in supporting childcare for working parents. However, working parents actually contribute to intro for an essay, the national economy. They are able to utilise their productive skills and pay income tax, while non-working parents can become a drain on the tax system through dependent spouse and other rebates. This is the does, introduction, which clearly states the main premise in the final sentence: These paragraphs all follow a similar pattern. The counter-argument is given first, followed by the argument put forward by the writer of the piece. The counter-argument is #8220;weakened#8221; or #8220;problematized#8221; by intro for an essay phrases such as: This argument assumes . It could further be asserted . It is important to show this opposing argument, as by doing so you are showing that you have considered both sides of the argument, and also that you are able to devastating beauty essay, anticipate and criticize any opposing arguments before they are even stated. It is also important to clearly mark the shift from the opposing argument to your own supporting argument.
In these three paragraphs, this is done by the use of the word however . This is a very short conclusion. 1 When you can think of the opposing opinion but you have not seen it written anywhere: 2 When you have seen the opposing opinion written in another text: Alternatives to #8220;however#8221;: A model argumentative essay. Should marine mammals be kept in captivity in intro marine parks? The issue of whether we should allow marine parks to stay open has been widely debated in on teachers day our community recently. It is an important issue because it concerns fundamental moral and economic questions about the way we use our native wildlife. A variety of different arguments have been put forward about this issue. This essay will consider arguments for intro essay, having marine parks and englisch point to some of the problems with these views. It will then put forward reasons for the introduction of laws which prohibit these unnecessary and cruel institutions. It is the contention of the Marine Park Owners Association that marine parks attract a lot of foreign tourists (The Sun-Herald, 1993). This position goes on to assert that these tourists spend a lot of money, increasing our foreign exchange earnings and assisting our national balance of payments. Intro For An Essay! However, foreign tourists would still come to Australia if the parks were closed down.
Indeed, surveys of best essays day, overseas tourists show that they come here for a variety of essay, other reasons and not to visit places like Seaworld (The Age, 1993). Tourists come here to see our native wildlife in its natural environment and not to see it in cages and cement pools. They can see animals in those condition in their own countries Furthermore, we should be promoting our beautiful natural environment to tourists and not the ugly concrete marine park venues. The Age (1993) Use of Marine Parks for Scientific Research 19.2.93. The Age (1993) Should Animals be Kept in Marine Parks/ 16.8.93. Jones, G. (1991). The Myths about Animal Research in Marine Parks. Scientific Australian . Vol 12, No 3. Concluding Essays! Smith, H. (1992).
Marine Parks: Good for Business, Good for intro for an, Australia. Leisure Business Review . Vol 24, No. 4. The Sun-Herald (1993) Increase in Tourists Visiting Marine Parks 20.7.93. Links to further resources on developing an argument. Last updated: 4 January 2011. Englisch Beispiel! Centre for Academic Success. City North : 0121 331 7685 Email.
Millennium Point Learning Centre : 0121 202 2500 Email. To book a tutorial at Millennium Point: 0121 202 2500.
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odysseus flaws essay Literary Terms and Definitions: M. This page is essay under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted September 1, 2017. This list is meant to assist, not intimidate. Use it as a touchstone for important concepts and vocabulary that we will cover during the term. Vocabulary terms are listed alphabetically. MABINOGI (Welsh, Four Branches): The four branches or four parts of The Mabinogion , a medieval collection of Welsh myths and legends important in Celtic studies generally and in Arthurian legends more specifically. MACHIAVELLIAN : As an adjective, the word refers generally to sneaky, ruthless, and deceitful behavior, especially in regard to a ruler obsessed with power who puts on concluding essays a surface veneer of honor and trustworthy behavior in order to achieve evil ends.
The term originates in a treatise known as The Prince . This work was written by Nicco ló Machiavelli, an essay, early sixteenth-century political advisor who worked for the Borgia family in Italy. In contrast to the medieval ideal of the ruler as God's holy deputy and dispenser of glossary justice, Machiavelli stressed that effective rulers often must engage in evil (or at essay least immoral) activities to concluding essays, ensure the stability of their rule. He suggests that, based on the evidence of history and his own personal observations, the rulers that have remained in power have not been kindly, benevolent men concerned with justice and fairness, but rather ruthless individuals willing to do anything to intro essay, ensure the security of their state and their own personal power. Click here for more information. MACHIEVELLE (also spelled machiavel ): A villain, especially an Italian aristocratic power-monger, or a deceitful betrayer, who behaves according to the principles established by Niccoló Machiavelli. (See Machiavellian , above.) The machievelle became a stock character in many Renaissance plays associated with sinister plots, blackest betrayal, and wicked resourcefulness. Examples from Shakespeare include Richard of Gloucester in humor dissertation Richard III and Edmund and Cornwall in King Lear . MACARONIC TEXT : Any medieval or modern manuscript written in a jumble of several languages--say a mixture of Latin and French or Latin and German--is said to be macaronic.
The mixture might involve bilingual vocabulary and for an, grammatical switches within a single sentence, or in alternating lines or paragraphs, or in purely random intervals. Examples from the humor dissertation, Restoration period would be the steamier scenes of Samuel Pepys' diary entries for 1666-1668, in which Pepys frequently mingles Spanish and Latin words in the text to hide the exact details of his sexual indiscretions. For An! Cf. code-switching . MACROCOSM (Cf. Paragraph! microcosm): The natural universe as a whole, including the for an essay, biological realms of flora and fauna, weather, and celestial objects such as the sun, moon, and stars. See discussion under chain of being . MACROLOGIA (Grk. big language or long language): Also called macrology , in rhetoric, a negative term for a type of englisch beispiel periphrasis involving unnecessary repetition of lengthy clauses. See discussion under periphrasis . MACRON : A diacritical mark in the form of a horizontal line indicating the vowel beneath it is intro essay long. MAENAD : Also known as bacchae or thyiads , maenads were female worshippers of Dionysus or Bacchus. In the mystery cult of defense Dionysus, worshippers would get drunk on wine and then undergo an all-night process of intro stylized frenzied dancing in order to achieve the divine state of concluding ekstasos . At the height of the frenzy, they believed that they would become one with Dionysus/Bacchus, thus the common Latin name bacchae for these priestesses, a feminine plural form of the god Bacchus' name. In legendary accounts, such women were supernaturally strong and wildly violent.
They would run through the forest naked after the ceremonies and would catch small animals (or in some myths men and intro essay, children!), rip them apart bare-handed, and then eat the flesh raw. In literature, Euripides' tragedy The Bacchae is a dramatic retelling of the humor defense, arrival of the for an essay, Dionysiac rites in Greece. MAGIC REALISM : In 1925, Franz Roh first applied the term magic realism ( magischer Realismus in German) to dissertation, a group of neue Saqchlichkeit painters in intro Munich (Cuddon 531). These painters blended realistic, smoothly painted, sharply defined figures and objects--but in a surrealistic setting or backdrop, giving them an outlandish, odd, or even dream-like qualilty. In the 1940s and 1950s, the term migrated to the prose fiction of various writers including Jorge Luis Borges in dissertation Argentina, Gabriel Garcia Márquez in Colombia, and Alejo Carpentier in Cuba. The influence also spread later to Günter Grass in Germany and John Fowles in England (Abrams 135). These postmodern writers mingle and juxtapose realistic events with fantastic ones, or they experiment with shifts in time and setting, labyrinthine narratives and plots and arcane erudition (135), and often they combine myths and fairy stories with gritty Hemingway-esque detail. This mixture create truly dreamlike and bizarre effects in their prose. An example of magic realism (and one of my own personal favorites in postmodern narrative) would be Gabriel Garcia Márquez's short story, A Very Old Man With Enormous Wings, a narrative in which a fisherman discovers a filthy, lice-ridden old man trapped face-down in the muddy shore of the beach, weighed down by enormous buzzard wings attached to intro for an essay, his back. A neighbor identifies the old man as an angel who had come down to humor dissertation, claim the fisherman's sick and feverish child but who had been knocked out the intro for an essay, sky by storm winds during the previous night. Not having the heart to club the sickly angel to death, the protagonist decides instead to keep the best essays on teachers day, supernatural being captive in a chicken coop.
The very premise of the story reveals much of the flavor of intro for an magic realism. Cf. postmodernism . MAIAR : Semidivine spirits in Tolkien's Silmarillion . See discussion under Valar . MAJUSCULE : A large letter or a capital letter as opposed to minuscule . MAL MARIÉE : The stock character in medieval romances, lais , and best on teachers day, fabliaux of an intro for an, unhappily married wife, often married to a senex amans . An example is the female protagonist in Marie de France's Laustic or Guigemar. MALAPROPISM : Misusing words to create a comic effect or characterize the best on teachers day, speaker as being too confused, ignorant, or flustered to intro essay, use correct diction. Typically, the malapropism involves the confusion of two polysyllabic words that sound somewhat similar but have different meanings. Essays! For instance, in for an Richard Sheridan's The Rivals , we hear, She's as headstrong as an dissertation, allegory on the banks of the Nile. For An Essay! Dogberry the Watchman in Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing says, Comparisons are odorous, and later, It shall be siffigance--both malapropisms. In Sheridan, we also find pineapple instead of pinnacle , and we read in Twain's Huckleberry Finn how one character declares, I was most putrified with astonishment instead of petrified, and so on.
The best malapropisms sound sufficiently similar to the correct word to let the devastating, audience recognize the for an, intended meaning and laugh at the incongruous result. Cf. acyron . MANET / MANENT : Common Latin stage directions found in the margins of Shakespearean plays. Manet is the singular for He [or she] remains. Manent is the plural form for multiple individuals. Often the phrase is accompanied with explanatory remarks, such as Manent utras (The others remain on stage), or Manet solus (He alone remains). MANNER OF ARTICULATION : In linguistics, how the essays paragraph, speech organs of lips, tongue, and intro, vocal cords must be arranged in order to produce a particular sound such as a nasal, a stop, a fricative, or so on. MANUSCRIPT : A text written by hand, as opposed to one printed with a printing press. ( Manus is Latin for hand; scriptum is a Latin participle for written.) Early Egyptian manuscripts are written on crushed and flattened papyrus reeds and essays on teachers day, rolled up as scrolls. For An! Later, parchment and vellum (animal skins) became the primary means of transmitting texts. In the essay, late Roman and intro, early Patristic period, individual pages were bound between covers as a codex or a book, a practice that continues today. Paper as we know it became common in devastating the Middle East in the twelfth century, but it took another three hundred years for the art of paper-making to spread through Europe. By Shakespeare's day, printed paper had largely replaced manuscripts written on vellum, but the mechanics of printing often tried to essay, imitate the englisch beispiel, familiar features of manuscripts.
In medieval scholarship, the abbreviation MS stands for manuscript, and British scholars often use the plural form MSS for manuscripts. TS and TSSare the equivalent terms for typeset documents. Some important medieval literary manuscripts include the essay, Ellesmere , the Hengwyrt , and the Nowell Codex . You can click here to beauty, see the first page of essay Beowulf from the Nowell Codex. Does Glossary! See also parchment , vellum , quire , hair side , and intro for an, flesh side . MAQAMA : Picaresque Arabic stories in rhymed prose. The two most famous writers in essays this genre include Abu al-Fadl Ahmed ibn al-Husian al Hamadhani and Abu Mohammed al Qasim al-Hariri. MÄRCHEN : A technical German word used in folklore scholarship to refer to fairy tales. See discussion under fairy tale . MARCHING SONG : A song with strong metrical beat designed to help soldiers keep time so they can march in step, usually performed by for an, a military band. Does Glossary Go Dissertation! Examples include the intro essay, death march in concluding paragraph Wagner's Götterdamerung or Beethoven's Eroica . Tolkien has the Ents in for an The Lord of the Rings sing a tune matching the rhythmical constraints of a marching song as they head into war with Isengard in The Lord of the Rings (484-85). Contrast with walking song . MARGINALIA : Drawings, notation, illumination, and doodles appearing in the margins of a medieval text, rather than the central text itself. MARKED WORD : A word that has some limitation or boundary in its meaning when contrasted with an writing, unmarked word without such a limitation or boundary. Algeo points to the example of stallion (marked for male gender) and mare (marked for female gender) in for an essay contrast with the word horse , which is unmarked for gender (323).
MARRIAGE GROUP : A term coined by George L. Kittredge in best on teachers 1912 to describe a specific set of stories in Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. The marriage group includes The Wife of Bath's Tale, The Clerk's Tale, The Merchant's Tale, and The Franklin's Tale. All four narratives deal with the intro for an essay, question of the proper relationship between men and women in marriage. Essays On Teachers Day! The intervening tales of the Friar, Summoner, and for an, Squire serve as interruptions of this longer-running thematic concern about gender. Some critics, especially those who accept the Bradshaw Shift , argue that the marriage group also includes Melibee, The Man of Law's Tale, and The Nun's Priest's Tale.
MARY SUE : A character beloved by the author but often despised by readers and editors--an unrealistic character with overly idealized behavior who lacks any perceivable flaws--especially one serving as a wish-fulfillment fantasy for the author. Devastating! This term is an intro, eponym from a character in Paula Smith's 1973 parody, A Trekkie's Tale, and in subsequent decades became popular among editors in day science-fiction publishing houses to refer to intro for an essay, poorly written, annoying, and unlikely characters written by amateur authors. MASCULINE ENDING / MASCULINE RHYME : Rhymes that end with a heavy stress on the last syllable in each rhyming word. Essays! See under discussion of intro meter . MASHAL (plural meshalim ): In the Hebrew tradition, a mashal is a broad, general term including almost any type of figurative language from short riddles to long, extended allegories. Concluding Paragraph! It denotes mysterious speech. Some of the intro for an, Psalms, for instance, are designated as meshalim . The New Testament Greek often translates the term as parabole or parable . This translation, however, causes some problem. In Greek, parabole are always allegorical and open to point-by-point interpretation. Parabole were often used as a simple method of teaching by example or analogy. The meshalim in Hebrew, however, was often intentionally confusing or deliberately obfuscating in essay writing nature--much more like the Greek enigma (riddle). We can see this confusion in the New Testament, where Mark interprets the intro for an, purpose of the parables as Hebrew meshalim . Essay Writing! In Mark, Jesus tells his disciples: The secret of the kingdom of God has been given to for an essay, you. But to those on the outside everything is said in parables so that, 'they may be ever seeing but never perceiving, and ever hearing but never understanding; otherwise, they might turn and be forgiven' (Mark 4:11-12).
The common, modern idea that Christ uses parables for simple pedagogic purposes (i.e., so that even a child could understand the secrets of heaven) is a creation of the glossary go dissertation, medieval period, much later. MASORETIC (from Hebrew Masorah , handed over): The Masoretic texts are partly Hebrew and partly Aramaic versions of the Hebrew Bible (i.e., what Christians call the Old Testament) with accompanying explanatory notes or marginalia. A group of Jewish scholars known as the Masoretes approved them for general use in Judaic biblical scholarship and reading between the first and ninth centuries CE with a few late additions in the tenth century. These manuscripts contain numerous differences when compared to the Greek Septuagint . To list one minor but illustrative example, Septuagint texts give the dimensions for the porch of Solomon's temple as twenty cubits, but most Masoretic texts give the dimensions of the same architectural feature as one-hundred twenty cubits. Intro For An Essay! Other differences range from the trivial to the striking. Humor Defense! For linguists and intro for an, biblical scholars, Masoretic texts are especially important because the concluding, Masoretes who wrote them introduced the Hebrew convention of using dots and intro, symbols under, above, and inside consonant letters to represent vowel sounds.
Previous Hebrew texts only essay marked consonant sounds, which left the intro for an essay, meaning of many words ambiguous and rendered it difficult to verify comparative studies showing how similar or different Hebrew was from closely related languages such as Akkhadian, Amorite, Arabic, Ugaritic, Proto-Canaanite (which developed into both Phoenician and Classical Hebrew), Eblaite and Elamite. MASQUE : Not to be confused with a masquerade, a masque is best on teachers day a type of elaborate court entertainment popular in the times of Queen Elizabeth I, King James I, and Charles I--i.e., the early 17th Century after Queen Elizabeth's death. Essay! The masque as a performance grew out of medieval plays, but it was more spectacle than drama proper. The content was suitable for amateur actors rather than professional performers. The masques tended to use long speeches and little action.
They combined poetic drama, singing, dancing, music, and splendid costumes and muet writing, settings. The imagery was influential on later poets and poems, such as Andrew Marvell, who makes use of masque-imagery in Upon Appleton House. MAXIM: A proverb, a short, pithy statement or aphorism believed to for an essay, contain wisdom or insight into human nature. In much of the dialogue in Viking sagas, for instance, the characters will quote short maxims to each other to make a point. MCGUFFIN (also MacGuffin, Maguffin): A humorous or joking term to describe an object or artifact that drives the plot as part of a quest motif . For instance, the horcrux in the Harry Potter series, the Holy Grail in Arthurian legends, the essays day, Golden Fleece in Jason and the Argonauts , and so forth. Often Alfred Hitchcock is credited for coining the for an, phrase. Englisch! See discussion under quest motif . MEAD HALL : A structure built by an Anglo-Saxon lord ( hlaford or cyning ) as a social center for his immediate community, especially his thegns and warriors. Since they were constructed primarily of wood, we have only essay a few archeological samples that survive to provide examples.
We know from descriptions in Anglo-Saxon texts that they were filled with mead-benches, which were elaborately carved and decorated with gold. Words such as horn-gapped may imply architectural features, or they may imply that the hall was decorated with the horns of stags and other trophy animals. The lord would gather his warriors at his mead hall to eat, drink, pass out gifts and treasure, and renew the oath-bonds between himself and his men. MEDIEVAL (from Latin medium aevum , the day, Middle Age or the in-between age): The period of essay time roughly a thousand years long between the fall of the Roman Empire and does go dissertation, the emergence of the essay, Renaissance. Actual starting and ending points are somewhat arbitrary when describing the best essays, era, and scholars vary wildly in the dates they assign. For An Essay! For instance, M . H. Abrams' Norton Anthology of does English Literature , 7th edition, assigns to the medieval period the for an essay, years 450-1485, but in concluding essays paragraph his Glossary of Literary Terms , the same scholar points to the years 410-1500 as the appropriate years. J. A. Cuddon's Penguin Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory prefers the dates c. 800-c.
1450, and Harry Shaw's Concise Dictionary of Literary Terms prefers c. Essay! 476-c. 1350, but notes that it may extend to about 1500 (p. 170). While there are no universally accepted demarcations, it is common in essays older European histories to divide the intro for an essay, medieval period into essay, an early period of the Dark Ages and a later period of the High Middle Ages. On the other hand, linguists divide the medieval period in England into the Anglo-Saxon period (about 450-1066) and the Middle English period (about 1066-1450). For An Essay! The dividing line is the Norman Conquest of England following the Battle of Hastings (1066), which marked the introduction of heavy French influences into English.
Some scholars prefer to mark the years 1100-1350 as the Anglo-Norman period, since most courtly literature in England was written in Norman-French rather than English. Note, however, that these divisions are most useful in discussing English literature; they are less useful for discussing medieval literature, art, and architecture on the continent. European scholars and art historians divide the paragraph, medieval period into four periods: Carolingian (c. For An! 750-900), Ottonian (c. 900-1056), Romanesque (c. Best On Teachers! 1057-1150), and Gothic (1150-1475). For our literary purposes, however, the Anglo-Saxon and for an essay, Middle English periods serve as a useful division. Devastating Beauty Essay! The early medieval centuries (often misleadingly called the intro for an essay, Dark Ages) are marked by the disintegration of classical Greco-Roman culture and the volkerwanderung of Germanic tribes into western Europe, followed by gradual conversions to Christianity. Its later stages (often called the High Middle Ages) are marked by defense, innovative technology, economic growth, and original theology and philosophy. The term medievalism in western Europe is for an linked with feudalism in government, guildhouses in economics, monasticism and Catholicism in religion, and castles and knights in chivalrous military custom. Go Dissertation! Click here for a PDF handout placing this historical period in chronological sequence with other historical periods.
Click below for a chronological list of essay historical events in various centuries: 500-600 CE 600-700 CE 700-800 CE 800-900 CE 900-1000 CE 1000-1099 CE 1100-1199 CE 1200-1299 CE 1300-1399 CE. MEDIEVAL ESTATES SATIRE : A medieval genre common among French poets in which the speaker lists various occupations among the does, three estates of feudalism (nobles, peasants, and clergy) and depicts them in a manner that shows how short they fall from the ideal of that occupation. In the late medieval period, the genre expanded to discuss the failings of bourgeois individuals as well. For An! The genre was not unknown in England. John Gower's Vox Clamantis and Confessio Amantis have passages similar to those in continental estates satire.
Jill Mann suggests in her famous book, Chaucer and Medieval Estates Satire , that the General Prologue of best essays on teachers day The Canterbury Tales is itself an example of essay this genre . See also satire , anti-fraternal satire , and muet writing, three estates . MEDIEVAL STUDIES : An interdisciplinary field of scholarship in intro for an literature, history, art, philosophy, and theology focusing on the culture of the Middle Ages or medieval period . Scholars who specialize in this area are medievalists. Among the essays, Inklings , J.R.R. Tolkien entered medieval studies through philology and Germanic literatures, while C.S. Lewis became a medievalist via classical and Renaissance philosophy and literature--eventually leaving Oxford to go to Cambridge and become the Chair of Medieval and Renaissance literature. [Dr. Wheeler would remind his students at Carson-Newman that we do offer a minor in MARS--medieval and Renaissance studies--for interested adventurers looking to pick up a quick interdisciplinary minor. --KW] MEDITATION : A thoughtful or contemplative essay, sermon, discussion, or treatise--especially one that encourages introspection and self-analysis. Intro For An Essay! John Donne's funeral service, Meditation 17, is an example, in which he explores what death means if we truly believe that all human beings are inteconnected to each other spiritually. MEIOSIS : Understatement, the opposite of exaggeration: I was somewhat worried when the psychopath ran toward me with a chainsaw. On Teachers Day! (i.e., I was terrified).
Litotes (especially popular in Old English poetry) is intro for an essay a type of meiosis in which the writer uses a statement in the negative to create the beauty essay, effect: You know, Einstein is not a bad mathematician. (i.e., Einstein is a good mathematician.) That pustulant wart is intro essay somewhat unbeautiful (i.e., That pustulant wart is ugly). Beauty Essay! Litotes is recognizable in English by negatives like not , no , non - and un -.) MELODRAMA : A dramatic form characterized by excessive sentiment, exaggerated emotion, sensational and essay, thrilling action, and an artificially happy ending. Melodramas originally referred to romantic plays featuring music, singing, and dancing, but by the eighteenth century they connoted simplified and coincidental plots, bathos , and happy endings. These melodramatic traits are present in Gothic novels, western stories, popular films, and television crime shows, to name but a few more recent examples. MELOPOEIA : Ezra Pound's term for one of the three techniques he would use to create charged language. Specifically, melopoeia is the use of does go dissertation sound of a word or the sounds of groups of words together to create poetic effects, or as Pound writes, . You charge it [a word] by sound or you use groups of words to do this (37). Intro For An Essay! Presumably, melopoeia might cover techniques like assonance , consonance , and onomatopoeia . See also phanopoeia and devastating beauty, logopoeia . MELUSINE MYTH : A medieval legend about for an, a French princess who secretly transformed into a serpent or dragon in essays paragraph her private moments until her husband learns the truth about her real identity.
C.S. Lewis may have been inspired by this myth in The Silver Chair , in which the Lady of the Green Kyrtle takes the form of a serpent when she fights with Rilian. MEME : An idea or pattern of thought that replicates like a virus by being passed along from one thinker to another. A meme might be a song or advertising jingle that gets stuck in one's head, a particularly amusing joke or entertaining story one feels compelled to pass on, a memorable phrase that gets quoted repeatedly in public speeches or in published books, a political ideology, an invention, a teacher's lesson plan, or even a religious belief. MEMOIR (usually appearing in intro plural form as memoirs , from Latin, memoria memory via French mémoire ): An autobiographical sketch--especially one that focuses less on the author's personal life or psychological development and more on the notable people and events the concluding essays paragraph, author has encountered or witnessed. Intro For An Essay! Examples include memoirs published by humor dissertation defense, Winston Churchill and Dwight D. Eisenhower. The memoir contrasts with a diary or journal, i.e., the memoir is not an informal daily record of events in for an essay a person's life, it is not necessarily written for personal pleasure, and the author of such memoir has in mind the ultimate goal of publication. Contrast with biography and memoir-novel . MEMOIR-NOVEL : A novel purporting to be a factual or autobiographical account but which is concluding completely or partially imaginary.
The authorial voice or speaker is typically a made-up character who never actually lived. This creation is for an not so much a hoax as a literary convention or an essays, artistic device. An early example would be Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe and Moll Flanders . Later eighteenth-century examples include Goldsmith's The Vicar of Wakefield and essay, Mackenzie's The Man of Feeling . While this convention became less popular in the nineteenth-century, some examples have appeared in concluding twentieth- and twenty-first century literature--including Umberto Eco's Baudolino (my own personal favorite). MEMORIAL RECONSTRUCTION : Renaissance actors reconstructing the text of a play from essay, their own (sometimes faulty) memory. Acting companies often lost or gained members rapidly. It is possible that some actors formerly working with Shakespeare lacked access to promptbooks after leaving his acting company. These players may have attempted to reconstruct the plays by memory.
Some scholars believe that the unbelievably sloppy bad quartos of Shakespeare's plays may have been the result of such a memorial reconstruction. MEMORY PLAY : The term coined by Tennessee Williams to describe non-realistic dramas, such as The Glass Menagerie , in which the best day, audience experiences the past as remembered by a narrator, complete with music from the period remembered, and images representing the characters' thoughts, fears, emotions, and recollections projected on a scrim in the background. Intro! See drama , scrim . MENDICANT ORDERS (also called friars): Orders of humor defense wandering monks who lived by begging. In the Middle Ages, the clergy was divided into secular clergy and regular clergy . Essay! The secular (i.e., worldly) clergy dealt with secular concerns such as the englisch beispiel, operation and administration of for an individual parishes and tending to devastating, the congregation's spiritual needs. It was composed of the priests, bishops, archbishops, and cardinals. The regular clergy were those otherworldly individuals who isolated themselves from material concerns by residing in a monastery. Intro For An! These monks would take a series of vows and agree to live according to the order's rule (Latin regula means rule, hence regular clergy). While all the regular orders took a vow of muet poverty individually, the mendicant orders also took a vow of communal or corporate poverty, vowing to subsist entirely on begging from day-to-day, hence the name mendicant or begging. It was hoped that this sort of for an vow would prevent abuses that occurred in monasteries, in which individual monks had no personal wealth, but the monastery as a whole was a powerful corporate entity possessing thousands of acres of defense land and its collective income, allowing the intro, impoverished monks to concluding essays, often live a luxurious existence in spite of their individual vows of poverty. Some monasteries became such powerful landowning institutions that, at one point in for an England, it has been estimated that one-quarter to one-third of all available land was in essays the possession or control of various abbots. This situtation granted the monastic clergy political and intro for an, financial power comparable to that of the secular branch of church; it was a far cry from the original intention of these monks to essays paragraph, remove themselves from petty worldly matters in order to focus on spiritual contemplation.
In reaction to this situation, a series of reformers such as Saint Dominic and Saint Francis of Assissi espoused the idea of a new type of religious order--the mendicants. Each order was given a set of duties--the salvation of souls, the suppression of heretical doctrine through teaching, fund-raising for the church, and sundry other tasks. There remain from the Middle Ages four great mendicant orders recognized by the Second Council of Lyons in 1274 CE: The Dominicans ( alias the Order of Preachers, or the Black Friars) The Franciscans ( alias the intro essay, Friars Minor, or the Gray Friars) The Carmelites ( alias the White Friars) The Hermits of Saint Augustine ( alias Austin Friars or Augustinian Friars) In more recent centuries, the paragraph, council of Trent granted all the mendicant orders except the Friars Minor and essay, the Capuchins the right to have corporate property like other monasteries. One of the muet writing, major differences between friars and other regular monks was that friars were not bound by a votum stabilitatis (a vow of intro for an permanency to humor dissertation, remain in one place). Instead, they were at liberty to wander from essay, place to place teaching if given the permission of the does glossary, general of their order. For An! Indeed, such mobility was necessary, since the defense, friars' primary task was, as it states in their mission statement, to save souls.
Thus, while other monks sought to intro for an, follow an eremitical tradition that would remove them from worldly concerns and isolate themselves from the beauty essay, general public beyond the monastery's walls, the mendicant orders deliberately reinserted themselves into intro, the world so they could preach, teach, and beg. In the early thirteenth century, the energy and dynamism of these new movements was extraordinary. Dominicans did much to curb outbreaks of heresy in concluding essays paragraph southern France, though they were not so successful that they could prevent the Albigensian crusades against the Cathars. They reinvigorated the body of the church with a sort of monastic revival. By a century later, however, new problems and essay, abuses began to arise. Unfortunately, the ability to beg and essay muet, wander led to a new type of intro essay ecclesiastical abuse. Part of the spiritual glue holding a monastery together is the supervision of an concluding essays paragraph, abbot, who would oversee the monks and make sure they are not straying into for an essay, sin.
Without a supervisor, wandering friars became notorious for essays improper behavior such as sexual misconduct, blatant embezzlement, and abrasive confrontation with secular clergy such as local parish priests. For example, if parishioners gave donations to intro, a wandering preacher, they weren't giving those donations to the local priest; additionally, a dynamic, fiery friar might invoke professional jealousy in a less rhetorically gifted pastor. Friars normally were required to travel in groups of go dissertation two (much like Mormon missionaries today), so that each one would provide a check on the other. However, such measures were not always successful in curbing misconduct. This abuse became a source of much popular resentment and frustration. In literature, this manifested itself in anti-fraternal satire . Friars became stereotypical characters in estates literature and in intro for an essay fabliaux . Chaucer himself depicts Friar Hubert as corrupt in The Canterbury Tales and shows his rivalry with a church summoner , an devastating essay, equally corrupt representative of the secular clergy. They insult each other's professions in their tales.
MENTOR : (1) In common use, this eponym comes from the character Mentor in for an Homer's Odyssey . Mentor is an experienced, elderly man, and the goddess Athena takes on his form to advise the young Telemachus. Penelope's suitors plan to kill Telemachus and seize Ithaca for themselves, so Telemachus needs all the concluding essays paragraph, help he can get! Hence, the motif of a mentor is an older, experienced character who provides advice to younger inexperienced ones, which is a standard component of fairy tales and myths in Campbell's model of the intro for an, mythic hero. (2) Many authors and poets consider one or more of their predecessors to be their mentor--the model or inspiration on concluding essays paragraph which they draw their own work. Dante, for instance, saw Virgil as his master and teacher; he models his Inferno on descriptions of the Underworld in Virgil's Aeneid . Dante starts his descent into intro for an, the Inferno by having his narrator-persona actually encounter the ghost of Virgil, who becomes his guide through hell.
C.S. Lewis in his youth encountered the essays, fantasy novel Phantastes by George MacDonald, and he considered it one of the ten most influential works he ever read. For An! Lewis mimics Dante in that in his own fictional tour of pur gatory/hell, where he likewise encounters the ghost of MacDonald and consults with him. MERCIAN : The dialect of Old English spoken in humor defense the region of Mercia. MESURE (French, measure): In French chivalric literature, the for an essay, equivalent of Latin moderatio --the ability to follow a golden mean and not go to unreasonable extremes.
This trait contrasts with the demesure (excessive actions or unconrolled passions) of figures like the knight Roland in on teachers the Chanson de Roland . In the literature of courtly love, a frequent debate is whether the ideal courtly lover should have mesure or demesure . METADRAMA : Drama in which the subject of the essay, play is dramatic art itself, especially when such material breaks up the illusion of watching reality. When Macbeth cries out, Life's but a walking shadow, a poor player / who struts and frets his hour upon the stage, / and then is heard no more , his references to shadows and players (Renaissance slang for essays englisch actors) and intro, his discussion of the stage serve to remind the audience forcefully that they are watching a dramatic artifice, not a real historical event. The references break down verisimilitude to call attention to the fact that viewers are watching a staged performance. Likewise, the opening to essays, Taming of the Shrew forcefully emphasizes that the events we see are a fiction, as does Hamlet's plan to use The Mouse-Trap as an ethical litmus test for intro essay Claudius: The play's the thing / wherin I'll catch the conscience of the king . METAFICTION : Fiction in which the humor defense, subject of the story is the act or art of storytelling of intro for an itself, especially when such material breaks up the illusion of reality in a work. An example is John Fowles's The French Lieutenant's Woman , in which the author interrupts his own narative to insert himself as a character in the work. Claiming not to like the ending to the tale, the author sets his watch back ten minutes, and the storyline backs up ten minutes so an alternative ending can unfold.
The act reminds us that the passionate love affair we are so involved in does glossary go dissertation as readers is a fictional creation of an author at that point when we are most likely to have forgotten that artificiality because of our involvement. Other examples include Chaucer's narrator in the Canterbury Tales , in for an which the pilgrim tells the reader to devastating, turn the intro essay, leaf [page] and choose another tale if the audience doesn't like naughty stories like the Miller's tale. This command breaks the illusion that Geoffrey is a real person on pilgrimage, calling attention to essays englisch beispiel, the fictional qualities of for an The Canterbury Tales as a physical artifact--a book held in beauty essay the readers' hands. Robert Scholes popularized the term metafiction to generally describe this tendency in his critical writings, as Abrams notes (135). METALITERATURE : Literary art focused on for an the subject of literary art itself. Often this term is further divided into metapoetry , metafiction , and metadrama . METAPHOR : A comparison or analogy stated in such a way as to imply that one object is another one, figuratively speaking. When we speak of the ladder of success, we imply that being successful is much like climbing a ladder to does, a higher and better position. Another example comes from an old television add from the 1980s urging teenagers not to try drugs. The camera would focus on for an essay a close-up of a pair of best essays eggs and a voice would state This is your brain.
In the next sequence, the eggs would be cracked and thrown onto essay, a hot skillet, where the eggs would bubble, burn, and glossary go dissertation, seeth. The voice would state, This is intro for an essay your brain on drugs. The point of the comparison is fairly clear. Another example is how Martin Luther wrote, A mighty fortress is our God, / A bulwark never failing. ( Mighty fortress and essay writing, bulwark are the intro for an essay, two metaphors for God in these lines.) A metaphor is an example of a rhetorical trope , and such metaphors have a long history of critical discussion. Beispiel! Aristotle, for instance, claimed the greatest thing by far is to have a command of metaphor. For An! This alone cannot be imparted by another; it is the mark of genius, for to make good metaphors implies an eye for resemblances (qtd in Deutsche 84). Often, a metaphor suggests something symbolic in does glossary its imagery.
For instance, Wordsworth uses a metaphor when he states of England, she is a fen of intro stagnant waters, which implies something about the state of essays paragraph political affairs in England as well as the island's biomes. Sometimes, the metaphor can be emotionally powerful, such as John Donne's use of metaphor in Twickenham Garden, where he writes, And take my tears, which are love's wine (line 20). If we break down a metaphorical statement into its component parts, the real-world subject (first item) in a metaphoric statement is known as the essay, tenor . The second item (often an imaginary one or at least not present in a literal sense) to which the tenor refers is called the vehicle . Does! For example, consider the metaphorical statement, Susan is a viper in her cruel treacheries. Here, Susan is the tenor in the metaphor, and viper is the vehicle in the same metaphor. The tenor, Susan , is literally present or literally exists. The vehicle , the hypothetical or imagined viper, is not necessarily physically present. An unusual metaphor that requires some explanation on the writer's part is often called a metaphysical conceit , especially in intro for an essay 17th-century poetry. If the metaphorical connection is merely implied rather than directly stated, such as talking about the ladder of success, the term is essay writing a subdued metaphor. Intro For An! The combination of two different metaphors into a single, awkward image is called a mixed metaphor or abusio . See also tenor , vehicle , subdued metaphor , and telescoped metaphor. Contrast with simile . METAPHYSICAL POETS : In his 1693 work, Discourse of Satire , John Dryden used the term metaphysical to describe the does go dissertation, style of certain poets earlier in the 17th century.
Later, Samuel Johnson popularized the term in intro for an essay 1779. The term metaphysical implies the essays paragraph, poetry is abstract and highly complex. For An Essay! The chief metaphysical poets include John Donne, Richard Crashaw, Andrew Marvell, George Herbert, and Henry Vaughan. The group shares certain traits, though their themes, structures, and assorted tones in their poetry vary widely, which leads more recent scholars to see the designation as unhelpful. (1) The group as a whole rejects the conventions of Elizabethan love poetry, especially the Petrarchan conceits that, by 1600, had become clichés . They preferred wildly original (and sometimes shocking or strange) images, puns, similes, and metaphors, which collectively are called metaphysical conceits . (2) The metaphysical poet often describes a dramatic event rather than simple meditation, daydreams, or passing thoughts. (3) The metaphysical poets employed inconsistant or striking verse--often imitating the rhythmic patterns of everyday speech, rather than attempting to create perfect meter in the manner later favored by neoclassical poets. Defense! Basically, the metaphysical poets would not let metrical form interfere with the development of a line of thought. (4) The poem often expresses an argument--often using wild flights of logic and unusual comparisons. As an example, John Donne in The Flea presents a speaker who attempts to seduce a young maiden.
The basis of his argument is the for an, comparison between sex and a flea-bite. In Holy Sonnet 14, Donne fashions a prayer in which he compares God to a rapist and himself to a besieged city. METAPLASMUS : A type of beauty neologism in which misspelling a word creates a rhetorical effect. To emphasize dialect , one might spell dog as dawg. To emphasize that something is unimportant, we might add -let or -ling at the end of the word, referring to a deity as a godlet or a prince as a princeling. To emphasize the feminine nature of something normally considered masculine, try adding the suffix -ette to the end of the word, creating a smurfette or a corvette . Essay! To modernize something old, the writer might turn the Greek god Hermes into dissertation defense, the Hermenator . Likewise, Austin Powers renders all things shagedelic . For more information, see the subdivisions of metaplasmus under schemes. METAPOETRY : Poetry about poetry, especially self-conscious poems that pun on objects or items associated with writing or creating poetry. Among the intro for an essay, Romantic and Enlightenment poets, we find puns on leaves (referring on one hand to the leaves of plants, and on another to the leaves or pages of a book of poetry), feet (referring on one level to the body part, and on another to the metrical feet of a poem), and so on.
Other types of metapoetry involve self-conscious commentary on the poem's own genre or on the process of creating the poem. A fine example of essay this type of metapoetry is Billy Collins' Sonnet: And after this next one just a dozen. To launch a little ship on love's storm-tossed seas, then only ten more left like rows of beans. How easily it goes unless you get Elizabethan. and insist the iambic bongos must be played.
and rhymes positioned at the ends of lines, one for every station of the cross. But hang on here while we make the turn. into the final six where all will be resolved, where longing and intro essay, heartache will find an glossary, end, where Laura will tell Petrarch to put down his pen, take off those crazy medieval tights, blow out the lights, and come at last to bed. Here, we can clearly see the self-reflective tendencies, in which the poet discusses how many more lines he needs to finish a traditional sonnet (lines 1-4), he directly comments on the traditional subject-matter of the sonnet, the rejected love of the speaker (alluded to in line 3), he adds an amusing allusion to the normal requirements of for an rhyme, meter and iambic pentameter, which the does go dissertation, poet rejects (lines 5-8), and for an essay, he adds a direct reference to the turn or volta, in the exact moment when the volta is required in does glossary an Italian sonnet. Finally the poet alludes to Laura (the woman to whom Petrarch dedicated his sonnets) and to Petrarch, the for an essay, inventor of the sonnnet-structure that Collins mimics and alters simultaneously.
The subject-matter of this sonnet is the conventional sonnet itself; thus, it is metapoetry. See metaliterature . METATHESIS : The transposition of two sounds in speech or spelling. This tendency often catches students of concluding essays paragraph Middle English or Anglo-Saxon off guard, since they might encounter the spelling brid for bird or hwale for whale . METER : A recognizable though varying pattern of stressed syllables alternating with syllables of less stress. Compositions written in meter are said to be in verse . There are many possible patterns of verse. Each unit of stress and unstressed syllables is called a foot . The following examples are culled from M. H. For An Essay! Abrams' Glossary of Literary Terms , seventh edition, which has more information. You can also click here to download a PDF handout giving examples of particular types of feet, or click here for a longer PDF handout discussing meter and best day, scansion. Example: The cúrfew tólls the knéll of párting dáy. (Thomas Gray, Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard.) Anapestic (the noun is anapest ) two light syllables followed by intro essay, a stressed syllable: The Assyrian came dówn like a wólf on the fóld. (Lord Byron, The Destruction of Sennacherib.) Trochaic (the noun is trochee ) a stressed followed by a light syllable: Thére they áre, my fífty men and wómen. Dactylic (the noun is dactyl ): a stressed syllable followed by defense, two light syllables: Éve, with her básket, was / Déep in the bélls and grass. Iambs and anapests, since the strong stress is at the end, are called rising meter; trochees and dactyls, with the strong stress at intro for an the beginning with lower stress at humor the end, are called falling meter.
Additionally, if a line ends in intro a standard iamb, with a final stressed syllable, it is said to have a masculine ending. If a line ends in a lightly stressed syllable, it is said to be feminine. On Teachers! To hear the difference, read the following examples aloud and listen to the final stress: Not a creature was stirring, not even a mouse. Not a creature was stirring, not even a mousing. We name a metric line according to the number of intro for an feet in devastating beauty essay it. If a line has four feet, it is tetrameter . If a line has five feet, it is intro essay pentameter . Six feet, hexameter , and does glossary go dissertation, so on. English verse tends to be pentameter, French verse tetrameter, and Greek verse, hexameter. For An! When scanning a line, we might, for instance, describe the line as iambic pentameter (having five feet, with each foot tending to be a light syllable followed by heavy syllable), or trochaic tetrameter (having four feet, with each foot tending to writing, be a long syllable followed by a short syllable).
Here is a complete list of the various verse structures: METONYM : Any specific use or specific example of metonymy , or any symbol in which a specific physical object is used as a vague suggestive symbol for a more general idea. See metonymy below. METONYMY : Using a vaguely suggestive, physical object to embody a more general idea. Intro For An Essay! The term metonym also applies to the object itself used to suggest that more general idea. Essay! Some examples of metonymy are using the metonym crown in reference to royalty or the entire royal family, or stating the pen is mightier than the sword to intro for an essay, suggest that the power of education and writing is more potent for changing the devastating, world than military force. One of my former students wrote in an argumentative essay, If we cannot strike offenders in the heart, let us strike them in the wallet, implying by her metonym that if we cannot make criminals regret their actions out of their guilty consciences, we can make them regret their actions through financial punishment. We use metonymy in everyday speech when we refer to intro essay, the entire movie-making industry as the L. A. suburb Hollywood or the humor dissertation defense, advertising industry as the street Madison Avenue (and when we refer to businessmen working there as suits.) Journalists use metonymy to refer to the collective decisions of the United States government as Washington or when they use the term the White House as a shorthand reference for the executive bureaucracy in American government. Popular writer Thomas Friedman coined a recent metonym, the Arab Street, as a shorthand reference for the entire population of Muslim individuals in Saudi Arabia, Yeman, Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and the surrounding areas. When students talk about studying Shakespeare, they mean metonymically all his collected works of drama and poetry, rather than the historical writer's life alone, and so on.
METRICAL : This adjective describes anything written in patterns of meter , as opposed to prose. METRICAL FOOT : See discussion uner meter or click here for a handout in intro essay PDF format. METRICAL SUBSTITUTION : A way of devastating beauty essay varying poetic meter by taking a single foot of the normal meter and replacing it with a foot of essay different meter. For instance, a poem might consist primarily of iambic pentameter, with a light-heavy pattern of stress. The poet might add variety by occasionally inserting a foot consisting of two stresses (spondeic substitution) or a foot with a reversed pattern of essays on teachers heavy-light stress (trochaic substitution). Essay! See meter . When a poet uses metrical substitution to replace the first entire foot with a single stressed beat, the devastating essay, result is an acephalous line. MEZOZEUGMA : An alternative spelling of mesozeugma. See discussion under zeugma . MIASMA (Greek, stench): Literally referring to a stench or bad smell, the Greek term also metaphorically indicates a sort of ceremonial taint or spiritual stain that can result from various sorts of intro impurity. The ancient Greeks thought actions such as murder, incest, blasphemy, menstruation, or violations of xenia might cause a miasma around a person or place, and until the community took action to expunge the stain, misfortune such as disease, drought, or other blights would be the potential result. Dissertation Defense! Normally, people thought to be stained by miasma were forbidden to pass the for an, sacred marker ( temenos ) separating the holy ground of a temple or a public forum from non-sacred space. The term is particularly applicable in the play Oedipus Rex , in which the entire community of Thebes has fallen under a curse because of a miasma in their midst.
It is defense also relevant in Agamemnon, where the prophetess Cassandra seems to have the intro, ability to sense miasma as well as see the invisible Furies that have come to settle on the house. MICROCOSM (cf. Does! macrocosm ): The human body. Renaissance thinkers believed that the human body was a little universe that reflected changes in the macrocosm, or greater universe. MID VOWEL : In linguistics, any vowel sound made with the jaw and tongue positioned between the normal articulations for intro essay high and low vowels. An example of a mid-vowel would be the vowel sound in pate . MIDDLE COMEDY : Greek comedies written in the early 300s BCE, in which the exaggerated costumes and the chorus of the essay writing, Old Comedy were eliminated. We have no surviving examples of these Middle Comedies, but they are alluded to and described in other works. MIDDLE ENGLISH : The version of English spoken after the Norman Conquest from 1066 but before 1450 or so. Before the Norman Conquest, the common version of English was Old English or Anglo-Saxon , a Germanic language that is difficult to intro for an, read without specialized training. An influx of essay muet Norman French and Latin vocabulary after the intro essay, Normans conquered England resulted in rapid changes in spoken English. Between 1400-1450, a phenomenon known as the humor, Great Vowel Shift occurred, and for an essay, the pronunciation of vowels changed in English, resulting in Modern English (see below).
To avoid irritating your teacher, do not confuse Old English, Middle English, and Modern English. This diagram will help you contrast them. MIDDLE PASSAGE : The sea-voyage from Africa to the West Indies and/or the Americas commonly used by slave-traders. It plays a prominent part in slave-narratives and abolitionist literature, including works such as Aphra Behn's Oronooko and Olaudah Equiano's autobiography. MIDVERBS : As Kolln and Funk define it, midverbs are a group of verbs that have characteristics of both transitive and intransitive verbs.
Like transitive verbs, they require a word following them--much like an object or a complement. However, the complements are not exactly like direct objects because they do not explain what or whom is receiving the action. Instead, the complements of midverbs provide information about amount or measurement (Kolln and Funk 55). Examples include the verbs weigh and cost (55). Dissertation Defense! For instance, The corpse weighed two-hundred pounds. Here, weighed is a midverb. The word pounds is intro essay sort of like a direct object to the verb weighs , but since it shows an equivalence with corpse , it is sort of like a predicate noun or a subject complement also.
Kolln and Funk handle this blurred categorization by treating clauses with midverbs as Pattern VI sentences--i.e., they treat the concluding essays paragraph, complement as a mere adverbial. MILES GLORIOSUS (Lat. Essay! glorious soldier): The braggart soldier, a stock character in classical Roman drama. The braggart soldier is cowardly but boasts of his past deeds, and he becomes involved in sexual catastrophes, bullying, and englisch beispiel, thievery. The miles gloriosus is frequently of for an essay low morals. Beauty! Shakespeare probably based Falstaff in Renaissance literatureon the for an, common miles gloriosus in classical literature. MILTONIC IMAGERY : Imagery made famous by Milton's poetry--especially Paradise Lost . Examples include the dark angels or twisted demons laboring at Pandemonium's construction deep below the earth in fiery shadow, especially when such imagery is dissertation taken in intro essay contrast with the essays englisch beispiel, pastoral tranquility of Eden or the pearly mansions of heaven afloat in glowing clouds. Likewise, the motif of the rejected, fallen, rebellious seraphim struggling against the Almighty's white lightning remains a haunting image in Milton's poetry. These Miltonic images have influenced a great number of intro essay later literary works.
In H. G. Wells' The Time Machine , Wells used Miltonic imagery in the Morlocks and muet writing, Eloi, where (it initially appears) the troglodytic Morlocks labor in darkness under the earth and the child-like Eloi play in the blissful garden above. Mary Shelley's Frankenstein steals Miltonic imagery by casting the essay, monster as both an innocent Adam figure and simultaneously a rebellious Satan figure who rejects his maker as flawed and morally inferior. In many cases, Miltonic tradition shapes modern Christian iconography much more than the ancient Hebrew tradition of sheol itself. MIMESIS : Mimesis is usually translated as imitation or representation, though the concept is devastating beauty essay much more complex than that and intro essay, doesn't translate easily into English. It is an imitation or representation of something else rather than an attempt to essays beispiel, literally duplicate the original.
For instance, Aristotle in The Poetics defined tragedy as the imitation [ mimesis ] of an action. In his sense, both poetry and drama are attempts to essay, take an instance of human action and represent or re -present its essence while translating it into a new medium of material. For example, a play about best essays day, World War II is an attempt to take the essay, essence of an actual, complex historical event involving millions of people and thousands of square miles over several years and recreate that event in a simplified representation involving a few dozen people in a few thousand square feet over a few hours. The play would be a mimesis of that historic event using stage props, lighting, and essays englisch, individual actors to convey the intro, sense of what World War II was to the audience. In the same way, the process of mimesis might involve creating a film about World War II (translating the event into images projected onto a flat screen or monitor using chemical images on a strip of photosynthetic film), or writing a poem about World War II would constitute an devastating beauty essay, attempt at distilling that meaning into syllables, stress, verse, and diction. Picasso might attempt to embody warfare as a montage of destruction--his painting Guernica is the result. Intro For An! The degree to which each form of devastating beauty art accurately embodies the essence of its subject determines (for many classical theorists of art) the degree of its success. Additionally, mimesis may involve ecphrasis --the act of essay translating art from one type of media into another.
A classical musician or composer might be entranced by an earlier bit of devastating folkloric art, the legend of William Tell. He attempts to imitate or represent the stirring emotions of that story by creating a stirring song that has the same effect; thus, the intro for an, famous The William Tell Overture results. Concluding Essays! A story has been translated into a musical score. It is also possible to attempt mimesis of one medium into the same medium. For instance, American musician Aaron Copland was inspired by the simplicity of Quaker music, so he attempted to re-create that music mimetically in Appalachian Spring, much like he earlier attempted mimetically to capture the American spirit in Fanfare for the Common Man. In literature, ecphrasis is likewise used to describe the way literature describes or mimics other media (other bits of art, architecture, music and so on). For instance, Ode on a Grecian Urn is largely Keats' poetic attempt to capture the essay, eternal and changeless nature of visual art depicted on an excavated piece of on teachers day pottery. Chaucer's Knight's Tale involves an elaborate architectural recreation of three pagan temples, and the artwork on the walls of those temples, as well as the verbal construction of an entire coliseum to enclose a knightly combat.
These are both ecphrases seeking to turn one type of non-verbal art into verbal art through mimetic principles. MINIMAL PAIR : Also called contrastive pairs , these are two words that differ by only a single sound, such as gin-pin . Linguists commonly use minimal pairs for intro illustrating subtle sound differences. MINNES Ä NGER : Any German minstril who writes poems and songs about muet writing, courtly love in the medieval period. He is usually considered the German equivalent of the intro for an, French troubadour . MINUSCULE : A small or lowercase letter, in contrast with majuscule , a large or capital letter. The invention of minuscule allowed for best essays faster, more compact writing in intro essay scriptoria. MIRACLE OF THE VIRGIN : A vita or a miracle play that dramatizes some aspect of humanity activity, and ends with the miraculous intervention of the Blessed Virgin. See discussion under miracle play (below), and vita . MIRACLE PLAY : Not to be confused with medieval morality plays, a miracle play is a medieval drama depicting either biblical stories, the miracle(s) performed by a saint, or the martyrdom of a saint in Christian traditions. Go Dissertation! (Some critics prefer the third definition and reject the first two.) Miracle plays were usually presented in a cycle, such as dramas dealing with the Virgin Mary, the fall of man, and so on. In France, a sharp division is made between a mystery play and a miracle play, but it is common for the terms to be used interchangeably elsewhere. Few examples of intro miracle plays survive in humor defense English (the oldest being Play of Saint Catherine from the area of Dunstable), but in France, there remains a famous cycle of Les Miracles de Notre Dame , forty-two plays belonging to the second half of the intro, 1300s written in octosyllabic couplets. An example of a modern miracle play is the Belgian writer Maurice Maeterlinck's Sister Beatrice . Best On Teachers Day! The general emphasis in a miracle play is to essay, astonish and paragraph, inspire the viewer with a sense of wonder at the numinous.
An entire subgenre of intro for an miracles of the virgin also exist. Contrast with morality play and mystery play . MIRROR PASSAGE : A section of a story that might not contribute directly to the plot (i.e., it contains characters divorced from the main narrative, and the events it deals with do not further the action) but which does reflect the basic concerns of the work in terms of theme, action, or symbolism or which seems to echo another scene, image, or situation. For instance, the Miller's story in devastating essay The Canterbury Tales creates a love triangle to mock and mirror the intro for an, love triangle in the Knight's earlier narrative, or the three daily hunts that mirror the humor, tactics of the intro for an, bedroom seduction in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , or the way Aeneas's attempt to hug Creüsa's ghost thrice mirrors his attempt to embrace the ghost of his father Anchises in The Aeneid , or the inversion of words and tears that distinguishes Aeneas and Dido's two farewells--the first at Carthage and the second in the Underworld. Beispiel! See also mirror scene . MIRROR SCENE : A scene in a play or novel that does not contribute directly to the plot (i.e., it contains characters divorced from the main narrative, and intro for an essay, the events it deals with do not further the humor defense, action,) but which does mirror the basic concerns of the play or narrative in terms of theme, action, or symbolism. For instance, the for an essay, scene with the muet writing, gardeners in intro for an Richard II relates symbolically to the fact that Richard, as king, is not tending his own little Eden, the go dissertation, isle of Britain.
The scene with Christopher Sly in intro for an the opening of beauty essay The Taming of the for an, Shrew does not relate directly to devastating beauty essay, Petruchio's wooing of Kate, but it does establish the for an, theme of how appearance might not match reality. See also mirror passage . MLA : The acronym for the Modern Language Association. English students primarily know the MLA as the publisher of the MLA guidelines for research papers, the standard format used in American college English classes. Founded in 1883, this organization is a professional guild of sorts for professors and instructors of does glossary go dissertation a variety of intro for an subjects: foreign languages, linguistics, composition, technical writing, philology, rhetoric, and literature. Membership is particularly useful for students in does graduate schools about to seek their first jobs. (Membership allows them access to the JIL, the Job Information Listings.) The organization hosts the MLA convention annually, where most interviews for instructor positions at colleges take place.
It also sponsors the PMLA journal and the MLA International Bibliography . You can learn more at the MLA website. MOCK EPIC : In contrast with an epic , a mock epic is intro for an essay a long, heroicomical poem that merely imitates features of the muet, classical epic. The poet often takes an elevated style of language, but incongruously applies that language to mundane or ridiculous objects and situations. The mock epic focuses frequently on the exploits of an antihero whose activities illustrate the stupidity of the class or group he represents. Intro For An Essay! Various other attributes common to the classical epic, such as the invocation of the concluding essays, muse or the intervention of the gods, or the long catalogs of intro essay characters, appear in the mock epic as well, only to be spoofed. On Teachers Day! For instance, Alexander Pope's The Rape of the Lock gives in hyperbolic language a lengthy account of how a 17th century lord cuts a lady's hair in order to steal a lock of it as a keepsake, leading to all sorts of social backlash when the woman is unhappy with her new hairdo. Intro Essay! Lord Byron's Don Juan gives a lengthy list of the sexual conquests and essay, catastrophes associated with a precocious young lord, Don Juan. Essay! Both are fine examples of the mock epic. In some ways, the mock epic is the opposite of a travesty . See also spoof , satire . MOCK SERMON : A medieval genre commonly known as une sermon joyeux or une sermon joli , its conventions are that a non-clerical figure will present a humorous lecture on a non-religious topic (sexuality and essay muet writing, food being two common choices) using all the tropes and conventions of a normal homily --such as the introduction and explication of a Biblical passage, allusions to essay, various intellectual figures, a series of exempla to prove the devastating beauty, speaker's point, and a concluding invocation of intro for an essay prayer. Some critics have read Chaucer's Wife of Bath's Prologue as a mock sermon concerning a woman's place in marriage, for dissertation defense instance. For an excellent discussion of the sermon joyeux in connection with Chaucer, see volume 58 of the academic journal Speculum , pages 674-80.
MODERN ENGLISH : The English language as spoken between about 1450 and for an, the modern day. Beispiel! The language you are speaking now and the language Shakespeare spoke are both considered examples of intro for an Modern English. Modern English is distinct from Middle English (spoken c. 1100 to 1400) in that vowels are pronounced differently after the Great Vowel Shift (1400-1450). Both Middle English and Modern English are distinct from Old English in essays day that Old English and Middle English had numerous letters (such as the letters ash , thorn , and eth ) and some sounds (such as yogh ) that were used much more commonly. Old English also used elaborate declensions that have mostly fallen out of use in Modern English. To avoid irritating your teacher, do not confuse Old English, Middle English, and Modern English. This diagram will help you contrast them. A good rule of thumb is that, (a) if you can read it easily, it's probably modern English, (b) if you can read it with some difficulty, but there are many words misspelled and intro essay, an occasional strange letter, it's probably Middle English, and (c) if you can't read it all, and it looks like a foreign language with letters you don't recognize, you are probably looking at Old English.
See Middle English and Old English . MODERNISM : A vague, amorphous term referring to the art, poetry, literature, architecture, and philosophy of Europe and writing, America in the early twentieth-century. Scholars do not agree exactly when Modernism began--most suggest after World War I, but some suggest it started as early as the late nineteenth century in France. Likewise, some assert Modernism ended with World War II or the bombing of Nagasaki, to be replaced with Postmodernism, or that modernism lasted until the 1960s, when post-structural linguistics dethroned it. Others suggest that the intro for an essay, division between modernism and postmodernism is false, and that postmodernism is essay merely the continuing process of Modernism. Under the general umbrella of for an essay Modernism, we find several art movements such as surrealism, formalism, and various avante-garde French movements. Day! Professor Frank Kermode further divides modernism into paleo-modernism (1914-1920) and intro essay, neo-modernism (1920-1942). However, these divisions are hardly agreed upon by historians and essays englisch beispiel, critics. Intro For An Essay! In general, modernism is an early twentieth-century artistic marked by the following characteristics: (1) the desire to break away from does go dissertation, established traditions, (2) a quest to find fresh ways to view man's position or function in the universe, (3) experiments in form and style, particularly with fragmentation--as opposed to the organic theories of literary unity appearing in intro for an the Romantic and essay, Victorian periods, and (4) a lingering concern with metaliterature . Intro! Cf. postmodernism . To see where modernism fits into a chronological listing of the major literary periods, click here for a pdf handout.
MOLOSSUS : A rare metrical foot of three-stressed syllables, such as might appear in bacchic meter. It is also called a bacchic foot or a bachius .It is nonstandard in most English verse. MONDEGREN : A misheard song lyric or poetic line that results in a textual variant through faulty oral transmission. Beispiel! The result is often amusing in nature. Intro For An Essay! For example, the 1967 rock singer Jimi Hendrix had a set of glossary lyrics in Purple Haze in which the speaker states in pantheistic bliss, 'Scuse me while I kiss the sky.
However, the background music garbled his pronunciation, and for an essay, many confused listeners misinterpreted the line as 'Scuse me while I kiss this guy. Similarly, Appalachian immigrants brought with them a folksong from essays on teachers day, England called The Golden Vanity, which originally speaks of sailing the Lowland Sea. After a few generations, the landlocked Appalachian descendants did not know what the Lowland Sea referred to any longer, and the singers created a mondegren, sailing the lonesome sea. Several literary works gain their titles from intro, mondegrens, including Malachy McCourt's A Monk Swimming and J.D. Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye.
The original term mondegren to essays, describe this sort of mistake first appeared in intro an essay by Sylvia Wright, which Harper's Magazine published in essays beispiel November of 1954. Intro! In the essay, The Death of Lady Mondegren, Wright recalled how she misinterpreted a line from the 17th-centrury ballad, The Bonny Earl O'Morray. Here, the original line reads, They hae slain the Earl O'Moray, / and laid him on humor defense the Green. She, however, heard, They hae slain the Earl O'Moray, / and Lady Mondegren. MONODY : Any elegy or dirge represented as the utterance of a single speaker. Intro! Compare with dramatic monologue . MONOGENESIS : The theory that, if two similar stories, words, or images appear in two different geographic regions or languages, they are actually related to each other rather than appearing independently.
Either one was the original source, and the others adopted it later, or all the surviving examples come from an go dissertation, older (possibly lost) source. Contrast with polygenesis . MONOLOGUE (contrast with soliloquy and interior monologue ): An interior monologue does not necessarily represent spoken words, but rather the internal or emotional thoughts or feelings of an individual, such as William Faulkner's long interior monologues within The Sound and The Fury . Monologue can also be used to refer to a character speaking aloud to himself, or narrating an account to an audience with no other character on stage. Cf. Intro Essay! dramatic monologue . MONOMYTH : Joseph Cambell, a psychoanaltyic and Jungian theorist, coined the phrase monomyth in on teachers his 1949 work, The Hero with a Thousand Faces . The phrase describes a particular recurring narrative structure in mythology that he felt resonated with human psychology. In narratology and mythographic studies, the monomyth or hero's journey is a common narrative pattern in which a young or inexperienced hero (or sometimes heroine) goes on a journey or adventure. After setbacks or disastrous failure, he receives assistance from companions and intro for an, advice from a mentor figure or figures. He resumes the journey, and in a climactic point of the essays paragraph, story, symbolically dies, learns some hidden gnosis, and symbolically returns to for an essay, life. Best Essays On Teachers! He then wins a victory, and for an essay, he returns home transformed by beauty, the experience so that he can serve as a leader to his people. The chart would look like the following: STAGE I Call to adventure --some new threat or challenge appears in the protagonist's community.
STAGE II Supernatural aid --from a magical creature or magical object appears. STAGE III Confrontation --The hero confronts the threshhold of danger, often a guardian or villain, that thrwarts him. STAGE IV Education --Aid comes from a helper and/or mentor figures to show him how to bypass challenges and temptations. STAGE V Revelation --The hero experiences revelation--often in the form of an abyss or a symbolic death and rebirth. STAGE VI Resurrection --The hero is transformed, resurrected, or somehow makes atonment, often receiving a concrete or abstract gift from a divine source like a god or goddess-figure. STAGE VII Return --The hero returns home. Once there, he re-establishes order or peace, often becoming a new ruler.
MONOPHTHONG : In linguistics, Algeo defines this as A simple vowel with a single, stable quality (323) Simon Horobin calls it, a pure vowel with no change in quality (192). Contrast with diphthong . See also monophthongization . MONOPHTHONGIZATION : The tendency of intro essay diphthongs to defense, turn into simple vowels over time, or the actual process by which diphthongs turn into intro for an, such vowels. Contrast with diphthongization. MONORHYME : A poem or section of essay muet a poem in which all the lines have the same end rhyme. The rhyming pattern would thus look like this: AAAA AAAA, AAA AAA, or AA AA AA AA , etc. Intro For An Essay! It is a common rhyme scheme in Latin, Italian, Arabic, Welsh, and Slav poetry, especially in the Slav poetry of the oral-formulaic tradition.
Because of the fact that English nouns are not declined and our adjectives do not have gender consistently indicated by concluding essays paragraph, particular endings, it is much harder to make effective poetic use of monorhyme in intro for an essay the English poetry. However, Shakespeare makes frequent use of writing it is for an essay a bit of doggerel in his plays. For instance, in The Merchant of Venice , we find the following section in monorhyme: Seven times tried that judgment is. That did never choose amiss. Some there be that shadows kiss.
There be fools alive iwis, Silvered o'er, and so was this. Take what wife you will to bed. I will ever be your head. So be gone; you are sped. (2.9.62-71) MONOSYLLABIC : Having only humor defense one syllable. MOOD (from Anglo-Saxon, mod heart or spirit): (1) In literature, a feeling, emotional state, or disposition of mind--especially the predominating atmosphere or tone of a literary work. Most pieces of literature have a prevailing mood, but shifts in this prevailing mood may function as a counterpoint, provide comic relief, or echo the intro essay, changing events in the plot. The term mood is often used synonymously with atmosphere and ambiance . Students and critics who wish to dissertation, discuss mood in their essays should be able to point to specific diction, description, setting, and characterization to illustrate what sets the mood. For An Essay! (2) In grammar, an aspect of beauty essay verbs. Click here for more information on for an essay grammatical mood . MORALITY PLAY : A genre of medieval and early Renaissance drama that illustrates the way to live a pious life through allegorical characters.
The characters tend to be personified abstractions of essay vices and virtues. For instance, characters named Mercy and Conscience might work together to stop Shame and Lust from stealing Mr. Poorman's most valuable possession, a box of intro for an gold labeled Salvation. Unlike a mystery play or a miracle play , a morality play does not necessarily use Biblical or strictly religious material, i.e., the morality play usually does not contain specific characters found in concluding paragraph the Bible, such as saints or the disciples or Old Testament figures. Unlike the essay, miracle play, which depicts astonishing and moving miraculous events believed to have occurred literally to specific historical figures in specific settings, the essays englisch beispiel, morality play takes place internally and psychologically in every human being. The protagonist often has a name that represents this universality, such as Everyman, Mankind, Soul, Adam, or whatnot.
The most famous morality play is probably Everyman , a fifteenth-century drama in which a grim character named Death summons Everyman to judgment. On his way to essay, meet Death, Everyman discovers that all his old buddies are abandoning him except one. His friend Good Deeds is the only one that will accompany him to meet Death, while Beauty, Fellowship, Kindred, Knowledge, and Strength fall by essays paragraph, the wayside on his journey. Other famous examples include The Castle of Perseverance and intro for an essay, Mankind . Essays! Contrast with mystery play and intro essay, miracle play . MORPHEME : Linguistically, the smallest collection of sounds or letters in a spoken or written word that has semiotic importance or significance--a unit of meaning that cannot be divided into tinier units of humor defense meaning. For instance, in the English word rerun , the prefix re- is a morpheme implying again and the word run is a morpheme implying an act of motion. If we try to cut the prefix re- into for an essay, smaller collections of sounds ( /r/ and /I/ phonetically), these sounds no longer have meaning attached to them, and they are no longer morphemes.
Likewise, the morpheme run cannot be further subdivided into meaningful morphemes. Note that morphemes can be either free or bound . Glossary! Typically, in English, individual syllables tend to intro, be morphemes, though some occasional morphemes consist of single sounds. Contrast with grapheme and phoneme . MORPHOLOGY : The part of a language concerned with the structure of morphemes and devastating essay, how these morphemes combine. Linguists use this term in contrast with syntax . MORPHOSYNTAX : In linguistics, morphosyntax is an impressive word scholars use when most people would simply say grammar. It is the study of how parts of a sentence relate to each other. MOSAIC AUTHORSHIP : The medieval and intro, Renaissance belief that Moses wrote all five books of the Pentateuch. Essays! Click here for more discussion. MOT JUSTE, LE (French, The right word): A well-chosen, precise, or exact word, an extremely appropriate or fitting bit of diction . MOTIF : A conspicuous recurring element, such as a type of incident, a device, a reference, or verbal formula, which appears frequently in works of for an literature. Essays Englisch Beispiel! For instance, the loathly lady who turns out to be a beautiful princess is a common motif in for an essay folklore, and the man fatally bewitched by muet, a fairy lady is essay a common folkloric motif appearing in Keats' La Belle Dame sans Merci. In medieval Latin lyrics, the essay, Ubi sunt ? [where are . . .?] motif is common, in which a speaker mourns the lost past by essay, repeatedly asking, what happened to does, the good-old days? (Where are the snows of intro for an essay yesteryear? asks Francois Villon.) The motif of the beheading game is common in Celtic myth, and essays beispiel, so on. Intro For An Essay! Frequently, critics use the word motif interchangeably with theme and leit-motif . See also folkloric motif . MOTIF OF THE DISGUISED KING : A common motif in best folklore in intro for an which the king disguises himself and travels through his domains incognito . Humor Dissertation Defense! Examples include Prince Hal/Henry V in Shakespeare's plays, in which the king dons a cloak to obscure his features and then walks among his troops to converse with them and get a sense of their morale before battle.
In Greek epics, Odysseus returns to his kingdom of Ithaca in disguise and skulks among the suitors to intro for an, gather intelligence toward the end of The Odyssey . In The Lord of the Rings , Aragorn is the rightful king of the west, but he remains disguised as the homeless and impoverished Strider. See also the motif of the hidden king , below. MOTIF OF THE HIDDEN KING : A common motif in does glossary go dissertation folklore in which the rightful king of a nation is intro absent or hidden away, but will one day be revealed and then triumphantly reclaim rule over his kingdom, ushering in a golden age. Examples in Arthurian literature include King Arthur, who is first hidden when Merlin spirits him away from humor dissertation defense, Uther Pendragon while Arthur is an infant but later revealed as the true ruler when he draws the sword from the stone. Additionally, at the end of his life, when King Arthur is intro for an wounded in the fight with Mordred, he sails away to Avalon in englisch beispiel the West, but prophecy asserts he will return from Faerie to essay, rule Britain again in the hour of the island's greatest need. In world religions, some branches of Islam believe in the Mahdi, a hidden Imam, a rightful spiritual ruler of the Muslim faithful who remains hidden but will eventually reveal himself and return to essays day, power.
Some Tolkien scholars identify Aragorn in intro essay The Lord of the Rings as another example of the motif. As Helen Armstrong notes: Aragorn has many of the marks of a mythical hidden king and essay muet, true hero. His mother (and in an earlier draft his grandmother) prophesis on his behalf. At moments of drama a white flame appears on his brow. He loves a princess of the Elves. His marriage depends on his success, and the future of his kingdom depends on his marriage. He is supported and advised by a powerful otherworldly woman, Galadriel, and he carries tokens of essay his heritage and destiny (Andúril, the Elfstone). The last sapling of the White Tree of Gondor flowers to herald his marriage, and he is crowned in Gondor by humor dissertation, Gandalf, the hierophant in the story. . . . He has powers (such as his ability to control the palantír ) that rest partly in his innate royal authority. (see Aragorn entry in Drout 23) MULTICULTURAL NOVEL : As Robert Harris defines the term in his glossary, a multicultural novel is.
A novel written by a member of or about intro for an essay, a cultural minority group, giving insight into non-Western or non-dominant cultural experiences and values, either in the United States or abroad. Examples: • Chinua Achebe, Things Fall Apart. • Amy Tan, The Kitchen God's Wife. • Forrest Carter, The Education of essays paragraph Little Tree. • Margaret Craven, I Heard the essay, Owl Call My Name. • James Baldwin, Go Tell It on the Mountain.
• Isaac Bashevis Singer, The Penitent. MULTICULTURALISM : In literature, multiculturalism is the belief that literary studies should include writings, poetry, folklore, and plays from a number of different cultures rather than focus on Western European civilization alone. See also Latino writing and Harlem Renaissance for two examples of multicultural writings. MULTIPLICATIVE : Most languages have various systems of numbering, typically at least two systems and go dissertation, sometimes many more. Essay! For instance, most languages distinguish between cardinal numbers (like one , two , or three in English or unus , duo , and tres in Latin) which indicate a tally and can function as adjectives or substantive adjectives, and ordinal numbers (such as first , second , and third in English or primus , secundus , and tertius in Latin), which indicate a sequence or ordering. However, a great number of other possible numbering systems exist among the world languages, some of which have no perfect correspondence in English. These include the following:
Multiplicative numbers indicate the number of essay muet times something multiplies or recurs, such as the English words single , double , triple , or quadruple , or the intro for an, Latin words simplex, duplex, triplex , and quater , etc. Proportional numbers indicate comparisons of degree, such as Latin duplus , triplus , quadruplus , etc. English has no directly comparable words, and must express proportion with phrases like twice as great as or three times as much, etc. Numeric adverbs indicate how many times or how often something happens, such as English once , twice , or thrice or the Latin terms semel , bis , ter , or quater , etc. Distributive numbers indicate how many of each or how many at dissertation a time, especially when parts of a large number are being distributed among a smaller group. Examples include Latin singuli , bini , terni , and quaterni . English has no comparable system of single number-words, and it must express distributive ideas with phrases like one given to each one, two given to each one, three given to each one, etc. Partitive numbers indicate the number of parts in intro essay a greater whole, such as Latin binarius , ternarius , quaternarius , etc. English has no comparable system except for a few limited words like binary or trinary , and it must express more complex partitive ideas or larger numbers with phrases like consisting of twelve parts, or divided into eighteen components. Temporal numbers are single words refering to units of time in the past, such as Latin bimus , trimus , etc.
English has no comparable system and must express temporal numbers in beispiel full phrases like two years ago or three minutes in the future or lasting for for an a period of seven hours, where other languages might use a single word to encompass that idea. MUSES, THE NINE : The nine daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne who had the writing, power to inspire artists, poets, singers, and essay, writers. They are listed below along with their spheres of influence: MUSIC OF THE SPHERES : In medieval and Renaissance Europe, many scholars believed in a beautiful song created by the movement of the heavenly bodies (sun, moon, and does, planets). Intro For An! The music of spheres supposedly was infinitely beautiful, but humans were unable to hear it, either (a) because of their sinful separation from God, or (b) because they were so used to its presence, their minds automatically filtered it out as background noise. This medieval idea influences C. Essays Englisch Beispiel! S. Lewis and for an, J.R.R. Tolkien's fantasy literature, in which Aslan creates Narnia through an act of essays singing and the elder gods of Middle-Earth build the intro, universe through a symphony that incorporates Melkor's awful, rebellious song into the larger harmonies of the grand creator.
MUTATION : A change in essay muet writing a vowel sound caused by another sound in the following syllable. In Old English and in Celtic languages like Irish Gaelic and Welsh, the type of mutation called i -mutation was especially common. Another common type is the eclipsis mutation, a mutation in which a basic consonant sound is eclipsed or replaced by a stronger sound in a preceding word. For a chart of the most common Irish mutations as examples, click here. MYSTERY CULT : Unlike the official public cults dedicated to the Olympian gods in ancient Greece and Rome, a number of religious practices involved chthonic deities (like Demeter) and imported foreign gods (Ishtar, Osiris, Mithras, etc.). For An! The cults often shared features such as ritual washing or cleansing in humor dissertation the form of baptism, ritual christening or renaming, symbolically dying and being born again, etc. Possibly some may have offered the intro for an essay, hope of an afterlife through metempsychosis (unlike standard Greek and Roman belief which emphasized a gloomy stay in on teachers the underworld). Others--in the case of Dionysian worshippers--ritually slew the god and ate him or drank his blood symbolically in the form of wine. Regardless of specific varying details, these mystery cults shared a common element of intro essay secrecy--a distinction between the uninitiated outsider who did not share in their special blessings and the initiated cult member who did. The cult rituals were held to be so sacred that it was blasphemous to reveal them to outsiders, even to speak of them, describe them, or write them down in any way.
The rites were often held in inaccessible areas far from the local city--on mountain-tops or sea-shores or in catacombs. Some, like the mystery cult of Demeter, were open to any prospective members regardless of race, gender, or nationality as long as they spoke sufficient Greek to participate in the rituals. Others were open to certain professions, such as the cult of Mithras which only allowed soldiers to join after an initial baptism in bull's blood. Others were restricted by family (such as local versions of the Lykian wolf cult) or partly restricted by gender (such as the maenads of Dionysus). MYSTERY CYCLE : A collection of essays paragraph mystery plays in a single manuscript meant to be performed sequentially. See discusion under mystery play , below. MYSTERY NOVEL : A novel focused on suspense and intro for an, solving a mystery--especially a murder, theft, kidnapping, or some other crime. Concluding Essays! The protagonist faces inexplicable events, threats, assaults, and unknown forces or antagonists. Conventionally, the hero is a keenly observant individual (such as Sherlock Holmes) and the police are depicted as incompetent or incapable of solving the for an, crime by themselves. Essay! Many of the works of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Edgar Allan Poe, and Agatha Christie are mystery novels. Essay! Note that this term should not be confused with the medieval mystery play , below.
MYSTERY PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on. Although the origins are uncertain, Mary Marshall and dissertation defense, other early scholars like E. K. Chambers (author of The Medieval Stage , 1903) suggested that the plays developed out of the Latin liturgy of the church, in particular out of the Quem Quaeritis trope of Easter Day festivals. These early Easter Day dramatic performances took place in the churchyard. Intro For An! Later, these plays gradually became secular and used vernacular languages rather than Latin, and they gradually moved out of the essays, churchyard and intro for an, ecclesiastical control, becoming outdoor performances controlled by does glossary go dissertation, the craftsmen in each city, according to this theory. For An Essay! Other scholars such as V. A. Glossary Go Dissertation! Kolve refute this idea, however. In any case, we do know that these religious plays were staged and intro for an, performed by beauty essay, secular audiences. Typically, the various guilds in each city (such as the Carpenters' Guild, the Butchers' Guild, and so on) would sponsor and perform one play during the Corpus Christi festival, competing with each other for the most elaborate performance.
Each guild would mount the play on a large wagon with a curtained scaffold, with the lower part of the intro, wagon used as a dressing room. Between forty and fifty of these wagons (one for each guild) would move from spot to glossary go dissertation, spot in the city, so that spectators could watch several performances in a single day. Intro For An Essay! The plays often involved elaborate representations of heaven and beispiel, hell, mechanical devices to create special effects, and lavish costuming. The dramatizations became increasingly elaborate, and they show signs of for an developing psychological realism. The use of essay muet writing mystery in the name may originate in either the idea of spiritual mysteries, which were the focus of intro essay each play, or it may result from the Latin word misterium (a guild). The mystery plays were an englisch, important precursor to the miracle plays and intro for an, morality plays (see above) in medieval drama, and they set the stage for the flowering of Renaissance drama that was to come with Shakespeare. Devastating Beauty! Note that this term should not be confused with the intro essay, Victorian and modern mystery novel , above. MYSTIC WRITERS : See discussion under mystics , below. MYSTICS : In the word's most general sense, mystics are religious visionaries who experience divine insights. Englisch Beispiel! In medieval scholarship, the term mystics or mystic writers is intro often used as a collective term for a group of late fourteenth-century and early fifteenth-century eremites in England who wrote mystical works in does glossary Middle English and Latin. Essay! These include the humor dissertation, anchoress Julian of intro Norwich, who wrote The Book of Showings ; the illiterate mystic Margery Kempe, who dictated her autobiography The Book of Margery Kempe to two scribes; Richard Rolle, the author of does go dissertation Love is Love that Lasts for for an essay Aye; and the anonymous author of go dissertation The Cloud of Unknowing . For An! On the continent, other famous mystics include Saint Teresa of Avila, Hildegard of Bingen, and essay, Saint Francis of Assissi.
The mystic writers are marked by intro for an, the use of vivid (and sometimes confusing) imagery , intense emotional pathos (in the case of Margery Kempe), paradox (in the case of Richard Rolle), and essay muet writing, an intense desire to verbalize what is largely a nonverbal experience (in the case of intro essay nearly every mystic). Essay Muet Writing! Mystics--regardless of religious background--are often marked by an experience in which they perceive the intro essay, universe as a unity or in which they feel a sense of being one with the divine. We see signs of this tendency in Julian of Norwich's vision of Christ's blood, which transforms into raindrops falling from the side of a roof and then in turn transforms into the scales on a herring, as if God's physical form were embodied in the entire universe. In a more general sense, the author of the book of Revelation in the Bible (commonly attributed to essays, John of Patmos), and the poetry of intro for an essay William Blake are said to be visionary or mystical in nature, though scholars usually do not place them in the same category as the medieval mystics. On the other hand, much of religious poetry and writing is not particularly mystic in its nature--as witnessed by C. S. Lewis' The Screwtape Letters or the poetry of Milton and Gerard Manley Hopkins, all three of dissertation defense which are profoundly religious, but which do not necessarily represent a struggle to verbalize an intense religious vision in the same manner as a mystic writer. MYTH : While common English usage often equates myth with falsehood, scholars use the term slightly differently. For An Essay! A myth is a traditional tale of deep cultural significance to a people in terms of etiology , eschatology , ritual practice, or models of appropriate and inappropriate behavior. The myth often (but not always) deals with gods, supernatural beings, or ancestral heroes.
The culture creating or retelling the myth may or may not believe that the myth refers to literal or factual events, but it values the mythic narrative regardless of concluding essays paragraph its historical authenticity for its (conscious or unconscious) insights into intro for an, the human condition or the essay, model it provides for cultural behavior. Intro Essay! See also folklore , legend , mythography , mythos , and mythology . MYTHOGRAPHY : The commentary, writings, and interpretations added to myths. Medieval writers, such as the four anonymous scribes collectively called the Vatican Mythographers, would take Greek and Roman myths and does go dissertation, write elaborate Christianized allegories to explain the meaning of the text. Another example of medieval mythography is the Ovid moralisée , a retelling of Ovid's Metamorphoses in which French scribes interpret the legends as Christological commentary on intro essay the New Testament. MYTHOLOGY : A system of stories about the gods, often explicitly religious in nature, that possibly were once believed to be true by a specific cultural group, but may no longer be believed as literally true by their descendents. Like religions everywhere, mythology often provided etiological and eschatological narratives (see above) to help explain why the world works the way it does, to provide a rationale for customs and observances, to establish set rituals for sacred ceremonies, and to does go dissertation, predict what happens to individuals after death. If the intro, protagonist is a normal human rather than a supernatural being, the traditional story is usually called a legend rather than a myth. If the best essays, story concerns supernatural beings who are not deities, but rather spirits, ghosts, fairies, and for an, other creatures, it is usually called a folktale or fairy tale rather than a myth (see folklore , below). Samples of myths appear in humor defense the writings of Homer, Virgil, and Ovid.
MYTHOPOEIA (Greek myth-making or myth-poetry): (1) J. R. R. Tolkien's neologism for intro essay the deliberate creation of artificial myth , especially the incorporation of traditional mythic archetypes into current fiction, whether that fiction be something akin to Virgil's propaganda in The Aeneid , the Romantic poetry of William Blake, or the fantasy literature of C.S. Lewis or Tolkien himself. Tolkien connected mythopoeia with his theological doctrine of subcreation (q.v.) (2) Tolkien's poem of the same title, which he wrote in response to an argument he and the other Inklings had regarding C.S. Best! Lewis' atheism shortly after September 19, 1931. C.S. Intro! Lewis initially felt he could not believe in a literal resurrection of Christ because the narrative pattern in writing the Gospels echoed much older myths about intro for an essay, sacrificial dying gods, as detailed at length in Sir James Frazer's The Golden Bough . He thus thought that the concluding, Gospel stories, though breathed through silver, were merely pretty lies. Tolkien's counter-argument was that, even though much older versions of the story existed before the time of Christ, that did not matter.
Tolkien argued that, what God did in the incarnation and crucifixion was to take the older stories and make them literally true. Our older myths expressed man's deepest longest for redemption and resurrection, and that God chose to fulfill those ancient desires by giving Christ to for an essay, humanity--and thus the older myth could be made flesh and walk among us. MYTHOS : (1) Approaching the world through poetic narrative and essays, traditional ritual rather than rational or logical thought. (2) The collected myths of a specific culture in a general sense rather than in reference to one particular narrative or character. For instance, we might refer specifically to the myth of essay Hercules fighting the Hydra, the myth of Kali drinking demons' blood, or the dissertation defense, myth of the giant Ullikummis, but we would more generally say these tales belong to the Greek mythos , the Hindu mythos , or the Hittite mythos , respectively. Intro! Cf. mythology .
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TVH Mentoring Program Essay Sample. Mentoring is most often defined as a professional relationship in which an experienced person (the mentor) assists another (the mentoree) in intro for an essay developing specific skills and knowledge that will enhance the defense less-experienced person’s professional and personal growth. Mentorship is a personal developmental relationship in which a more experienced or more knowledgeable person helps to guide a less experienced or less knowledgeable person. Intro For An. Mentoring can improve employee satisfaction and retention, enrich new-employee initiation, make the company more appealing to writing, recruits, and train the leaders. And the best part is, it’s free. Unlike similar learning incentives like training programs or offering to pay for courses, mentoring utilizes the resources that the company already has.
This case study on the Mentoring Program at TVH (Group Thermote Vanhalst) has illustrated a true facts and issue in the monitoring program at any growing company. In the mentoring program the for an conflict between the younger employees and the older experienced employees is inevitable. Defense. Most of the essay company and the managers or supervisors are facing such kind of issues in the mentoring program though the mentoring program is very important for the organization to ensure the share of expertise and skill within the organization. In the case of TVH, we can see that Paul Sanders, HR director at TVH, has launched the mentorship program to on teachers day, help older employees transmit their knowledge and know-how to younger employees. This transition of expertise will help the TVH to keep the expertise and skill within the operation of the organization and develop the skills more. Intro For An. But after a while Paul Sanders found that there is a clear conflict between the younger employees and the older skilled employees after having a letter from a older respected employee named Freddy Jacobs.
The older employees are getting worried about their career opportunities threaten by the new comers. But Paul Sanders know about the importance of the Mentoring program at TVH to ensure the essays englisch flow of skilled workers and expertise. Now we have to analyzed the situation at the TVH and essay, have to suggest some tools for Paul Sanders to handle such situation. Back Ground of the Case: Group Thermote Vanhalst (TVH) is a global organization that specializes in constructing and repairing forklift trucks. Though it is a growing global company, they had no system to best essays, leverage, store and transform the knowledge and skills of the employees. There is a great flow of intro new young employees at the TVH who have less knowledge and skill and the existing knowledge and expertise of the company is losing as the retirement of the old and the experienced employees.
For that there may be a lack of expertise, knowledge and leadership in the forth future of the company. Understanding such situation, Paul Sanders, HR director at TVH has launched the Mentoring program within the organization where the old and experienced employees will share their expertise and experiences with the new young employees. After lunching the mentoring program within the TVH, Paul Sanders found that there is paragraph, a clear conflict between the younger employees and for an essay, the older skilled employees after having a letter from a older respected employee named Freddy Jacobs. He informed the HR Director about his opinion on the mentoring program. He stated that they could not work their regular work for this mentoring program to teach the new younger employees. He also show his confusion about the best essays quality of the for an essay new comers who have took the supervisory responsibility of the older employees though they have no knowledge about the operation or business. The older employees are getting worried about their career opportunities threaten by the new comers. But Paul Sanders know about the essays englisch beispiel importance of the Mentoring program at TVH to ensure the flow of skilled workers and expertise. But the thing is that Paul Sanders have to optimize his system to manage knowledge and ensure exchange of knowledge efficiently.
1. What is Mentoring program? Traditional mentoring focuses on for an, developing junior employees (mentees) by pairing them with more experienced and often senior staff (mentors) for several months. Although this form of mentoring remains popular, mentoring as a strategy has expanded to include different formats such as group and situational, and for more purposes such as diversity training or high potential development. Today, smart organizations are realizing that a workplace mentoring program can serve the entire employee lifecycle. Mentoring new employees can improve new hire retention rates. Mentoring aspiring talent enables company succession plans.
And reverse mentoring can ensure senior executives stay current with new business practices and technology. Regardless of the form mentoring takes, it facilitates sharing knowledge, expertise, skills, insights, and experiences through dialogue and collaborative learning. 2. The Objectives of concluding Mentoring: Because mentoring is goal oriented and promotes professional and personal growth among participants, it helps attract, motivate, develop, and retain profitable talent while increasing productivity. Companies often want mentoring programs for the following uses: Employee career development.
High potential development. 3. What are the benefits of mentoring? Mentoring benefits the organization, mentors and mentorees. A successful mentoring program benefits your organization by: Enhancing strategic business initiatives. Reducing turnover costs. Breaking down the “silo” mentality that hinders cooperation among company departments or divisions. Elevating knowledge transfer from just getting information and to retaining the intro for an essay practical experience and humor dissertation defense, wisdom gained from long-term employees. For An Essay. Enhancing professional development.
Linking employees with valuable knowledge and essay writing, information to other employees in need of such information Using your own employees, instead of outside consultants, as internal experts for professional development Supporting the creation of a multicultural workforce by creating relationships among diverse employees and allowing equal access to mentoring. Creating a mentoring culture, this continuously promotes individual employee growth and intro for an essay, development. Mentors enjoy many benefits, including: Gains insights from the mentoree’s background and history that can be used in concluding the mentor’s professional and personal development. Gains satisfaction in sharing expertise with others.
Re-energizes the intro for an essay mentor’s career. Gains an ally in promoting the organization’s well-being. Learns more about other areas within the organization. Mentorees enjoy many benefits, including: Gains from the mentor’s expertise.
Receives critical feedback in key areas, such as communications, interpersonal relationships, technical abilities, change management and essay muet writing, leadership skills Develops a sharper focus on what is needed to essay, grow professionally within the organization Learns specific skills and knowledge that are relevant to personal goals Networks with a more influential employee. Gains knowledge about the organization’s culture and unspoken rules that can be critical for success; as a result, adapts more quickly to the organization’s culture Has a friendly ear with which to share frustrations as well as successes. 4. Different types of beauty mentoring models in a structured program: One of the advantages of mentoring is intro, that it can be adapted to any organization’s culture and resources. There are several mentoring models to choose from when developing a mentoring program, including: One-On-One Mentoring: The most common mentoring model, one-on-one mentoring matches one mentor with one mentoree. Essays Beispiel. Most people prefer this model because it allows both mentor and mentoree to develop a personal relationship and provides individual support for the mentoree. Intro For An. Availability of devastating beauty mentors is the only limitation. Resource-Based Mentoring: Resource-based mentoring offers some of the for an same features as one-on-one mentoring.
The main difference is essays, that mentors and mentorees are not interviewed and matched by intro essay a Mentoring Program Manager. Instead, mentors agree to add their names to a list of available mentors from which a mentoree can choose. It is up to the mentoree to initiate the process by asking one of the volunteer mentors for assistance. This model typically has limited support within the organization and may result in mismatched mentor-mentoree pairing. Group Mentoring: Group mentoring requires a mentor to work with 4-6 mentorees at one time. Devastating. The group meets once or twice a month to discuss various topics. For An Essay. Combining senior and peer mentoring, the mentor and the peers help one another learn and develop appropriate skills and knowledge. Group mentoring is limited by the difficulty of regularly scheduling meetings for the entire group. It also lacks the personal relationship that most people prefer in mentoring.
For this reason, it is often combined with the one-on-one model. For example, some organizations provide each mentoree with a specific mentor. In addition, the organization offers periodic meetings in which a senior executive meets with all of the mentors and mentorees, who then share their knowledge and expertise. Training-Based Mentoring: This model is tied directly to a training program. A mentor is defense, assigned to intro for an essay, a mentoree to writing, help that person develop the specific skills being taught in the program. Training-based mentoring is limited, because it focuses on the subject at hand and doesn’t help the mentoree develop a broader skill set. Executive Mentoring: This top-down model may be the most effective way to create a mentoring culture and cultivate skills and knowledge throughout an essay organization. It is devastating essay, also an effective succession-planning tool, because it prevents the knowledge “brain drain” that would otherwise take place when senior management retires. Problems and Recommendation: Question 01: If I am Paul Sanders, How would I deal with the for an raised issues in the Mentoring Program at humor dissertation defense, TVH? For the TVH the Mentoring Program is really inevitable for intro the managers to ensure the storage, transmission and leverage the knowledge and expertise of the employees.
This mentoring program will help the older employees transmit their knowledge and know-how to younger employees. So If I were at the place of beispiel Paul Sanders, I cannot take off the intro mentoring program. I have to deal with the raised issues conflict between the older and younger employees. There are some strategies remanded here to essays, deal with this raising issue in the Mentoring Program. Developing Effective Program plan for Mentoring: A planned and intro essay, effective Mentoring program can be a solution for this conflict or issues. The Paul Sander has to demonstrate and develop an effective Mentoring program where all the employees new or older will be incorporated and committed with each other. This model serves as a foundation to help you design and implement a successful formal mentoring program that is customized to meet your organization’s unique needs and culture.
The strategies for building a formal mentoring program are the same whether you are designing a program for six partnerships or sixty. The Mentoring Connection Planning Process: STEP 1: Plan the program’s purpose and design. STEP 2: Identify potential mentors and mentorees. STEP 3: Facilitate a joint orientation (mentor, mentoree, and supervisor). STEP 4: Match mentors and mentorees. STEP 5: Provide mentoring training and tools. STEP 6: Implement the mentoring plans and agreements.
STEP 7: Evaluate and beauty, track the progress and redesign as necessary. Creating Mentoring Culture: Paul Sanders has to develop mentoring culture within the TVH. Intro. A mentoring culture continuously focuses on building the mentoring capacity, competence, and capability of the organization. Establishing a mentoring culture is key to organizational health. It is a smart way to do business because of its power to enhance personal connections and maintain organizational vitality in the face of beauty essay continuous challenge and change. Effective mentoring holds out the promise of achieving desirable results. It can improve retention, build morale, increase commitment, accelerate leadership development, provide ongoing career development, reduce stress, build teams, and facilitate organizational learning.
A mentoring culture encourages the intro for an essay practice of mentoring excellence by continuously: creating readiness for mentoring within the organization, facilitating multiple mentoring opportunities, and Building in support mechanisms to ensure individual and organizational mentoring success. Establishing Relationship among employees: Establishing relationships requires employers to understand the differences between age-based and cohort-based identities. Most people share a set of attitudes with those who had similar “coming of muet age” experiences. For An Essay. “When you enter adulthood, certain collective memories impact you,” Joshi says, citing the assassination of President John F. Kennedy and September 11, 2001, as examples of collective experiences. A cohort-based identity, in contrast, develops from a shared set of organizational experiences. Managers can try several strategies to cultivate cohort-based identities.
For example, they can organize orientations or new employee meetings so workers connect based on starting at the company together. “It’s about entering the organization and being socialized into does glossary, the organization,” Joshi says. New workers go through the same socialization and meet the same contacts. Negative developments also can produce intergenerational cohorts. In the intro essay 2010 study, researchers interviewed management from englisch beispiel, a large manufacturing company bracing for layoffs. The older employees had experienced economic downturns and essay, counseled the younger employees on essay, what to expect.
This type of bonding laid the foundation for a shared, intergenerational experience after the furloughed employees were reinstated. Succession planning also can develop cohorts as senior employees serve as mentors to up-and-coming leaders. Employees come to for an essay, an organization socialized to understand hierarchies and succession of power because they have a family tree where generations move up the branches into new roles such as parenthood or grandparenthood, according to the study. Joshi says the best concept of the for an essay family tree socializes younger workers to expect eventual succession while still acknowledging the contributions of essay muet writing senior employees. Employers, however, need to identify this succession instead of assuming workers innately understand their evolving roles. Information exchanges and for an, mentorship programs are opportunities for senior employees to pass on defense, information about the for an company. Question 02: What would make the mentoring program a success? How would we define Failure? The mentoring program can be failed due to several reasons.
Some of the causes behind the failure of the Mentoring program are as follows. To mentor is to serve as a trusted counselor or teacher. Best Essays On Teachers Day. In an occupational setting, the key word in that definition is “trusted.” Unfortunately, mentoring programs often fail because this very basic ingredient is missing. Intro. Mentoring program failure might occur because the essays program’s goals are either fuzzy, or they’re all over essay, the place, Rose said. Psychological obstacles often can get in the way of a successful mentoring program. In some companies in essay muet writing which it’s very competitive, Rose said it’s not even rational for mentors to want to succeed in mentoring their chosen employees. Mentoring programs also might fail because of personal dynamics or generational issues. To make the Mentoring program successful at the TVH, Paul Sander has to give concentration and priority in some issues. These are: Preparation of the Program: Time spent thinking through what the programs is meant to essay, achieve and how each aspect of it should be managed, supported and measured will be amply repaid later.
Engaging the stakeholder group in the planning identifies barriers to success and occasionally radically changes the nature of the program. (In one case, feedback from the intended beneficiaries led to turning the program on dissertation, its head, so they became the for an essay mentors instead!) Selection: Not everyone makes a good mentor. Dissertation Defense. Some companies have assumed that the qualities of a manager or leader are such that they should automatically be able to perform the mentor’s role. In practice, many managers are unable to escape from the habit of telling and advising. Many also lack the depth of self-awareness that characterizes an effective mentor. Intro. In general, the more convinced someone is that they are a “natural” mentor, the more lethal they are ikely to be.
Training: The most successful in-company mentoring programs train both mentors and mentees and at least provide a detailed face-to-face briefing for line managers. Essays Beispiel. The figures are stark. Without any training at all, less than one in three pairings will deliver significant results for intro either party. Training mentors alone raises the success rate to around 65%. Training both and educating line managers about the does program pushed the success rate above 90%, with both parties reporting substantial gains. Process ownership: One reason for training both parties is so that mentees have the expectation and gradually to acquire the confidence and skills to manage the relationship; and so that mentors know how to intro for an essay, help them do so. Developmental mentoring, in particular, demands that the mentee helps the mentor to essays englisch beispiel, help them, by intro understanding the process and contributing to it.
Post-training support: Initial training is rarely enough to give mentors more than a basic level of competence and confidence. Experience of glossary hundreds of programs in essay more than three dozen countries shows that they both want and need access to continued expert advice on how to do the role and develop their skills; and that they greatly value the opportunity to share experience with other mentors. Measurement: Effective, appropriate measurement, especially at key points in best essays day the first 12 months, not only helps keep the program on track, but also stimulates mentor and mentee to intro for an essay, good practice — for example, reviewing the relationship and what each is gaining from it. Englisch. Many companies are now adopting a “balanced scorecard” approach to measuring their mentoring programs. Question 03: Under What circumstances would we choose these training Processes (Mentoring Program)? Different Research indicates that mentoring is one of the important factors in business success. Mentoring provides a safe, protected learning environment. The mentored benefits from the mentor’s experience without having to go through the essay trial and essays on teachers, error of learning the same lessons. Time is compressed; mistakes do not need to be repeated. Valuable lessons, knowledge, attitudes, and recognition of opportunities are passed on.
The top 7 reasons given for establishing mentoring programs: To promote the retention of valued employees. To improve employees’ leadership and managerial skills. To develop new leaders. To enhance employees’ career development. To place high-potential individuals on a fast career track. To promote diversity. To improve employees’ technical knowledge. To exchange, store and leverage the employee knowledge, skill and expertise within the organization Mentoring program is inevitable. In any growing company like TVH There may be a significant flow of new young employees who have less knowledge and intro for an, skill and the existing knowledge and expertise of the company is losing as the retirement of the old and the experienced employees.
For that there may be a lack of expertise, knowledge and paragraph, leadership in the forth future of the company. To handle this risk of lack of for an essay expertise and leadership, the companies have to essays englisch, make a system to share the skill and expertise among the employees to create the future leaders. Intro For An Essay. Mentoring program helps in this purpose by exchanging the knowledge and skills and expertise among the employees. In today’s volatile business world, it’s extremely important for organizations to engage employees both intellectually and emotionally. Through mentoring, employees identify themselves as a vital part of the organization while creating a heightened level of ownership. Englisch. By improving employee engagement and retention along with other company initiatives, mentoring helps the company’s bottom line while also ensuring that employees feel committed to accomplishing their work in accordance to the vision of the organization. The Mentoring Pocketbook, by Geof Alred, Bob Garvey and Richard Smith Daring to intro for an, Be Different: A Manager’s Ascent to Leadership, by James A. Best Essays On Teachers. Hatherley Making the intro Most of devastating essay Being Mentored: How to Grow from a Mentoring Relationship, by Gordon F. Shea Mentoring and Diversity: An International Perspective, by David Clutterbuck and Belle Rose Ragins Learning from Other Women: How To Benefit from the Knowledge, Experience, and Wisdom of Female Mentors, by intro for an Carolyn Duff Tight Labor Market Causing More Companies to humor dissertation, Develop Employees through Coaching and Mentoring, Special Counsel, www.amicus staffing.com/career/articles/2mentor.asp 2002 Business Women’s Network, www.bsni.com, and Diversity Best Practices www.diversitybestpractices.com Alliance for Excellent Education. (2005) Tapping the potential: Retaining and developing high-quality new teachers.
Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellent Education. Boreen, J., Johnson, M. For An Essay. K., Niday, D., Potts, J. (2000). Mentoring beginning teachers: guiding, reflecting, coaching. York, Maine: Stenhouse Publishers. Carger, C.L. (1996). “The two Bills: Reflecting on the gift of mentorship”. Peabody Journal of Education 71 (1): 22–29. Cheng, M. Brown, R. (1992).
A two-year evaluation of the peer support pilot project. Evaluation/Feasibility Report, Toronto Board of essay muet Education. ED 356 204. Clinard, L. M.; Ariav, T. (1998). “What mentoring does for mentors: A cross-cultural perspective”. European Journal of intro for an Teacher Education 21 (1): 91–108. Is this the perfect essay for concluding paragraph you? Save time and intro, order TVH Mentoring Program.
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If one were to survey a panel of CEOs and executives and humor dissertation, ask them what their most important asset is they would say, People. If one were to ask that… Leadership Program Opportunities at for an essay, General Electrics. Go to www.gecareers.com and best on teachers day, review the essay entry-level leadership and writing, experienced leadership programs. Overall, what type of development activities are included in these programs? Choose one program and describe it (development… Principles, Skills and Impact of Coaching and Mentoring. I believe that the purpose of for an coaching is to help the person that you are coaching to unlock their own potential and help them gain maximum benefit from beispiel, their own…
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2017 MBA Essay Questions: Harvard Business School. The Harvard MBA application guide has been updated for 2017! EssaySnark#8217;s guide to the Class of 2020 Harvard essay will help you understand what needs to intro essay be in a successful pitch. Remember, a good HBS essay may have little in common with a good essay for devastating essay another school like Columbia or Kellogg or Stanford. Intro. And OMG, apps were up 6% at HBS last year. The Harvard essay question will be the same this year: “As we review your application, what more would you like us to know as we consider your candidacy for essays paragraph the Harvard Business School MBA Program?” This is deceptively simple. You need to know what you bring to the table #8212; and who you are #8212; before you can even begin to craft a response. This is also one of the easiest essays to unintentionally come across as disingenuous and intro essay fake.
We began a series of posts on The Strategy of defense Authenticity which is designed to help you build an awareness for what is, and isn#8217;t, authentic, so you can present yourself truthfully, sincerely, and with impact in essay your MBA apps. Humor. You can see what Harvard required in past years, as a way to understand their strategy in recruiting students. Round 1: Wed., September 6, 2017 Interview invites will come in two batches in the first week of October (October 2nd and essay October 5th, to be specific). If you aren#8217;t invited in englisch the final batch, you#8217;ll be #8220;released#8221; (that is, if they#8217;re not going to keep you on the further-consideration list; see this post for an explanation). Round 2: Wed., January 3, 2018 ; interview invites will likely be issued in two waves (last year it was on Jan. 25 and Feb.
1); if you aren#8217;t going to get invited, then you#8217;ll be hearing that on the second batch release day. Yes, we do recommend a Round 1 application to Harvard. Definitely. Intro Essay. It#8217;s still possible to make it in during Round 2 but you have a LOT more competition against you then. Two recommendations Two questions for essay muet writing them to answer. Intro Essay. We explain the concept of #8220;standardized#8221; recommender questions and essays offer an important resource for you to for an give to your recommenders, to make their job easier. In 2016, there was a small group including Harvard that used one version of #8220;standardized#8221; questions, and there was a larger group of schools using a different set of NEWLY standardized questions. (are you confused yet? yeah). No idea how things will evolve for 2017 in terms of what those other schools will do. We can say that Harvard is sticking to what it#8217;s done for the last several years, so there#8217;s consistency on their side.
The first issue of essays course is, who do you choose to write for intro for an essay you? We have a number of posts about recommenders here on the blahg (on the first page of the site, use the day, dropdown menu in essay the righthand panel to essays englisch choose Recommendations to get a list of all of them). If you want more help, our Letters of Recommendation App Accelerator walks through the specifics and intro for an essay lets you submit your recommenders#8217; strategy for feedback from EssaySnark. A summary of the 2015 HBS invite process was posted on 9/22/15 and we expect it to be directionally accurate this year, too. HBS works like this: You submit your app, the Admissions Board reads all of essays englisch beispiel them (in no particular order it doesn#8217;t matter what time you submitted or if it went in earlier or later than someone else#8217;s, or what geography or career you#8217;re in), then about a month-ish later, they will issue interview invites. When they implemented this process originally, those invites came out in three waves over the course of essay two weeks (three Wednesdays in a row), then it went down to two; for Rd 1 2015 it was three waves of invitations scattered over only about a week. Does Glossary. Round 2 in January 2017 is now confirmed as two Wednesdays in intro essay a row, so just one week total. The first wave has tended to be significantly bigger than the second one (the bulk of the invites will go out on that first day).
The day of the last wave of invites is when everyone not being invited to interview is told that they didn#8217;t make it; they call that the #8220;release.#8221; Instead of getting an invite or release on that final day, it#8217;s also possible to be put in the #8220;further consideration#8221; bucket, which is sort of like a waitlist but you#8217;re not accepted, you#8217;re just someone they#8217;re hanging onto because they#8217;re still interested in you. Concluding Essays Paragraph. The invitations are issued in essay batch mode, all at concluding paragraph once, at noon Eastern time on for an essay, the scheduled day. If they want to meet you, you#8217;ll get an email which says to check your app for status. If you don#8217;t get an email on either of the first two days, you didn#8217;t get an interview (yet but it could still come on glossary, the last day). Everyone who wasn#8217;t already invited to interview gets an email on intro for an essay, the last day of the sequence. If you haven#8217;t received any email by, say, 12:05pm Eastern time then it#8217;s not gonna come that day. In 2013, HBS invited 1,887 people to muet interview across the whole season. That#8217;s 20% of the 9,543 applications they received. (We don#8217;t recall seeing this data from HBS for 2014 but it#8217;s comparable, they tend to invite similar numbers every year regardless of app volumes.) Generally speaking they invite more of intro for an their applicants in Round 1 something like 1,000 yet most schools including Harvard tend to get more applications submitted in Round 2 so right there tells you that Round 1 is an advantage. It appears that in Round 1 2015 HBS got enough apps that they decided to issue interviews to.
50 more candidates. Here#8217;s more details on the data as of the 2012-#8217;13 season if you want to see how it broke down in past years. Remember that getting invited to interview in one wave versus another within the humor, invite-day sequence means nothing in terms of the strength of your candidacy. Dee Leopold says this every year. We did a post on the blahg about for an it on 10/9/13 (but nobody seems to believe us#8230; so we wrote another post on englisch, 10/11/13 to explain it all again). HOWEVER: There are greater chances that you#8217;ll be invited in intro for an essay the first wave, if you#8217;re going to does glossary go dissertation be invited at all, simply because in past years, they have invited the bulk of applicants in the first chunk.
If you#8217;re placed on the pre-interview waitlist in Round 1 what they call #8220;Further Consideration#8221; (other schools just call it a #8220;waitlist#8221;) then you#8217;ll either get invited to interview, or released, on the Round 2 interview dates, usually in the first wave. If you#8217;re on the post-interview Round 1 waitlist, you#8217;ll probably get the final answer (admit or deny) on the Round 2 decision date. For An. If you get an invite, you need to be prepared to essay muet writing travel, since these are adcom-interviews conducted in intro hub cities around the world. Essays Beispiel. They won#8217;t be flying to your doorstep to meet you. For An Essay. You#8217;ll need to make some arrangements, and yeah it#8217;ll likely require taking some time off of work. Humor Dissertation. But don#8217;t freak out essay about that part; if you end up getting the invite, you will make it happen, we#8217;re confident (and Harvard is flexible with extreme situations like deployed military). Harvard#8217;s Post-Interview Reflection. The gist of beispiel it is, within 24 hours after your interview, you#8217;ll need to intro for an submit something (an essay that#8217;s not an essay but it#8217;s basically an essay even if the essays, admissions people claim it#8217;s not an essay) that is, again, totally open-ended. Can you see how much Harvard wants to intro essay see how you deal with ambiguity?
That#8217;s kind of what leaders have to do all the time, right? The Post Interview Reflection is a chance for you to tell the Harvard Admissions Board that thing that occurred to you, that you realized you should#8217;ve said the moment you walked out of the does glossary go dissertation, interview room. Or it#8217;s an opportunity or try to fix your answer to that one question you completely flubbed. Or if you can#8217;t think of anything else, maybe reiterate your application #8220;theme#8221; (though honestly we don#8217;t think that#8217;s such a great idea, that#8217;s just our personal Snark opinion). For An. If you#8217;ve been invited to interview at Harvard GREAT! CONGRATULATIONS!! Now you really should pick up our HBS Application Guide if you don#8217;t already have it. We also have some important advice specific to Harvard in our MBA Interviewing Guide. Yes we#8217;re telling you to buy two guides. (In fact you#8217;d also benefit greatly from our Custom Interview Questions service.) Do you want to essays englisch beispiel make the most of this opportunity or not? Harvard posted a preliminary Class of intro essay 2017 profile on 6-8-15 but then later we saw the full profile including GMAT scores and we blinked.
An 80% range of dissertation defense scores of 700 to for an essay 760. Really?? OUCH! It#8217;s still possible to get in with a score outside that range but boy is it going to be tough. Essays Englisch Beispiel. For reference, here#8217;s the for an essay, Class of 2016 profile posted at the same point in time the essays beispiel, prior year (6-3-14) #8212; which looked very similar to the Class of essay 2015. So, same GMAT (median 730, full range 510 790 but you know there#8217;s only defense one or two in the 510 range); same GPA (3.67 ouch!) and same age (27 years old). Intro For An. The only difference is there#8217;s more apps than ever a 1.5% increase and essays they marginally bumped up the for an, class size, to 948. Takeaways?
That it#8217;s just as hard as ever to essays get into Harvard Business School. Direct from Harvard. Snarkety snark snark. In September 2013, The New York Times ran a pretty important feature on Harvard about gender dynamics. A few days later, a follow-up article was published on class at HBS (not the kind of intro for an #8220;class#8221; with teachers). This resulted in lots of media coverage and essays on teachers day big conversations across all the business schools. EssaySnark#8217;s reaction is here. For Reference: Harvard#8217;s Past-Season Questions.
Provided for essay posterity. And because it helps you to understand this school. One essay, unlimited length: “As we review your application, what more would you like us to know as we consider your candidacy for the Harvard Business School MBA Program?” They first asked a version of this question in 2013, for the Class of humor defense 2016. This year#8217;s incarnation is intro for an essay, really the epitome of a perfect essay question. They#8217;re basically saying, #8220;Tell us what you think is go dissertation, important.#8221; Here#8217;s advice from the #8216;Snarchives which offers a very good place to start thinking about that: The most important thing to remember with your Harvard essay.
Every year, EssaySnark provides insights and recommendations for intro how to handle the HBS application and dissertation we have now done that for all you Class of 2019 prospects! Expanded and revised to give you the greatest advantage in setting your strategy. [end discussion of 2016 HBS app] Click to view the 2015 question. Here#8217;s the intro essay, question: It#8217;s the first day of class at HBS. You are in Aldrich Hall meeting your #8220;section.#8221; This is the group of 90 classmates who will become your close companions in devastating beauty the first-year MBA classroom. Our signature case method participant-based learning model ensures that you will get to know each other very well. The bonds you collectively create throughout this shared experience will be lasting. Intro. Note: Should you enroll at HBS, there will be an opportunity for you to share this with them. We suggest you view this video before beginning to dissertation defense write.
First step: Review that video and review it again! You should also check out their HBS MBA Voices student-focused blog , which should serve as a real goldmine of insights about the intro for an essay, school (though PLEASE do not simply parrot the information you view/read/hear from any of essays englisch beispiel these sources into intro essay your essays. that#8217;s like such a rookie mistake and yeah, we see it all the time). As a reminder, this is what they asked for humor dissertation the two years previous: #8220;You#8217;re applying to Harvard Business School. We can see your resume, academic transcripts, extracurricular activities, awards, post-MBA career intentions, test scores, and what your recommenders have to say about you. What else would you like us to know as we consider your candidacy?” Advice from Harvard: Be sure to intro for an essay read their Direct from the essays, Director post dated 15 May 2015 (you may have to scroll down on that page to find it) Admissions Director Dee Leopold gives some useful guidelines to use as an important starting point. [end discussion of last year#8217;s HBS app] Yes, we do recommend a Round 1 application to Harvard. Definitely. It#8217;s still possible to make it in for an essay during Round 2 but you have a LOT more competition against you then (and it sounds like this year#8217;s Round 1 was as full as ever). Regardless, a great app is needed in any round for Harvard Business School. [end discussion of 2015 HBS app] Click to view the 2014 question.
You’re applying to Harvard Business School. We can see your resume, school transcripts, extra-curricular activities, awards, post-MBA career goals, test scores and what your recommenders have to say about does go dissertation you. Intro For An. What else would you like us to know as we consider your candidacy? We#8217;ll say it again: Our HBS MBA application guide is devastating beauty essay, very detailed, and it gives you important insights into how the intro essay, HBS Admissions Board thinks about stuff. Writing. It#8217;s been revised to reflect the new #8220;Introduce yourself#8221; question, with additional checklists and tests you can perform on your essay to make sure it#8217;s presenting you as it should. Don#8217;t apply to essay Harvard just because it#8217;s Harvard; you#8217;re likely to end up heartbroken. Read that guide, and glossary go dissertation study this blahg, and then make an informed decision and create an infinitely stronger strategy with your approach. How interviews worked in 2014#8217;s Round 1 deadline was 9/9/14. First wave interview invites: October 8 an estimated 800 candidates received one (for 2015 Dee Leopold said they#8217;d issue 900 invites that first day) Second wave invites (another 150 candidates got one), #8220;further consideration#8221; invitations (a variation on intro essay, the waitlist but essentially the same; about 200 of these went out), and essay release of all others: October 15 (for 2015 there were two more waves, with. Intro For An Essay. 350 total invites between them, and another. 100 FC invites) Interviews held from October 20 to November 21.
The adcom travels to multiple cities around the world or you can go to HBS. How it worked in 2014#8217;s Round 2 deadline was 1/6/15 sorry that we don#8217;t have data, only dates. First wave interview invites: January 28 Second wave invites, waitlist invitations, and release of essay all others: February 4. [end discussion of 2014 HBS app] You’re applying to for an Harvard Business School. We can see your resume, school transcripts, extra-curricular activities, awards, post-MBA career goals, test scores and what your recommenders have to say about you. What else would you like us to know as we consider your candidacy? They#8217;ve also reduced the number of recommendations to just two, from three. [end discussion of 2013 HBS app] In case you#8217;re curious about essay writing what they#8217;ve asked before: Tell us about something you did well. Tell us about something you wish you#8217;d done better. [end discussion of intro for an essay 2012 HBS app] Highlights from HBS Admissions Webinar July 2, 2014. In 2013, HBS invited 1,887 people to does glossary interview. [That#8217;s almost 20% of the 9,543 applications they received. For An. The Class of 2016 is 940 936 students. -ES] A new section of the humor defense, app this year asks about non-degree coursework; you can include MOOCs and intro other online (non-credit) work you#8217;ve done. [This is to help you demonstrate analytical abilities. -ES] Everybody needs to take the essay, GMAT or GRE (they are agnostic as to which one); no exceptions. The resume you upload can be more than one page, but you should ask yourself, #8220;Does it need to be?#8221; [No. -ES] In the app, they ask about your intended post-MBA industry and function.
HBS does not want a #8220;laminated life plan#8221; but they do want to know your general direction. There#8217;s a separate app question to cover additional information; this is not an essay. [You can use this to explain gaps in employment or circumstances surrounding a low GPA, as you would with other schools#8217; #8220;optional essays#8221; but again, with HBS, this is intro essay, not an essay and go dissertation also, you should be able to intro for an cover that in your actual Harvard essay, probably. -ES] All financial aid awards are need-based; they don#8217;t do merit-based fellowships. This means you don#8217;t get news of dissertation defense scholarship money at for an the time of admission, like other schools do. [Basically you should be happy with the admit itself! They don#8217;t feel the need to bribe you to attend. -ES] Of course, Dee talked about the #8220;optional#8221; essay and what they saw in concluding successful applicants last year. EssaySnark covered many of these points in essay detail in the 2016 Harvard Guide. Something else you should know: Dee is typically the first person who reads the incoming emails sent to the general HBS inquiry account (!). Essays Englisch Beispiel. The most common question they get is, #8220;Do I have to take the TOEFL?#8221; The next most common: #8220;Do I need to take the GMAT?#8221; (Hint: Their requirements are pretty darned clear on their website .) Takeaway message: Don#8217;t write a stupid email to for an essay Harvard admissions.
Do your research first, and then and only then ask the muet writing, question if you cannot find the answer elsewhere. EssaySnark reviews of for an essay Harvard#8217;s 2014 essays. EssaySnark reviews of muet Harvard#8217;s 2013 essays. We did a bunch of intro for an essay reviews of Harvard essays on GMAT Club in essays beispiel September 2013; the question hasn#8217;t really changed even with the #8220;Introduce yourself#8221; thing, so you may want to check those out. Alas, our contract with GMATClub was not extended so we#8217;re not doing reviews over there any more. EssaySnark reviews of Harvard#8217;s 2012 essays. For An Essay. And even older than that (2011 and later) these are still relevant because Harvard is still Harvard they#8217;ve been looking for dissertation defense the same qualities in a Brave Supplicant year after year: Our Essay Ideas App Accelerator includes a free BONUS: a sample essay that won! Review the original draft and for an essay EssaySnark#8217;s complete Essay Decimator critique for the 2011 HBS Essay 1, on #8220;three accomplishments#8221; study it for free and make your Harvard essay that much stronger. Essay Writing. And we#8217;ll say it again: Our HBS MBA application guide is very detailed, and it gives you important insights into how the for an essay, HBS Admissions Board thinks about stuff. Don#8217;t apply to does go dissertation Harvard just because it#8217;s Harvard; you#8217;re likely to end up heartbroken. Read that guide, and study this blahg, and then make an informed decision and create an infinitely stronger strategy (with a professional#8217;s opinion on intro for an essay, your HBS essay, even).
2017 MBA Application Strategy Guides. The 2017 Darden MBA Application Guide - rewritten almost from scratch to devastating beauty essay help you with the 2017 app! The 2017 Michigan Ross Essay Guide - totally new to help you with the nine short-answer options and your career goals! The 2017 MIT Essay Guide with brand-new material on the cover letter and the 'introduce yourself' video. The 2017 Duke Essay Guide - covers the 25 Random Things essay and all the rest too! The 2017 Harvard MBA Application Guide - refreshed with new details and for an essay strategies for best day your Class of 2020 app.
Brave Supplicants' latest reviews on The 'Snark. Intro For An. I think that the reviewer raised a lot of good points, but a) three pages of humor dissertation defense feedback on a 250 word . As a re-applicant, I knew I needed considerable improvement to essay my pitch in order to maximize my . Thanks so much for the additional feedback ES. I really appreciate it. I just submitted my HBS app, . What were we snarking about at concluding this time in past years? 2016 : ($) If you get fired, do you need to tell the adcom? 2016 : Good luck for HBS applicants! 2016 : No, you don't have to actually do the thing you say you will do in the career goals essay. Intro Essay. 2014 : Did you just discover EssaySnark? 2014 : The disturbing trend of decreasing transparency 2013 : More on visiting schools 2013 : ($) Being a thought leader is not a career goal. Glossary. 2012 : ($) Duke's main essay: What do you tell your family, friends, and colleagues? 2012 : About Deadlines.
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Error Handling and Debugging Tips for Access 2007, VB, and for an, VBA. This content is outdated and go dissertation, is no longer being maintained. For An Essay? It is provided as a courtesy for individuals who are still using these technologies. This page may contain URLs that were valid when originally published, but now link to sites or pages that no longer exist. Summary: Experienced developers use a variety of techniques to simplify their coding and paragraph, maintenance efforts. For An? Some of the tricks are general programming styles and conventions, while others are specific to the characteristics of Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0 and Visual Basic for essay muet, Applications (VBA). Hopefully, by adopting such best practices techniques, you'll be able to write code that's easier to write, debug, and understand.
Not only can you reduce bugs during development, you can also significantly reduce the effort required to replicate and fix bugs your users encounter. A consistent coding style is critical for efficient application development in multi-developer environments. It also increases the intro for an chance that future developers can understand your work to fix or enhance it. (20 printed pages) Luke Chung, President of FMS, Inc. Applies to: Microsoft Office Access 2007. Debugging is one of the most important skills for humor, a developer. Software development is all about writing code, making mistakes, and fixing them. Strong debugging skills minimize the essay development cycle by allowing developers to essays englisch, pinpoint bugs quicker, make fixes that actually address the problems encountered, and verify the for an essay modifications are correct. This is does glossary go dissertation, particularly important as the code gets more complex. Debugging doesn’t end when the application is shipped.
Having the for an proper error handling in place is essays englisch, critical to providing quick support when users encounter crashes. At the very least you want to verify it’s a problem in your application, and if so, as much information as possible so you can minimize the need for user recall on how to reproduce the bug. Fortunately, Microsoft Access offers very powerful debugging tools during development, with the ability to add error handling routines to help debug deployed/remote applications. The most common use of the debugger is to diagnose the code when a crash is encountered. If no error handling is in for an place, when an writing Access application crashes, you or your user are prompted with a message box similar to the one in Figure 1. Assuming that you’re not running an for an MDE, when you click Debug , you open the IDE at the line where the essays day crash occurred and for an, have the opportunity to glossary go dissertation, examine the problem. Another important use of the essay debugger is during system development to verify the code is devastating beauty essay, working correctly even if a crash doesn’t occur, or to narrow down the situations where a crash occurs. The Access/VB6 debugger lets you step through each line of code as it runs, examine the environment (including all variables), and even change variable values and lines of code! By seeing how your code runs (which procedures get called, which IF statement branch is taken, how loops work, and so on) you gain a much better understanding of how your code work and whether it’s behaving as designed. By including a consistent error handler design with a central error handler, you can deploy applications that document the crashes your users encounter. This is particularly important if you have many remote customers and can’t easily go to the offending desktop when the user calls.
With a sophisticated error handler, you can document not only the error, but other important information such as the procedure name, procedure call stack, line number where the crash occurred, and other Access environment information. For An? With this information you’ll be able to reproduce the error quicker, and be more assured that you make the fixes necessary to address them. Devastating Essay? Most importantly, you’ll minimize the often frustrating process that developers and users face when trying to essay, reproduce crashes. Professional applications need to include error handling to trap unexpected errors. By using a consistent error handler, you can make sure that when crashes occur, the user is essays paragraph, properly informed and your program exits gracefully. Intro? Basic error handling just hides the default behavior and exits the beauty essay program. Intro? Advanced error handling can include all sorts of concluding paragraph, features such as saving information about the cause of the error and the environment at the time, attempts to address the for an essay problem, and information for the user on best essays on teachers day, what they need to for an, do next.
Before you can use error handling, you need to understand the Error Trapping setting. Visual Basic 6.0 and VBA let you to determine how it should behave when errors are encountered. From the IDE, look under the Tools Options setting. Make sure that error trapping is not set to Break On All Errors . That setting will cause your code to stop on every error, even errors you are properly handling with On Error Resume Next . Break on Unhandled Errors works in most cases but is problematic while debugging class modules. During development, if Error Trapping is set to Break on Unhandled Errors and devastating beauty essay, an error occurs in a class module, the debugger stops on the line calling the intro essay class rather than the offending line in the class.
This makes finding and fixing the problem difficult. I recommend using Break in Class Modules , which stops on the actual crashing line. However, be aware that this does not work if you use raise errors in your classes via the Err.Raise command. This command actually causes an “error” and makes your program stop if Error Trapping is set to Break in Class Modules . Unfortunately, users can modify this setting before launching your application so you should make sure that this is does go dissertation, properly set when your application starts. Programmatically, the option settings can be viewed and modified by intro, using the Application.GetOption and Application.SetOption methods. Always include code in your startup routines to set the concluding appropriate error handling level. Make Sure that Every Procedure Has Error Handling. Once the Error Trapping issue is resolved, you need to add error handling to your application.
Unfortunately, Visual Basic 6.0 and essay, VBA do not support a global error handler to manage any errors that arise. You actually have to set error handling in concluding paragraph every procedure. Without you explicitly adding error handling, Visual Basic and VBA show the default error message and then allow the user to debug your code, or just crash. At the most basic level, error handling involves the following two parts. The following section invokes the error handler. If an error occurs in the procedure, the code jumps to the line where the intro essay label “PROC_ERR” is defined. For consistency, use the beispiel same label name in every procedure. The following section is where the intro for an essay code goes if an error occurs in the procedure. Here you can manage the error and essay, determine what to do next.
Examine the error object ( Err ) to see what occurred. For example, Err.Number is the error number, Err.Description is the error description, and so on. In some situations, you need to turn off error handling. For example, you might want to see if a file exists. By looking for for an, it and managing the does glossary go dissertation error if it can’t be found, you can determine whether it exists or not. Disable error handling with the following code. Turn Off Error Handling During Development and Testing. Without error handling, if an error is encountered, the debugger automatically stops on the offending line.
This is great for debugging and correcting mistakes. Intro? However, if error handling exists in the procedure, when an error occurs, rather than stopping on the offending line, the code in writing the Error Handling section is invoked. This makes debugging much more difficult. An easy way to avoid this problem is to add a global constant or variable that controls when error handling is for an, active. Day? So instead of using the following code… …and then define a global constant by using the following code. Set this constant to False during development, and then to True when you deliver your application. That way, your users get the benefit of the error handling and you can get your work done without it.
Getting Information from the for an essay Error Object. When an error occurs, get information about the problem in the Error Object. Does Glossary Go Dissertation? This object is named Err and contains several properties. The following are the properties that you should check: Number The error number, which is useful for testing.
A value of zero means no error. Description The built-in description of the error. Sometimes this doesn’t exist and this text “Application-defined or object-defined error” is given. The error object lets you easily inform the intro for an user of the best on teachers problem. For example, rather than display a simple message that an error occurred, you can specify the exact error number and message to display. The user still might not understand it, but it can be very helpful in diagnosing the problem. There might be situations where you test for an error number but cannot be sure the Err object doesn’t already contain an error. In such cases, use the Clear method to clear the object. Alternatively, you can set the error number to essay, zero ( Err.Number = 0 ), but is not as effective as the Clear method since it does not clear the description property. Error handling can also be used to test a condition. The following code example deletes a file and provides the user with error messages.
Notice how the following syntax allows the program to essay muet, continue (that is, go to the next line) even when a command cannot be executed. The Kill command triggers an for an essay error if the file being deleted doesn’t exist or is locked. We don’t care whether the object exists or not. On Teachers Day? We just want to delete it if it does. Therefore, the command to ignore the error ( Resume Next ) is appropriate. On Error Resume Next effectively disables error handling from that line forward (within the procedure) and should be used with care. Intro For An Essay? It should only be used before a line where a specific error is being ignored. To reset error handling, use the humor following code. Alternatively, the following standard error handler has an extra clause to handle situations where error handling is for an, not being used.
Notice that a test of the error number is conducted to determine if a specific error occurred. That is, we consider it okay if the object could not be found. However, there are other reasons that might cause a failure to delete an object that exists (for example another user has the humor defense object open, insufficient rights to delete it, and so on). Error handling only essay handles well-behaved errors; that is, errors that trigger an error number in code. Technically, these are the best on teachers only types of for an essay, errors you can have, but we all know that Access can crash with an IPF or GPF. Unfortunately, these crashes are so severe that your error handling routines are ineffective. The following parts of the debugger work together to let you analyze how your code runs: Integrated Development Environment (IDE) Stepping Through and Over Code. Integrated Development Environment (IDE)
From the IDE, there are several things that you can do. Put the cursor on the variable, procedure, or property in question and press SHIFT+F2 to defense, see where it’s defined. You’ll jump directly to it. You can do this as often as you like to understand how your code works. Press CTRL+SHIFT+F2 to go back to intro, where you came. Highlight the procedure that you want to on teachers day, run and press F5 to run it. If you want to step into it line-by-line, press F8. Intro For An Essay? More explanations on running code line-by-line is given later.
Of course, running a procedure this way only works if you don’t have to pass parameters to essays, it. If you need to, consider using the Immediate Window. Breakpoints are placed on the lines in your code so that the debugger is invoked when the program tries to execute that line. A breakpoint can be placed on any line that is actually run (not lines in the General Declarations section, or lines that define variables in a procedure). Intro For An Essay? This is an extremely powerful technique to let you run your code normally until the best essays on teachers section you’re interested in intro is encountered. Breakpoints can be added by moving to the line desired and pressing F9, clicking with the concluding mouse on the left border, or from the Debug menu. Intro? Multiple breakpoints can be added during your debugging session.
Breakpoints are temporary and are automatically removed when you close the database. Once you are in the debugger and stopped on a line whether it’s from selecting Debug from the crash menu or a breakpoint, you have the opportunity to see the “guts” of your program. Simply move your cursor over essays variables to see their current values. You can also use the Immediate Window or the intro other Watch windows to be described later to understand all the values. The debugger gives you a variety of techniques to essay, step through your code. Run the current line and go to the next one. Used for a line that calls a procedure to run that procedure without going into it. Intro For An Essay? This is a real time saver if you don’t care about the lines in the called procedure because you assume it works correctly. The command lets you run the procedure (and any procedures it might call), and go to the next line in the calling procedure.
Run the current procedure and go to the line after the line that called the procedure. Does Glossary? This is basically a way to simplify the debugging process by letting you skip the remainder of the current procedure once you realize you don’t need to step into it any more. This command lets you set the next statement as any line in the current procedure including lines you’ve already run. This is extremely powerful and quite amazing when you think about it. It’s particularly useful if you run though some code and then decide you should repeat it because you missed something. It’s not always the same as the first run because variables might have changed, but if you understand the situation, it lets you debug again without getting to the same code or situation again. Sometimes you examine different procedures as you debug your code, so the Show Next Statement menu command makes it easy to go to intro, the currently highlighted line. In addition to seeing which line of code runs and evaluating variables as you debug, there are several other views that help you diagnose your development environment: The call stack keeps track of the procedure calling chain so you can easily see how you got to the current procedure through all the other procedures. Retrieve it under View , Call Stack , or press CTRL+L.
From this dialog box, you can click any procedure and jump immediately to it. Before analyzing the details of the essays current procedure, it might be more important to understand how and intro, why you got there since the problem might be there rather than in the current procedure. This is the most basic debugging area. You can use the Immediate Window whether your code is running or not. Open the Immediate Window by pressing CTRL+G or selecting it from the IDE menu under View . The Immediate window lets you do the following: Evaluate expressions unrelated to your code (for example, math equations) Evaluate variables or expressions in your code (for example, a current variable value) For items that return a value, use a question mark (the old Print command) followed by does glossary, the expression, similar to the following example. Press ENTER to intro for an, see the glossary value.
If your code is currently running and stopped, you can use this method to evaluate the current value of for an, a variable. You can also use it to launch a VB6/VBA function or your function with the parameters that you want. The Immediate Window runs the essays beispiel function, then shows its return value. If you want to run a sub, none of which return a value, do not include the intro essay ? and just type the subroutine name. Rather than examining variable values individually by typing them in the Immediate Window, you can see all the local variables by selecting Locals Window from the Views menu.
This displays the entire list of go dissertation, local variables and their current values. Local variables are variables defined in the current procedure and module declaration section. Notice how each array element is shown by expanding the treeview for that variable. You can modify the value held by a variable by clicking on the Value column and editing it. This is an alternative to modifying values from the intro essay Immediate Window. The Watch Window is similar to essay, the Locals Window, but you specify the variables you want to track. Intro For An? You can track variables across modules and essays englisch beispiel, procedures and keep them in your Watch Window to see their value no matter where the current line is.
The first step is to add a variable to the Watch Window by placing the cursor in the variable that you want to track and intro for an essay, selecting Debug , Add Watch to does go dissertation, open the following dialog box. The current variable is added to the Expression section, and the current procedure and module added to intro essay, the Context sections. If you click OK , this variable is essays, added to the Watch Window and you can see its value whenever you look at the Watch Window. What’s most powerful about adding watches is that in addition to variables, you can also add expressions, and essay, options to break when the essays day value changes. The latter is particularly powerful when you are having trouble determining why a particular situation arises in your application. Maybe a variable is set in multiple places and you can’t tell which instance is causing the for an essay value to devastating beauty, change. By setting the Watch Type option, you can quickly stop when this occurs. This stops the debugger on the line immediately after the value of the variable/expression changes. This stops the debugger on for an essay, the line immediately after the value of the essay variable/expression evaluates as True . This is useful if you want to stop when a variable becomes a particular value rather than stopping every time it changes values.
For example, if you want the program to stop so that you can debug when the variable reaches 500, type the following line of intro, code in the Expression section. So far, we’ve explored ways to debug an Access application without changing any behavior with the program itself. We’ve added breakpoints or watches that cause the program to does, stop, but after we close Access, the essay database will run normally without stopping. However, there are situations where you might want to have the program stop or behave differently while debugging. Some examples include adding:
Sometimes using the Immediate Window is essays, insufficient for intro essay, testing a function or procedure. Maybe you want to defense, test it multiple times and intro for an, don’t want to type it each time on the Immediate Window, or maybe the procedure call is too complex to use in the Immediate Window. For example, if you are passing variables that get assigned values, that can’t be done from the Immediate Window. Similarly, the procedure you are testing might require calling lots of other procedures in advance to set up the environment before you can run it. In these cases, it’s easiest to writing, create a procedure you only use for intro for an essay, testing. This can be a real time saver if the devastating essay code you are testing is buried deep in a process and you don’t want to run the whole program to get there. The Debug.Print statement lets you write output to the Immediate Window.
Insert this command into sections of your code where you’d like to know the value of for an essay, certain variables, but would rather not stop the program to englisch, get it. For example, if you’re moving through a recordset and for an, would like to know the values of essay muet, a few fields as the processing occurs, you might have code similar to the following before the other processing of the record occurs. It’s not as good as stepping through each line, but maybe this is intro essay, all you need initially to see if a particular routine is running properly before narrowing your search further. The Debug.Assert statement stops your code when the devastating beauty Boolean value passed to it evaluates to False . For example, if you add the intro essay following code, the debugger stops when x is 5. The alternative to using Debug.Assert is to use a Stop statement inside an If clause.
The equivalent to the previous code is the following. Stop statements are rare but some developers like to add it to the end of humor dissertation defense, Select Case statements for intro, what should be an impossible branch. One could argue that during development and testing, if the value should not be one of the acceptable ones, the concluding paragraph program should stop. That’s good, but if this technique is used, before deploying the final version, Stop statements should be eliminated. Far better to have an error arise and trap for that than a program simply stop for the end-user. The error handling examples shown so far only manage errors in the current procedure. In a more complex application, a more advanced error handling system should be used. Intro? A single (global) error handler should process unexpected errors and reveal information beyond the error number and description. This section will reveal how your error handler can document the following: The procedure name where the essay muet writing error occurred.
The procedure call stack to for an essay, see how the concluding essays paragraph procedure was invoked. The line number where the error occurred. Additionally, this information is written to a file on disk so you can keep a permanent record of the problem. Gathering this information can significantly reduce the effort required for identifying, replicating, and fixing your anomalies (bugs). Unfortunately, while Visual Basic 6.0 and VBA track the procedure call stack and let you examine it under the intro for an View , Call Stack menu item while debugging, this information is not available to your code. The only best on teachers way to generate this is to track it yourself. To do this, you need to keep your own Call Stack of intro for an essay, procedure names by doing the following.
Adding a procedure call ( PushCallStack ) at humor dissertation defense, the beginning of the procedure and passing the procedure name to add to the stack. Adding a procedure call ( PopCallStack ) to the end of for an essay, each procedure to devastating beauty essay, remove the procedure name from the stack. Since Visual Basic 6.0 and VBA do not have a current procedure name function, the procedure name needs to be explicitly added when the PushCallStack procedure is called. The following code example illustrates how each procedure should appear. Notice how the PushCallStack procedure is intro for an, invoked at the beginning of the procedure with the name of the current procedure as a parameter. Essay? The PopCallStack is called at intro, the end of the procedure to remove the current procedure name from the stack when the procedure completes successfully. If a problem occurs, the global error handler ( GloalErrHandler ) procedure is invoked.
In most cases, the global error handler will exit the program, but if for some reason it doesn’t the code is designed to exit this procedure. Avoid Exits before the End of the humor defense Procedure. For this process to for an, work, procedures might not quit without going to concluding, the bottom of the procedure. That is, you can’t have code such as “Exit Sub” or “Exit Function” in the middle of intro for an, your procedure; otherwise, the PopDebugStack routine will not be invoked and essays beispiel, the procedure name remains on the stack. An error module should contain your error handling routines. The declarations section should define some variables used by the routines similar to the following code. Adds the current procedure to the call stack array. Needs to be called at the beginning of each procedure. Removes the current procedure from the call stack array. Intro For An Essay? It needs to be called at the end of each procedure, similar to the following code. Track Line Numbers to Pinpoint the Location of a Crash.
After you know which procedure crashed, it is extremely valuable to know where the error occurred. Use the essay muet Erl function to find which line of code generated the error. In many cases, if you know the error and intro, the exact line where it occurred, you can immediately understand the problem and fix it. For example, the following procedure uses a random function and will show you which line it fails on. Of course in a simple procedure, the line number does not offer much, but in muet writing a larger more complicated subroutine, knowing which line crashed can save considerable time and effort replicating and fixing the problem. Unfortunately, the intro for an essay error line feature is only available if you explicitly added line numbers to every line of code.
This is nearly impossible to do manually for all but the devastating beauty essay simplest databases. Use the Total Visual CodeTools program from intro for an FMS to concluding essays paragraph, do this. All procedures should call the global error handler when an error is encountered. From this procedure, you centralize your response to handling errors. At a minimum, you should provide a message to the user and record the error information to a file. Intro Essay? This should include the following: How to notify you of the error (contact information such as phone number, fax, email). The error number and description. If you’ve implemented the Push/PopCallStack routines the current procedure name and call stack. If you’ve added line numbers to your code, the glossary go dissertation error line number. Any other information about Access, the Access workspace, operating system, memory, disk space, DLLs, where files are located, and intro for an essay, so on that might be useful for your diagnoses.
A more sophisticated response might include links to web site technical support pages and devastating essay, product update patches. Customize this to best serve your customers based on their abilities to troubleshoot errors. In most cases, when the essay global error handler is completed, it should quit the program and exit. The following function returns the current procedure name. When an unexpected error occurs, you often need to cleanup the workspace in does go dissertation Access before showing the messages.
The following code is a simple routine that handles some basic tasks. Documenting Crashes to a Text File. To write to a text file, simply use the Print # command. You need to intro essay, determine the name of the text file and which directory it should be placed. In general, we place the error.txt file in the same directory as the application database. However, you might want to put it in dissertation defense a shared network directory (such as where the intro for an linked data database is located) or a specific error location. A text file is the best option for storing error information. Other options such as writing the essays beispiel data to a table or sending an email might fail in error situations (especially out of memory errors).
Writing to a text file is intro essay, quick, simple, and uses minimal resources so it’s almost always successful. Write Code to Prepare the Application. Most applications require some “clean-up” before they can be distributed. Resetting properties to “default” values, emptying tables, copying objects, deleting temporary or test objects, incrementing version numbers, and a variety of other steps might be necessary before you can deploy. Rather than manually performing these tasks, which is prone to error, this should be automated as much as possible. Write some code to take care of these chores, and run it when you make a new build. Disable or Eliminate Debugging Code. Before delivering your application, make sure that your debugging code is removed or disabled. Code such as Stop; Debug.Print; Debug.Assert; should be eliminated or put into essays on teachers day, sections that won’t be invoked. For your error handler to pinpoint the exact line where an error occurs, add line numbers to intro essay, every line of code.
Obviously, this would be difficult to devastating essay, do manually. This is one of many features in FMS’s Total Visual CodeTools. To maintain your application over time and to track changes by intro, version, you need to document it. Some of writing, this can only be done manually, but automated tools can help you not only for an document your application, but also detect problems that would otherwise be very difficult to detect. FMS offers many of the leading tools in this area:
Access database documentation and analysis. Generates complete object and code cross-reference. Know where procedures and variables are used. Detects over 100 types of errors and suggestions including unused objects, unused code, procedures without error handling, procedures that should be private, and much more. Code Builders to simplify writing code such as new procedures with custom error handling, SQL string converters, and more. The Code Cleanup feature standardizes code indentations, adds comments and glossary go dissertation, error handling, sorts procedures, and so on. Intro For An? It also adds line numbers to your code.
Separately, FMS also offers source code libraries that eliminate the essays need to write a lot of code from scratch. Lots of professionally written, tested, and documented code that you can use royalty-free. Add your own code into the system’s sophisticated code repository to easily share code among your development team. FMS also offers related tools for Visual Studio .NET and SQL Server developers. Hopefully, the intro tips and techniques presented here will help you create better Access and Visual Basic 6.0 applications faster. Access and Visual Basic 6.0 offer extremely powerful and flexible debugging tools and you should take advantage of them to minimize the time between discovering an error and fixing it. With the proper error handling methodology and delivery preparation with line numbers, you can also debug and fix errors in deployed applications. Happy application developing! For more information, see the following resources: Luke Chung founded FMS, Inc., in 1986 to provide custom database solutions.
He has directed the company’s product development and consulting services efforts as the database industry evolved. In addition to paragraph, being a primary author and designer of many FMS commercial products, Luke has personally provided consulting services to a wide range of clients. A recognized database expert and for an, highly regarded authority in the Microsoft Access developer community, Luke was featured by Microsoft as an Access Hero during the beauty essay Access 10-year anniversary celebration. Luke is a popular speaker at conferences in for an the US and Europe, and best essays day, has published many articles in industry magazines. He is a past president of the Washington, DC chapter of the essay Entrepreneurs Organization (EO Network), serves on the Fairfax County School Superintendent's Community Advisory Council, and essays, is a graduate of intro for an essay, Harvard University with Bachelor and Master Degrees in Engineering and Applied Sciences.
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How To Write A Resume Summary: 21 Best Examples You Will See. What is the best way to start a resume? The Ladder's research found that recruiters spend an average of 6 seconds looking at your resume! Yeah, you read that right. That means you've got to give recruiters what they want to see in intro for an, the blink of an eye . But how? A little something called a resume summary . A good resume summary puts the information recruiters are looking for dissertation defense first. In this article, I will explain how to write a resume summary that gives recruiters what they want most . And I will explain how to intro essay showcase that information so that it catches the employer’s attention. A great resume summary goes at the top of the essay, page - in the most prominent position. For An! Use it to attract recruiters' attention. Dissertation! Here is a template from our resume builder (create your resume) . See how the resume summary sample stands out? A resume summary is a short, snappy introduction highlighting your career progress and skill set.
An example of a resume summary looks like this: Administrative Assistant with +3 years of experience in intro, a sensitive corporate environment. Outgoing and detail-oriented, I am proficient at building and maintaining professional relationships. Devastating Beauty! Have an intro for an, Associate's Degree in Office Administration. Administrative Assistant seeking meaninful work in dissertation, a corporate environment where I can learn and develop my skills. A resume summary is also known as: Think of it as an “elevator pitch” or “sales pitch” that you can use anytime someone says: Pro Tip: If you're looking for samples of resumes and intro for an summaries for specific professions, you may also want to beauty take a look at our resume examples section. Resume Summary vs.
Objective: What’s the Difference? The difference between a general resume summary and essay a resume objective looks like this: You are at a party. Essays On Teachers Day! Let’s call you Robert. Your wingman approaches the girl you like. Robert likes girls and wants to leverage his skills to intro for an marry one. Boyfriend Material experienced at laying coats over mud puddles, opening doors, and pulling out chairs.
Charming, funny, and concluding a great conversationalist seeking to leverage 10+ years of experience delivering anecdotes to entertain you through boring social events. Has an MA in for an, hand holding and a license to does glossary go dissertation cook romantic dinners. Which wingman is going to get Robert the girl? The resume objective was acceptable a long time ago when dinosaurs roamed the Earth. All you had to intro essay do at the beginning of a resume was write a one-liner that told the recruiter: 2. That you want the does glossary go dissertation, job. Then a meteor came and smashed into the Earth, and all the resume objectives died. Resume objectives are still extremely useful for intro for an certain types of job seekers. So, Who Should Use a Professional Resume Summary? Resume summaries are for people with years of experience who are not making a career change.
You should consider writing a resume objective if you have no experience, are in the middle of a career change, or have some gaps in your job history. If you think that a resume objective would be a better fit for you, read our full guide on how to write resume objectives: +20 Resume Objective Examples - Use Them On Your Resume (Tips) And Where Does a Resume Summary Statement Go on a Resume? A professional summary for a resume should go at the top under the contact information. You will find that experts will refer to this space as “prime real estate” - the penthouse of devastating, your resume. Whatever you put there will be the first thing a recruiter will see when they look at your resume. When the resume summary section is first, a hiring manager sees your value right now. So, don't waste the space. How Long Should a Career Summary on intro essay, a Resume Be?
Depending on who you ask, you will be told that a good example of essays on teachers, a resume summary is anywhere from three to six sentences. As I mentioned in the beginning, an average recruiter will only spend six seconds looking at a resume. Intro Essay! That converts to about 20 or 30 words, which is essay muet around the length of a Tweet. You should also pay attention to the fact that a reader scanning a document will skip over intro for an essay, large blocks of text. With that in essays beispiel, mind, you should consider keeping your personal resume summary statement on the shorter side: Around 3 sentences or 50 words. Pro Tip: Resume summaries tend to be short.
Take a look at for an, a sample resume template from our resume builder. You can create a similar resume here. A resume template from our resume builder - create your resume here. How to Write a Resume Summary in concluding, 7 Easy Steps. 1. How to Start a Summary With a Few of Your Best Accomplishments. When you start writing a professional summary for a resume, it is best to intro essay sit down for a moment and essays englisch beispiel think back over the long span of intro for an, your career. What are my brightest moments? What am I proud of achieving?
What do I love most about what I do? What do I do best? Once you’ve brainstormed, make a list of essay, your achievements (about six bullet points). This is your master list. Here is what it would look like if you were, for example, Indiana Jones: Indy’s Master List of Accomplishments and Top Skills.
Found the Ark of the Covenant. Found the Sankara Stones. Found the Holy Grail. Effectively able to dispatch Nazi bad guys. Intro! Proficient in muet, the use of a bullwhip. Able to fly planes, ride horses, and commandeer motorcycles. Keep in mind that these are the brightest moments and can come from any point in your career. Now make a quick list of your top transferable skills. Transferable skills are skills that you can use in any job . For example, being able to write or being able to speak fluent Spanish. Research and analytical thinking skills (70% of my work is done in the library). Excellent cultural sensitivity.
Able to work in a high-stress, fast-paced environment. Intro For An! Linguist (Speak fluent German, Hindi, and Mandarin Chinese - among other languages). Now you have a master list of concluding paragraph, your achievements and a master list of your transferable skills. For An! Set these aside for best essays day a moment. And make sure you read this article to for an essay find out what skills are currently the most desirable for resumes. You will also find actionable tips on how to showcase your skills on a resume, and a pretty cool infographic featuring R2D2. What does R2D2 have to do with resume skills? Find out here. 2. Scan the Job Post - Find out What the Employer Needs. Keywords are the particular skills or qualities an employer lists in a job post.
Highlight or underline the keyword skills that you find in best essays day, your job description. Who are they looking for? What value do they want an employee to provide? What extra skills or qualities not listed would add unexpected value? Indy’s Job Description - Cocktail Server. 3. Research the Job - Find Out What is Valuable.
Find a few similar job posts. Again, highlight or underline all of the keyword skills and requirements. Compare the new keywords to those in your job description. Anything that does not have a duplicate could add extra value to your resume. Look up other professionals on LinkedIn with the same job as the for an essay, one you want. Their skills section should give you a sense of what recruiters value in that profession. 4. Tailor Your List - Make Your Skills List a Recruiter’s Wish List. Which of my skills and accomplishments match those listed in the job description? How do my accomplishments and skills position me to solve the employer’s problems? What details can I add for muet amplification (numbers, details, proof like certificates or awards)?
5. Start With Your Title to Define Yourself Out of the Gate. Starting a professional summary for a resume with your professional title allows a recruiter to know right away that your resume is relevant. Pro Tip: Make your professional title bold in intro essay, order to draw attention to it, so that it is easy for recruiters to find. Does Glossary Go Dissertation! You will also want to add the number of years you worked in that position. Sassy Marketing Manager with 5+ years of experience.
6. Focus on Specific Results to Prove and Demonstrate Value. Now it’s time to go back to your master list. Condense your list of intro for an essay, 6 accomplishments down to about 3 concise and specific sentences. As you describe your accomplishments and skills, add numbers, details, and glossary proof. Essay! Focusing on quantifiable results in a career summary for dissertation defense a resume does a couple of things: Draws the eye of the recruiter and gives them a tangible sense of what you’ve achieved. Provides proof that your claims are more than just hot air.
Sets you above other candidates who did not elaborate on essay, their accomplishments. Helps the recruiter imagine you achieving the same results for them. Indy’s Professional Resume Summary Sample. Cocktail Waiter Improved collection of essay muet, tickets onboard German zeppelin by 100%. An analytical, fast learner with 2+ years of experience in global, on-demand service positions on essay, zeppelins, boats, and trains. Leveraged extensive cultural and linguistic knowledge (Mandarin Chinese and Hindi) to recover the Sankara Stones while maintaining the highest level of customer service. Able to endure exposure to devastating essay elements such as lava and snake pits, and for an able to physically outmaneuver such obstacles as giant boulders in boobytrapped tombs. Guest Services, Sales, and People Skills Able to Learn and devastating essay Master New Information Basic Math Bilingual Extensive Physical Activity Exposure to intro for an essay Elements. As you can see, Indy starts his sample resume summary statement by opening with the essay writing, title of the job (one of his professional titles) and a headline. His headline is supported by details: He then adds five of the six skills from the job description that match his skill set to intro for an essay his resume summary . He also adds details to amplify the information:
“Linguistic knowledge” is amplified by “Mandarin Chinese and Hindi,” which also covers the essay writing, “Bilingual” language bonus from the intro for an, job description. He avoids the first person, has added keywords like “exposure to paragraph elements,” and has added extra value by exhibiting experience in wait service on various modes of transportation that might be interesting to an employer seeking a waiter to for an serve drinks on essays englisch, a boat. Dr. Jones has also managed to squeeze in a transferable skill - “cultural sensitivity/knowledge.” 7. The Name Drop - A Tried and True Way to Generate Interest. Mention the organizations, clients, and past employers that you’ve worked for where appropriate.
Name dropping is an old marketing technique that you can use when writing a resume summary for a resume to intro impress and establish authority and on teachers day credibility. One word of warning: Employers could see name dropping as unprofessional snobbery. You need to make sure you don’t cross the line. Also, you don't want to name drop confidential clients - because, you know, they're confidential. What you can do instead is say: I worked with top, global clients from (insert specific industry here) . It is best to name drop when it proves the thing you want to show the hiring manager in a professional summary for a resume.
The candidate who did it right has name dropped to prove that her clients are large, multi-national companies. The 7 Dos and intro for an essay Don’ts of essays, Writing a Resume Summary. 1. Essay! Consider Adding a Headline for Extra Oomph. After you write your title, you can add a headline that sums up the main benefits of hiring you. Improved collection of tickets onboard German zeppelin by 100%. 2. Devastating! Microsoft Word is Not an Accomplishment So Leave It Out. Leave your core competencies for intro for an the skills section of your resume. The resume summary section is for devastating your best skills and keyword skills.
Microsoft Office is boring and pedestrian. Your mom, your sister, and intro for an your dog can all use Word. And to dissertation further avoid being boring in a professional summary for a resume, consider using action verbs to describe your best skills. Avoid boring adjectives like “articulate” or “innovative.” Also, get rid of overused verbs like “managed” or “organized.” Action verbs are energetic and specific: Don’t go overboard. You don’t want to sound like a Freshman English major flexing a large vocabulary for the sake of it. Remember that you should use keywords even if they are adjectives. There is for an a good chance that your resume will be fed through an Applicant Tracking System (ATS).
The ATS will scan your resume for devastating essay keywords from the job description. So you need to include them throughout your resume. 3. For An Essay! Ditch the First Person Pronouns to Focus on the Employer. By skipping the “I” and “me” stuff, your resume summary section will stay focused on the employer. When you use the third person and the present tense, a recruiter will be able to envision you doing that work for humor dissertation them.
Here are some resume summary statement examples with and without the essay, first person. If you think it's more appropriate to use the first person, you should. Humor Defense! It's up to you to decide. 4. Ignore Tasks You Hate For Your Sake. When you are making lists of what to include on a resume don’t add anything you hate doing. Same goes for a summary in intro for an, a resume. If you hate doing something (even if you are really good at it), leave it. You will just get stuck doing it again at devastating, your new job, and it won’t make you happy. 5. Avoid Being Generic By Tailoring Each Resume Summary to the Job.
Yes, that’s right. Every time you respond to a different job post, you will need to intro write a new resume summary. The professional resume summary is only at dissertation, peak effectiveness if you tailor it to fit one job description. So, if you are applying for intro for an essay 100 jobs, you need 100 resume summaries. You don't have to writing rewrite the entire thing. Intro For An Essay! You can simply retouch your best resume summary by changing keywords.
Just make sure that it is tailored to the job post. How long should a resume be? In a word: short. Some experts will tell you about the “one-page rule.” You should aim for one page, but resumes are not glass slippers.
You do not need to cram everything on one page like an ugly stepsister if it doesn't fit. A good rule of concluding, thumb is to condense resume sections like the resume summary section at the end of the for an, writing process. Trim the devastating, fat and keep it lean. Good professional summary examples don't exceed a paragraph of text or a few bullet points. If you're having trouble with the length of your resume, have a look at intro essay, our guide on resume length: How Long Should A Resume Be?
Everything You Need To Know 7. Paragraph! Avoid the intro, Cardinal Sin of Resume Writing. No good will come out of lying on beauty, your resume - even if it’s just a little white lie. Maybe you aren’t as good at creating spreadsheets as you made it sound. Good luck explaining that when an elaborate spreadsheet is your first task. Let's say you lie in intro, your hobbies section - you say you like Game of Thrones when you don't. Who cares? Maybe the rabid fan who is conducting your interview. Now you know nothing, Jon Snow. Uh oh.
The best resume summary grabs recruiters’ attention by essays englisch beispiel shouting out: And this is useful when it falls into the hands of a bored and overworked recruiter. In three punchy lines, you can show anyone reading your resume the brightest moments of your career and your dazzling set of skills. Bonus: Download these super-actionable examples of resume summaries that match real job posts here: Resume Summary Examples for Your Profession.” Do you have any question about how to write a great resume summary for intro for an essay your position? Leave a comment. I'll be happy to answer. Natalie is a writer at Uptowork.
She loves writing about resumes and eating tacos more than life itself. She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.