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Fellowship Opportunities for: Under –Represented Minorities
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Fellowship Opportunities for: Under –Represented Minorities
peer review paper In their paper, the authors have tested the hypothesis on the genomes of fellowships minorities eubacteria using a genome-wide approach based on multiple machine learning models. Thesis Statement Spider! Eubacteria are an interesting set of organisms which have an appreciably high variation in their nucleotide composition with the dissertation percentage of CG genetic material ranging from 20% to 70%. The authors classified different eubacterial proteomes in terms of their aggregation propensity and chaperone-dependence. On Skills And Abilities! For this purpose, new classifiers had to be developed which were based on carefully curated data. They took account for twenty-four different features among which are sequence patterns, the pseudo amino acid composition of dissertation fellowships phenylalanine, aspartic and statement for a noiseless spider glutamic acid, the distribution of positively charged amino acids, the FoldIndex score and dissertation fellowships minorities the hydrophobicity. These classifiers seem to on merchant of venice be altogether more accurate and robust than previous such parameters. The authors found that, contrary to what expected from the working hypothesis, which would predict a decrease in protein aggregation with an dissertation increase in GC richness, the aggregation propensity of proteomes increases with the GC content and thus the stability of the proteome against on skills and abilities aggregation increases with the decrease in GC content. Fellowships Minorities! The work also established a direct correlation between GC-poor proteomes and a lower dependence on GroEL. The authors conclude by essay on skills and abilities, proposing that a decrease in eubacterial GC content may have been selected in organisms facing proteostasis problems.
A way to test the overall results would be through in vitro evolution experiments aimed at testing whether adaptation to low GC content provide folding advantage. The main strengths of this paper is that it addresses an interesting and timely question, finds a novel solution based on a carefully selected set of dissertation fellowships rules, and provides a clear answer. As such this article represents an excellent and elegant bioinformatics genome-wide study which will almost certainly influence our thinking about protein aggregation and evolution. Some of the weaknesses are the not always easy readability of the text which establishes unclear logical links between concepts. Another possible criticism could be that, as any in silico study, it makes strong assumptions on the sequence features that lead to aggregation and strongly relies on the quality of the classifiers used. Even though the developed classifiers seem to be more robust than previous such parameters, they remain only overall indications which can only essay on skills, allow statistical considerations. It could of course be argued that this is fellowships minorities good enough to reach meaningful conclusions in on skills and abilities this specific case. I NaL is a small current component generated by a fraction of Nav1.5 channels that instead to entering in minorities the inactivated state, rapidly reopened in a burst mode.
I NaL critically determines action potential duration (APD), in such a way that both acquired (myocardial ischemia and heart failure among others) or inherited (long QT type 3) diseases that augmented the collection;governmentalJurisdictions I NaL magnitude also increase the fellowships susceptibility to cardiac arrhythmias. Dissertation! Therefore, I NaL has been recognized as an dissertation minorities important target for the development of drugs with either antiischemic or antiarrhythmic effects. Unfortunately, accurate measurement of I NaL is a time consuming and technical challenge because of its extra-small density. The automated patch clamp device tested by Chevalier et al. Dissertation Editing Services! resolves this problem and allows fast and reliable I NaL measurements. The results here presented merit some comments and arise some unresolved questions. First, in some experiments (such is the dissertation case in experiments B and D in Figure 2) current recordings obtained before the ranolazine perfusion seem to be quite unstable. Indeed, the amplitude progressively increased to a maximum value that was considered as the control value (highlighted with arrows). Type On Merchant Of Venice! Can this problem be overcome? Is this a consequence of a slow intracellular dialysis? Is it a consequence of dissertation a time-dependent shift of the voltage dependence of activation/inactivation?
Second, as shown in Figure 2, intensity of drug effects seems to be quite variable. In fact, experiments A, B, C, and D in rico thesis Figure 2 and panel 2D, demonstrated that veratridine augmentation ranged from dissertation fellowships, 0-400%. Even assuming the normal biological variability, we wonder as to whether this broad range of effect intensities can be justified by changes in essay and abilities the perfusion system. Has been the automated dispensing system tested? If not, we suggest testing the effects of several K + concentrations on inward rectifier currents generated by Kir2.1 channels (I Kir2.1 ). The authors demonstrated that the dissertation fellowships recording quality was so high that the automated device allows to the differentiation between noise and current, even when measuring currents of less than 5 pA of essay questions of venice amplitude. In order to make more precise mechanistic assumptions, the authors performed an elegant estimation of current variance (? 2 ) and macroscopic current (I) following the procedure described more than 30 years ago by Van Driessche and Lindemann 1 . By means of this method, Chevalier et al. concluded that ranolazine acts as an open pore blocker reducing the open channel probability, while veratridine increases the number of dissertation fellowships channels in rico thesis the burst mode. We respectfully would like to stress that these considerations must be put in context from a pharmacological point of fellowships view. We do not doubt that ranolazine acts as an open channel blocker, what it seems clear however, is that its onset block kinetics has to be “ultra” slow, otherwise ranolazine would decrease peak I NaL even at low frequencies of stimulation.
This comment points towards the fact that for a precise mechanistic study of dissertation editing services ionic current modifying drugs it is mandatory to minorities analyze drug effects with much more complicated pulse protocols. Questions thus are: does this automated equipment allow to the analysis of the frequency-, time-, and for a spider voltage-dependent effects of drugs? Can versatile and complicated pulse protocols be applied? Does it allow to a good voltage control even when generated currents are big and fast? If this is not possible, and by means of its extraordinary discrimination between current and noise, this automated patch-clamp equipment will only be helpful for rapid I NaL -modifying drug screening. Obviously it will also be perfect to test HERG blocking drug effects as demanded by the regulatory authorities. Finally, as cardiac electrophysiologists, we would like to stress that it seems that our dream of testing drug effects on human ventricular myocytes seems to come true. Indeed, human atrial myocytes are technically, ethically and logistically difficult to get, but human ventricular are almost impossible to be obtained unless from the explanted hearts from patients at the end stage of cardiac diseases. Here the dissertation fellowships minorities authors demonstrated that ventricular myocytes derived from hiPS generate beautiful action potentials that can be recorded with this automated equipment. Services! The traces shown suggested that there was not alternation in the action potential duration.
Is this a consistent finding? How long do last these stable recordings? The only comment is dissertation fellowships minorities that resting membrane potential seems to be somewhat variable. Can this be resolved? Is it an thesis statement for a noiseless spider unexpected veratridine effect? Standardization of maturation methods of ventricular myocytes derived from hiPS will be a big achievement for cardiac cellular electrophysiology which was obliged for fellowships minorities years to the imprecise extrapolation of data obtained from a combination of several species none of which was representative of human electrophysiology.
The big deal will be the maturation of human atrial myocytes derived from hiPS that fulfil the known characteristics of human atrial cells. We suggest suppressing the initial sentence of section 3. We surmise that results obtained from the services collection;governmentalJurisdictions experiments described in this section cannot serve to understand the role of I NaL in dissertation fellowships arrhythmogenesis. 1. Van Driessche W, Lindemann B: Concentration dependence of currents through single sodium-selective pores in frog skin. Nature . 1979; 282 (5738): 519-520 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text. Based on all these factors, it is impossible for essay and abilities me to approve this manuscript. Dissertation Fellowships! I should however state that it is laudable that the authors chose to make all the research for journals raw data of their experiment publicly available. Dissertation Fellowships Minorities! Without this it would have impossible for thesis spider me to carry out the additional analyses, and thus the most fundamental problem in the analysis would have remained unknown. I respect the authors’ patience and professionalism in dissertation fellowships dealing with what I can only assume is paper topics a rather harsh review experience. I am honoured by the request for minorities an adversarial collaboration.
I do not rule out such efforts at some point in rico thesis the future. Dissertation Fellowships! However, for all of the reasons outlined in this and my previous review, I do not think the time is right for this experiment to proceed to this stage. Papers! Fundamental analytical flaws and weaknesses in the design should be ruled out first. An adversarial collaboration only really makes sense to me for paradigms were we can be confident that mundane or trivial factors have been excluded. I was very pleased to see the within-isolate behavior was consistent in replicate experiments one year apart. Fellowships! The authors further argue that the between-isolate differences in behavior arise from a Founder's effect, at least in the differences in locomotor behavior between the Paris lines CS_TP and CS_JC. I believe this is a very reasonable and testable hypothesis. It predicts that genetic variability for these traits exist within the populations. It should now be possible to perform selection experiments from the original CS_TP population to replicate the founding event and estimate the heritability of these traits. Two other things that I liked about this manuscript are the ability to adjust parameters in figure 3, and rico thesis our ability to download the fellowships raw data. Thesis For A! After reading the manuscript, I was a little disappointed that the performance of the five strains in each 12 behavioral variables weren't broken down individually in a table or figure.
I thought this may help us readers understand what the principle components were representing. The authors have made this data readily accessible in a downloadable spreadsheet. Only 2 areas need revision: Page 3, para 2: the notion that these data from minorities, Papp et al . convey is critical and dissertation services the message needs an dissertation fellowships explicit sentence or two at end of paragraph. Writing Papers For Journals! Page 4, Conclusion: the assertion concerning the ethics of the two Phase 3 clinical trials needs toning down. Perhaps rephrase to indicate that the value and sense of doing these trials is open to dissertation fellowships minorities question, with attendant ethical implications, or softer wording to that effect. In detail, the authors begin with gene responsible for X-linked spinal muscular atrophy and express both the papers wild-type version of that human gene as well as a mutant form of that gene in S. pombe . The conceptual leap here is fellowships that progress in dissertation editing collection;governmentalJurisdictions genetics is driven by phenotype, and this approach involving a yeast with no spine or muscles to atrophy is nevertheless and N-dimensional detector of phenotype. The study is not without a small measure of luck in that expression of the wild-type UBA1 gene caused a slow growth phenotype which the mutant did not.
Hence there was something in S. pombe that could feel the fellowships impact of this protein. Given this phenotype, the authors then went to work and using the power of the synthetic genetic array approach pioneered by Boone and colleagues made a systematic set of double mutants combining the human expressed UBA1 gene with knockout alleles of a plurality of S. pombe genes. They found well over a hundred mutations that either enhanced or suppressed the paper example topics growth defect of the cells expressing UBI1. Most of these have human orthologs. My hunch is that many human genes expressed in dissertation minorities yeast will have some comparably exploitable phenotype, and time will tell. Building on the interaction networks of S. pombe genes already established, augmenting these networks by the protein interaction networks from yeast and type questions of venice from human proteome studies involving these genes, and from the structure of the emerging networks, the authors deduced that an E3 ligase modulated UBA1 and made the leap that it therefore might also impact X-linked Spinal Muscular Atrophy. Here, the awesome power of the model organism community comes into the picture as there is a zebrafish model of spinal muscular atrophy. The principle of phenologs articulated by the Marcotte group inspire the fellowships recognition of the transitive logic of how phenotypes in one organism relate to phenotypes in another. With this zebrafish model, they were able to confirm that an inhibitor of E3 ligases and of the Nedd8-E1 activating suppressed the on skills motor axon anomalies, as predicted by the effect of mutations in S. Minorities! pombe on the phenotypes of the on skills UBA1 overexpression. I believe this is an important paper to teach in intro graduate courses as it illustrates beautifully how important it is to dissertation fellowships know about and embrace the many new sources of systematic genetic information and apply them broadly.
This is my first open review, so I'm not sure of the protocol. But given that there appears to essay and abilities be errors in both Efron (2013b) and dissertation the paper under review, I am sorry to say that my review might actually be longer than the article by Efron (2013a), the primary focus of the critique, and the critique itself. Essay On Skills! I apologize in advance for this. To start, I will outline the problem being discussed for the sake of dissertation fellowships readers. This problem has various parameters of interest. The primary parameter is the genetic composition of the twins in writing papers the mother’s womb.
Are they identical (which I describe as the state x = 1) or fraternal twins ( x = 0)? Let y be the data, with y = 1 to indicate the dissertation minorities twins are the writing for journals same gender. Finally, we wish to obtain Pr( x = 1 | y = 1), the probability the twins are identical given they are the same gender1. Bayes’ rule gives us an expression for this: Now we know that Pr( y = 1 | x = 1) = 1; twins must be the same gender if they are identical.
Further, Pr( y = 1 | x = 0) = 1/2; if twins are not identical, the probability of fellowships them being the same gender is 1/2. Finally, Pr( x = 1) is the essay on skills and abilities prior probability that the twins are identical. The bone of contention in dissertation fellowships minorities the Efron papers and on skills the critique by Amrhein et al. revolves around how this prior is treated. One can think of Pr( x = 1) as the population-level proportion of dissertation fellowships twins that are identical for a mother like the one being considered. However, if we ignore other forms of on skills twins that are extremely rare (equivalent to ignoring coins finishing on their edges when flipping them), one incontrovertible fact is that Pr( x = 0) = 1 ? Pr( x = 1); the probability that the fellowships minorities twins are fraternal is the complement of the probability that they are identical. The above values and expressions for Pr( y = 1 | x = 1), Pr( y = 1 | x = 0), and Pr( x = 0) leads to essay type on merchant a simpler expression for dissertation fellowships minorities the probability that we seek ‐ the thesis statement patient spider probability that the twins are identical given they have the same gender: We see that the dissertation fellowships answer depends on the prior probability that the paper example twins are identical, Pr( x =1). Dissertation Minorities! The paper by Amrhein et al. Essay On Skills! points out that this is a mathematical fact. Fellowships! For example, if identical twins were impossible (Pr( x = 1) = 0), then Pr( x = 1| y = 1) = 0. Similarly, if all twins were identical (Pr( x = 1) = 1), then Pr( x = 1| y = 1) = 1. The “true” prior lies somewhere in between. Apparently, the doctor knows that one third of of venice twins are identical2.
Therefore, if we assume Pr( x = 1) = 1/3, then Pr( x = 1| y = 1) = 1/2. Now, what would happen if we didn't have the doctor's knowledge? Laplace's “Principle of Insufficient Reason” would suggest that we give equal prior probability to all possibilities, so Pr( x = 1) = 1/2 and Pr( x = 1| y = 1) = 2/3, an answer different from dissertation fellowships, 1/2 that was obtained when using the and abilities doctor's prior of 1/3. Efron (2013a) highlights this sensitivity to minorities the prior, representing someone who defines an uninformative prior as a “violator”, with Laplace as the “prime violator”. Editing Services! In contrast, Amrhein et al. correctly points out that the difference in minorities the posterior probabilities is merely a consequence of mathematical logic. No one is violating logic they are merely expressing ignorance by specifying equal probabilities to all states of nature. Whether this is philosophically valid is debatable (Colyvan 2008), but this example does not lend much weight to that question, and it is well beyond the scope of this review. But setting Pr( x = 1) = 1/2 is not a violation; it is rico thesis merely an assumption with consequences (and one that in hindsight might be incorrect2).
Alternatively, if we don't know Pr( x = 1), we could describe that probability by its own probability distribution. Dissertation Minorities! Now the problem has two aspects that are uncertain. We don’t know the true state x , and we don’t know the prior (except in the case where we use the doctor’s knowledge that Pr( x = 1) = 1/3). Dissertation! Uncertainty in the state of x refers to uncertainty about fellowships minorities this particular set of twins. In contrast, uncertainty in Pr( x = 1) reflects uncertainty in the population-level frequency of identical twins.
A key point is that the state of one particular set of twins is research paper example topics a different parameter from the frequency of occurrence of identical twins in the population. Without knowledge about Pr( x = 1), we might use Pr( x = 1) dunif(0, 1), which is dissertation minorities consistent with Laplace. Alternatively, Efron (2013b) notes another alternative for an uninformative prior: Pr( x = 1) dbeta(0.5, 0.5), which is the Jeffreys prior for a probability. Here I disagree with Amrhein et al. Essay On Skills And Abilities! ; I think they are confusing the two uncertain parameters. Dissertation Fellowships Minorities! Amrhein et al. state: “We argue that this example is not only flawed, but useless in collection;governmentalJurisdictions illustrating Bayesian data analysis because it does not rely on any data. Although there is one data point (a couple is due to be parents of twin boys, and the twins are fraternal), Efron does not use it to update prior knowledge. Instead, Efron combines different pieces of expert knowledge from the doctor and genetics using Bayes’ theorem.”
This claim might be correct when describing uncertainty in the population-level frequency of identical twins. The data about the twin boys is not useful by itself for fellowships this purpose they are a biased sample (the data have come to light because their gender is the same; they are not a random sample of twins). Further, a sample of size one, especially if biased, is thesis statement for a noiseless patient spider not a firm basis for minorities inference about a population parameter. While the data are biased, the claim by Amrheim et al. For A Noiseless! that there are no data is fellowships incorrect. However, the essay and abilities data point (the twins have the same gender) is entirely relevant to the question about the state of this particular set of twins. And it does update the dissertation prior. This updating of the prior is given by for journals, equation (1) above. The doctor’s prior probability that the twins are identical (1/3) becomes the posterior probability (1/2) when using information that the twins are the same gender. Dissertation! The prior is clearly updated with Pr( x = 1| y = 1) ≠ Pr( x = 1) in writing all but trivial cases; Amrheim et al. ’s statement that I quoted above is incorrect in this regard. This possible confusion between uncertainty about these twins and uncertainty about the dissertation population level frequency of essay type on merchant identical twins is further suggested by Amrhein et al. Dissertation Fellowships! ’s statements: “Second, for the uninformative prior, Efron mentions erroneously that he used a uniform distribution between zero and one, which is clearly different from the value of 0.5 that was used.
Third, we find it at research topics, least debatable whether a prior can be called an uninformative prior if it has a fixed value of dissertation fellowships 0.5 given without any measurement of uncertainty.” Note, if the research paper example prior for Pr( x = 1) is specified as 0.5, or dunif(0,1), or dbeta(0.5, 0.5), the posterior probability that these twins are identical is 2/3 in all cases. Dissertation Fellowships Minorities! Efron (2013b) says the different priors lead to different results, but this result is incorrect, and the correct answer (2/3) is dissertation services given in Efron (2013a)3. Nevertheless, a prior that specifies Pr( x = 1) = 0.5 does indicate uncertainty about whether this particular set of twins is identical (but certainty in the population level frequency of twins). And Efron’s (2013a) result is consistent with Pr( x = 1) having a uniform prior. Minorities! Therefore, both claims in the quote above are incorrect. It is probably easiest to show the (lack of) influence of the prior using MCMC sampling. Here is WinBUGS code for the case using Pr( x = 1) = 0.5. Running this model in WinBUGS shows that the posterior mean of x is 2/3; this is the posterior probability that x = 1. Instead of using pr_ident_twins - 0.5, we could set this probability as being uncertain and define pr_ident_twins.
dunif(0,1), or pr_ident_twins. dbeta(0.5,0.5). In either case, the posterior mean value of x remains 2/3 (contrary to Efron 2013b, but in accord with the correction in essay on skills Efron 2013a). Note, however, that the value of the dissertation fellowships minorities population level parameter pr_ident_twins is different in all three cases. In the paper example first it remains unchanged at 1/2 where it was set. Dissertation Fellowships! In the case where the prior distribution for pr_ident_twins is uniform or beta, the posterior distributions remain broad, but they differ depending on the prior (as they should different priors lead to different posteriors4). Thesis For A Spider! However, given the biased sample size of 1, the posterior distribution for this particular parameter is likely to be misleading as an estimate of the population-level frequency of twins. So why doesn’t the choice of prior influence the posterior probability that these twins are identical?
Well, for these three priors, the prior probability that any single set of twins is identical is 1/2 (this is essentially the mean of the prior distributions in these three cases). If, instead, we set the fellowships minorities prior as dbeta(1,2), which has a mean of 1/3, then the posterior probability that these twins are identical is 1/2. This is the same result as if we had set Pr( x = 1) = 1/3. In both these cases (choosing dbeta(1,2) or 1/3), the prior probability that a single set of twins is identical is noiseless 1/3, so the posterior is the same (1/2) given the data (the twins have the same gender). Further, Amrhein et al. also seem to misunderstand the dissertation data. They note: “Although there is one data point (a couple is due to be parents of twin boys, and the twins are fraternal). Type Questions Of Venice! ”
This is incorrect. The parents simply know that the fellowships minorities twins are both male. Whether they are fraternal is unknown (fraternal twins being the complement of identical twins) that is the question the parents are asking. This error of research paper example interpretation makes the calculations in Box 1 and dissertation fellowships minorities subsequent comments irrelevant. Box 1 also implies Amrhein et al. are using the data to estimate the population frequency of identical twins rather than the state of rico thesis this particular set of twins. This is different from the aim of Efron (2013a) and the stated question.
Efron suggests that Bayesian calculations should be checked with frequentist methods when priors are uncertain. However, this is dissertation minorities a good example where this cannot be done easily, and for a spider Amrhein et al. are correct to point this out. In this case, we are interested in the probability that the hypothesis is true given the data (an inverse probability), not the probabilities that the observed data would be generated given particular hypotheses (frequentist probabilities). If one wants the dissertation fellowships inverse probability (the probability the twins are identical given they are the rico thesis same gender), then Bayesian methods (and therefore a prior) are required. A logical answer simply requires that the prior is constructed logically.
Whether that answer is “correct” will be, in most cases, only dissertation minorities, known in hindsight. However, one possible way to analyse this example using frequentist methods would be to assess the likelihood of obtaining the rico thesis data for each of the two hypothesis (the twins are identical or fraternal). The likelihood of the twins having the same gender under the hypothesis that they are identical is 1. Dissertation! The likelihood of the twins having the same gender under the hypothesis that they are fraternal is 0.5. Therefore, the weight of evidence in favour of identical twins is twice that of fraternal twins. Scaling these weights so they sum to essay on skills and abilities one (Burnham and Anderson 2002), gives a weight of 2/3 for dissertation minorities identical twins and 1/3 for fraternal twins. These scaled weights have the same numerical values as the posterior probabilities based on either a Laplace or Jeffreys prior. Thus, one might argue that the weight of evidence for each hypothesis when using frequentist methods is equivalent to the posterior probabilities derived from an uninformative prior. So, as a final aside in reference to noiseless spider Efron (2013a), if we are being “violators” when using a uniform prior, are we also being “violators” when using frequentist methods to weigh evidence? Regardless of the answer to this rhetorical question, “checking” the results with frequentist methods doesn’t give any more insight than using uninformative priors (in this case). However, this analysis shows that the dissertation fellowships question can be analysed using frequentist methods; the single data point is not a problem for this.
The claim in Armhein et al. Essay On Skills And Abilities! that a frequentist analyis is impossible because there is only one data point, and frequentist methods generally cannot handle such situations is not supported by this example. In summary, the comment by Amrhein et al. raises some interesting points that seem worth discussing, but it makes important errors in analysis and interpretation, and misrepresents the fellowships minorities results of Efron (2013a). This means the current version should not be approved. Colyvan, M. 2008. Is Probability the Only Coherent Approach to Uncertainty? Risk Anal. 28: 645-652. Efron B. Writing Research Papers! (2003a) Bayes’ Theorem in dissertation minorities the 21st Century.
Science 340(6137): 1177-1178. Efron B. Thesis Patient Spider! (2013b) A 250-year argument: Belief, behavior, and the bootstrap. Bull Amer. Fellowships Minorities! Math Soc. 50: 129-146. The twins are both male. Rico Thesis! However, if the twins were both female, the statistical results would be the same, so I will simply use the data that the dissertation fellowships minorities twins are the same gender. In reality, the frequency of thesis statement for a noiseless twins that are identical is likely to vary depending on many factors but we will accept 1/3 for fellowships now. Efron (2013b) reports the posterior probability for rico thesis these twins being identical as “a whopping 61.4% with a flat Laplace prior” but as 2/3 in fellowships minorities Efron (2013a). The latter (I assume 2/3 is “even more whopping”!) is the correct answer, which I confirmed via email with Professor Efron. Therefore, Efron (2013b) incorrectly claims the posterior probability is sensitive to the choice between a Jeffreys or Laplace uninformative prior.
When the data are very informative relative to the different priors, the on skills and abilities posteriors will be similar, although not identical. The authors take a rather narrow view of data publication, which I think hinders their analyses. They describe three types of (digital) data publication: Data as a supplement to dissertation fellowships minorities an article; data as the subject of rico thesis a paper; and data independent of a paper. The first two types are relatively new and they represent very little of the data actually being published or released today. The last category, which is essentially an “other” category, is rich in its complexity and encompasses the vast majority of data released. I was disappointed that the examples of this type were only the most bare-bones (Zenodo and Figshare). I think a deeper examination of this third category and its complexity would help the authors better characterize the current landscape and suggest paths forward. Some questions the authors might consider: Are these really the dissertation only three models in consideration or does the publication model overstate a consensus around a certain type of data publication? Why are there different models and which approach is better for different situations? Do they have different business models or imply different social contracts?
Might it also be worthy of typing “publishers” instead of “publications”? For example, do domain repositories vs. institutional repositories vs. publishers address the issues differently? Are these models sustaining models or just something to get us through the next 5-10 years while we really figure it out? I think this oversimplification inhibited some deeper analysis in other areas as well. I would like to see more examination of the validation requirement beyond the lens of peer review, and I would like a deeper examination of incentives and credit beyond citation. I thought the validation section of the paper was very relevant, but somewhat light. I like the choice of the term validation as more accurate than “quality” and it fits quite well with Callaghan’s useful distinction between technical and writing research scientific review, but I think the authors overemphasize the peer-review style approach.
The authors rightly argue that “peer-review” is where the publication metaphor leads us, but it may be a false path. They overstate some difficulties of peer-review (No-one looks at every data value? No, they use statistics, visualization, and other techniques.) while not fully considering who is responsible for what. We need a closer examination of different roles and who are appropriate validators (not necessarily conventional peers). The narrowly defined models of fellowships minorities data publication may easily allow for a conventional peer-review process, but it is on merchant of venice much more complex in the real-world “other” category. Minorities! The authors discuss some of this in what they call “independent data validation,” but they don’t draw any conclusions. Only the dissertation editing services collection;governmentalJurisdictions simplest of dissertation fellowships minorities research data collections are validated only by type questions on merchant, the original creators. Dissertation Fellowships Minorities! More often there are teams working together to develop experiments, sampling protocols, algorithms, etc. There are additional teams who assess, calibrate, and revise the data as they are collected and assembled.
The authors discuss some of this in research paper their examples like the PDS and tDAR, but I wish they were more analytical and offered an opinion on the way forward. Are there emerging practices or consensus in these team-based schemes? The level of fellowships service concept illustrated by on merchant of venice, Open Context may be one such area. Would formalizing or codifying some of dissertation fellowships these processes accomplish the same as peer-review or more? What is the writing research role of the dissertation minorities curator or data scientist in all of this? Given the authors’s backgrounds, I was surprised this role was not emphasized more.
Finally, I think it is a mistake for science review to be the essay and abilities main way to minorities assess reuse value. Editing Services Collection;governmentalJurisdictions! It has been shown time and again that data end up being used effectively (and valued) in ways that original experts never envisioned or even thought valid. The discussion of data citation was good and captured the state of the art well, but again I would have liked to dissertation see some views on a way forward. Have we solved the basic problem and writing are now just dealing with edge cases? Is the “just-in-time identifier” the way to go? What are the implications? Will the dissertation more basic solutions work in on skills and abilities the interim? More critically, are we overemphasizing the role of citation to provide academic credit? I was gratified that the fellowships authors referenced the Parsons and patient spider Fox paper which questions the whole data publication metaphor, but I was surprised that they only discussed the “data as software” alternative metaphor. That is a useful metaphor, but I think the ecosystem metaphor has broader acceptance.
I mention this because the authors critique the software metaphor because “using it to alter or affect the academic reward system is a tricky prospect”. Yet there is little to suggest that data publication and fellowships minorities corresponding citation alters that system either. Thesis Statement For A Patient! Indeed there is little if any evidence that data publication and minorities citation incentivize data sharing or stewardship. As Christine Borgman suggests, we need to look more closely at who we are trying to incentivize to research for journals do what. There is no reason to assume it follows the same model as research literature publication. It may be beyond the scope of this paper to fully examine incentive structures, but it at least needs to be acknowledged that building on the current model doesn’t seem to be working.
Finally, what is the fellowships minorities takeaway message from questions on merchant of venice, this essay? It ends rather abruptly with no summary, no suggested directions or immediate challenges to overcome, no call to action, no indications of things we should stop trying, and dissertation minorities only brief mention of alternative perspectives. Questions On Merchant Of Venice! What do the authors want us to take away from this paper? Overall though, this is fellowships minorities a timely and editing services collection;governmentalJurisdictions needed essay. It is well researched and nicely written with rich metaphor. Dissertation Fellowships! With modifications addressing the detailed comments below and better recognizing the complexity of the example topics current data publication landscape, this will be a worthwhile review paper. With more significant modification where the authors dig deeper into the complexities and controversies and truly grapple with their implications to suggest a way forward, this could be a very influential paper.
It is possible that the definitions of “publication” and “peer-review” need not be just stretched but changed or even rejected. The whole paper needs a quick copy edit. Fellowships Minorities! There are a few typos, missing words, and wrong verb tenses. Note the word “data” is a plural noun. E.g., Data are not software, nor are they literature. (NSICD, instead of NSIDC) Page 2, para 2: “citability is statement noiseless spider addressed by assigning a PID.” This is not true, as the authors discuss on page 4, para 4. Indeed, page 4, para 4 seems to contradict itself. Citation is more than a locator/identifier. In the discussion of “Data independent of any paper” it is minorities worth noting that there may often be linkages between these data and services collection;governmentalJurisdictions myriad papers. Indeed a looser concept of a data paper has existed for dissertation fellowships some time, where researchers request a citation to a paper even though it is not the data nor fully describes the data (e.g the CRU temp records) Page 4, para 1: I’m not sure it’s entirely true that published data cannot involve requesting permission. In past work with Indigenous knowledge holders, they were willing to thesis statement noiseless patient publish summary data and fellowships then provide the details when satisfied the use was appropriate and on skills and abilities not exploitive. I think those data were “published” as best they could be. A nit, perhaps, but it highlights that there are few if any hard and fast rules about dissertation minorities data publication.
Page 4, para 2: You may also want to mention the WDS certification effort, which is combining with the DSA via an RDA Working Group: Page 4, para 2: The joint declaration of thesis statement noiseless patient spider data citation principles involved many more organizations than Force11, CODATA, and DCC. Please credit them all (maybe in a footnote). The glory of the minorities effort was that it was truly a joint effort across many groups. Research Paper! There is no leader. Minorities! Force11 was primarily a convener.
Page 4, para 6: The deep citation approach recommended by ESIP is not to just to list variables or a range of data. Dissertation Editing Collection;governmentalJurisdictions! It is to identify a “structural index” for the data and to fellowships use this to reference subsets. In Earth science this structural index is often space and time, but many other indices are possible--location in a gene sequence, file type, variable, bandwidth, viewing angle, etc. It is not just for “straightforward” data sets. Page 5, para 5: I take issue with the statement that few repositories provide scientific review. I can think of a couple dozen that do just off the top of rico thesis my head, and dissertation fellowships I bet most domain repositories have some level of science review. The “scientists” may not always be in house, but the repository is a team facilitator. See my general comments. Page 5, para 10: The PDS system is only unusual in and abilities that it is well documented and dissertation advertised. As mentioned, this team style approach is actually fairly common. Page 6, para 3: Parsons and Fox don’t just argue that the data publication metaphor is limiting.
They also say it is misleading. Thesis For A Noiseless Patient! That should be acknowledged at least, if not actively grappled with. Artifact removal: Unfortunately the authors have not updated the paper with a 2x2 table showing guns and smiles by removed data points. This could dispel criticism that an asymmetrical expectation bias that has been shown to exist in similar experiments is not driving a bias leading to inappropriate conclusions. Artifact removal: Unfortunately the authors have not updated the paper with a 2x2 table showing guns and smiles by dissertation minorities, removed data points. This could dispel criticism that an asymmetrical expectation bias that has been shown to exist in similar experiments is not driving a bias leading to inappropriate conclusions. This is essay on skills my strongest criticism of the paper and should be easily addressed as per my previous review comment. Dissertation Fellowships! The fact that this simple data presentation was not performed to remove a clear potential source of spurious results is disappointing.
The authors have added 95% CIs to statement noiseless patient figures S1 and S2. This clarifies the scope for expectation bias in these data. The addition of error bars permits the dissertation authors’ assumption of a linear trend, indicating that the effect of sequences of either guns or smiles may not skew results. Equally, there could be either a downwards or upwards trend fitting within the confidence intervals that could be indicative of a cognitive bias that may violate the assumptions of the authors, leading to paper spurious results. One way to dissertation minorities remove these doubts could be to stratify the analyses by rico thesis, the length of sequences of identical symbols. If the results hold up in each of the strata, this potential bias could be shown to not be present in the data. If the bias is strong, particularly in longer runs, this could indicate that the positive result was due to small numbers of longer identical runs combined with a cognitive bias rather than an ability to predict future events. The manuscript is fellowships well-written and nicely presented, with a good balance of descriptive text and discourse and practical illustration of research package usage.
A number of examples illustrate the scope of the package, something that is fully expanded upon in the two appendices, which are a welcome addition to the paper. As to the package, I am not overly fond of long function names; the authors should consider dropping the data source abbreviations from the dissertation fellowships minorities function names in a future update/revision of the package. Likewise there is some inconsistency in the naming conventions used. For example there is the ’tpl_search()’ function to search The Plant List, but the equivalent function to search uBio is ’ubio_namebank()’. Paper Topics! Whilst this may reflect specific aspects of terminology in use at the respective data stores, it does not help the user gain familiarity with the package by having them remember inconsistent function names. One advantage of taxize is dissertation fellowships minorities that it draws together a rich selection of data stores to query. A further suggestion for a future update would be to add generic function names, that apply to a database connection/information object. The latter would describe the resource the user wants to editing services search and dissertation any other required information, such as the API key, etc., for research example topics example: foo - taxizeDB(what = uBio, key = 1646546164694) The user function to search would then be ’search(foo, Abies)’. Similar generically named functions would provide the primary user-interface, thus promoting a more consistent toolbox at the R level. This will become increasingly relevant as the dissertation fellowships scope of taxize increases through the addition of new data stores that the package can access.
In terms of presentation in rico thesis the paper, I really don’t like the way the R code inputs merge with the R outputs. I know the author of Knitr doesn’t like the demarcation of dissertation minorities output being polluted by the R prompt, but I do find it difficult parsing the inputs/outputs you show because often there is no space between them and users not familiar with R will have greater difficulties than I. Research Paper Topics! Consider adding in more conventional indications of R outputs, or physically separate input from output by breaking up the chunks of code to have whitespace between the grey-background chunks. Related, in one location I noticed something amiss with the layout; in the first code block at dissertation fellowships minorities, the top of rico thesis page 5, the minorities printed output looks wrong here. Writing Research For Journals! I would expect the attributes to dissertation print on their own line and the data in the attribute to also be on its own separate line. Note also, the inconsistency in the naming of the output object columns. For example, in rico thesis the two code chunks shown in column 1 of page 4, the first block has an object printed with column names ’matched_name’ and ’data_source_title’, whilst camelCase is used in the outputs shown in the second block.
As the package is revised and developed, consider this and other aspects of providing a consistent presentation to the user. I was a little confused about the minorities example in the section Resolve Taxonomic Names on page 4. Should the taxon name be “Helianthus annuus” or “Helianthus annus” ? In the ‘mynames’ definition you include ‘Helianthus annuus’ in thesis statement the character vector but the output shown suggests that the submitted name was ‘Helianthus annus’ (1 “u”) in dissertation fellowships minorities rows with rownames 9 and 10 in the output shown. Other than that there were the following minor observations: Abstract: replace “easy” with “simple” in “. fashion that’s easy. Essay! ” , and move the details about availability and the URI to the end of the sentence. Page 2, Column 1, Paragraph 2: You have “In addition, there is no one authoritative taxonomic names source. ” , which is a little clumsy to fellowships minorities read.
How about “In addition, there is rico thesis no one authoritative source of taxonomic names. ” ? Pg 2, C1, P2-3: The abbreviated data sources are presented first (in paragraph 2) and subsequently defined (in para 3). Restructure this so that the abbreviated forms are explained upon first usage. Pg 2, C2, P2: Most R packages are “in development” so I would drop the qualifier and dissertation minorities reword the opening sentence of the paragraph. Pg 2, C2, P6: Change “and more can easily be added” to “and more can be easily added” seems to flow better? Pg 5, paragraph above Figure 1: You refer to on skills and abilities converting the object to an **ape** *phylo* object and fellowships then repeat essentially the same information in the next sentence. Writing Research Papers! Remove the fellowships repetition. Pg 6, C1: The header may be better as “Which taxa are children of the taxon of interest” . Pg 6: In the section “IUCN status”, the term “we” is essay and abilities used to refer to both the authors and the user. This is confusing. Reserve “we” for reference to the authors and use something else (“a user” perhaps) for the other instances.
Check this throughout the entire manuscript. Pg 6, C2: in fellowships the paragraph immediately below the ‘grep()’ for “RAG1”, two consecutive sentences begin with “However”. Pg 7: The first sentence of “Aggregating data. ” reads “In biology, one can asks questions. ” . It should be “one asks” or “one can ask” . Pg 7, Conclusions: The first sentence reads “information is dissertation increasingly sought out by biologists” . I would drop “out” as “sought” is sufficient on its own. Appendices: Should the two figures in fellowships minorities the Appendices have a different reference to differentiate them from Figure 1 in the main body of the paper example topics paper? As it stands, the paper has two Figure 1s, one on page 5 and a second on page 12 in fellowships minorities the Appendix. And Abilities! On Appendix Figure 2: The individual points are a little large. Consider reducing the plotting character size. I appreciate the effect you were going for with the transparency indicating density of observation through overplotting, but the effect is weakened by the size of the individual points. Fellowships! Should the phylogenetic trees have some scale to dissertation them?
I presume the dissertation fellowships minorities height of the stems is an indication of phylogenetic distance but the on skills figure is hard to calibrate without an associated scale. A quick look at Paradis (2012) Analysis of Phylogenetics and Evolution with R would suggest however that a scale is not consistently applied to dissertation minorities these trees. I am happy to be guided by the authors as they will be more familiar with the essay on skills and abilities conventions than I. Minor points to consider in subsequent versions: Page 2; paragraph ‘Genomic location and transcription of microRNAs’ : the fellowships minorities concept of miRNA clusters and precursors could be a bit better explained. Page 2; paragraph ‘Genomic location and transcription of rico thesis microRNAs’ : when discussing the paper by the laboratory of Richard Young (reference 16); I think it is important to mention that that particular study refers to stem cells.
Page 2; paragraph ‘Processing of microRNAs’ : “Argonate” should be replaced by “Argonaute”. Page 3; paragraph ‘MicroRNAs in disease diagnostics’ : are miR-15a and 16-1 two different miRNAs? I suggest mentioning them as: miR-15a and miR-16-1 and not using a slash sign (/) between them. Page 4; paragraph ‘Circulating microRNAs’ : I am a bit bothered by the description of multiple sclerosis (MS) only as an autoimmune disease. Without being an expert in the field, I believe that there are other hypotheses related to the etiology of dissertation fellowships MS. Page 5; paragraph ‘Clinical microRNA diagnostics’ : Does ‘hsa’ in hsa-miR-205 mean something? Page 5; paragraph ‘Clinical microRNA diagnostics’ : the authors mention the company Asuragen, Austin, TX, USA but they do not really say anything about their products. I suggest to either remove the reference to research paper example that company or to include their current pipeline efforts. Page 6; paragraph ‘MicroRNAs in therapeutics’ : in the first paragraph the authors suggest that miRNAs-based therapeutics should be able to be applied with “minimal side-effects”.
Since one miRNA can affect a whole gene program, I found this a bit counterintuitive; I was wondering if any data has been published to support that statement. Also, in the same paragraph, the authors compare miRNAs to protein inhibitors, which are described as more specific and/or selective. I think there are now good indications to think that protein inhibitors are not always that specific and/or selective and dissertation that such a property actually could be important for their evidenced therapeutic effects. Editing Services! Page 6; paragraph ‘MicroRNAs in therapeutics’ : I think the concept of “antagomir” is an important one and could be better highlighted in the text. Throughout the text (pages 3, 5, 6, and 7): I am a bit bothered by separating the word “miRNA” or “miRNAs” at the end of a sentence in the following way: “miR-NA” or “miR-NAs”. It is a bit confusing considering the particular nomenclature used for miRNAs. That was probably done during the formatting and fellowships editing step of the paper. Rico Thesis! I was wondering if the authors could develop a bit more the general concept that seems to indicate that in disease (and in particular in dissertation fellowships minorities cancer) the expression and levels of miRNAs are in writing research general downregulated. Maybe some papers have been published about this phenomenon? They report obtaining no pluripotent stem cells expressing GFP driven over minorities the same time period of several days described in the original publication.
They describe observation of some green fluorescence that they attributed to autofluorescence rather than GFP since it coincided with PI positive dead cells. They confirmed the dissertation editing services collection;governmentalJurisdictions absence of oct4 expression by RT-PCR and also found no evidence for Nanog or Sox2, also markers of pluripotent stem cells. The paper appears to be an authentic attempt to dissertation fellowships minorities reproduce the original study, although the study might have had additional value with more controls: “failure to reproduce” studies need to be particularly well controlled. Examples that could have been valuable to include are: For the on skills and abilities claim of autofluorescence: the emission spectrum of the samples would likely have shown a broad spectrum not coincident with that of fellowships GFP. The reprogramming efficiency of postnatal mouse splenocytes using more conventional methods in the hands of the authors would have been useful as a comparison. Idem the lung fibroblasts.
There are no positive control samples (conventional mESC or miPSC) in the qPCR experiments for pluripotency markers. This would have indicated the biological sensitivity of the assay. Although perhaps a sensitive issue, it might have been helpful if the on skills and abilities authors had been able to obtain samples of cells (or their mRNA) from the original authors for simultaneous analysis. In summary, this is a useful study as it is citable and confirms previous blog reports, but it could have been improved by more controls. Title and abstract: The title is appropriate for the content of the article.
The abstract is dissertation fellowships concise and accurately summarizes the research essential information of the paper although it would be better if the authors define more precisely the dissertation fellowships anatomic specificity of valvulopathy mild mitral regurgitation. Case report: The clinical case presentation is comprehensive and detailed but there are some minor points that should be clarified: Please clarify the prolactin levels at diagnosis. In the Presentation section (line 3) “At presentation, prolactin level was found to be greater than 1000 ng/ml on for a patient spider, diluted testing” but in the section describing the laboratory evaluation at fellowships, diagnosis (line 7) “Prolactin level was 55 ng/ml”. On Skills! Was the difference due to dissertation fellowships minorities so called “hook effect”?
Figure 1: In the text the follow-up MR imaging is indicated to questions be “after 10 months of cabergoline treatment” . Dissertation Minorities! However, the figures 1C and 1D represent 2 years post-treatment MR images. Please clarify. Figure 2: Echocardiograms 2A and thesis for a patient spider 2B are defined as baseline but actually they correspond to the follow-up echocardiographic assessment at the 4th year of cabergoline treatment. Did the patient undergo a baseline (prior to dopamine agonist treatment) echocardiographic evaluation? If he did not, it should be mentioned as study limitation in minorities the Discussion section. Rico Thesis! The mitral valve thickness was mentioned to fellowships minorities be normal. Thesis Statement For A! Did the echographic examination visualize increased echogenicity (hyperechogenicity) of the mitral cusps?
How could you explain the decrease of minorities LV ejection fraction (from 60-65% to rico thesis 50-55%) after switching from cabergoline to bromocriptine treatment and respectively its increase to 62% after doubling the bromocriptine daily dose? Was LV function estimated always by the same method during the follow-up? Final paragraph: Authors conclude that early discontinuation and management with bromocriptine may be effective in reversing cardiac valvular dysfunction. Dissertation Fellowships! Even though, regular echocardiographic follow up should be considered in rico thesis patients who are expected to dissertation fellowships be on long-term high dose treatment with bromocriptine regarding its partial 5-HT2b agonist activity. With regard to the data: my feeling is that 14 interviews is a rather slim data set, and paper example topics that this is heightened by the fact that they were all carried out in a single location, and dissertation fellowships recruited via snowball sampling and personal contacts. What efforts have the writing papers authors made to ensure that they are not speaking to a single, small, sub-community in the much wider category of science communicators? ‐ a case study, if you like, of a particular group of dissertation science communicators in North Carolina? In addition, though the authors reference grounded theory as a method for analysis, I got little sense of the data reaching saturation. The reliance on one-off quotes, and on dissertation, the stories and interests of particular individuals, left me unsure as to how representative interview extracts were.
I would therefore recommend either that the data set is extended by carrying out more interviews, in a wider variety of locations (e.g. other sites in the US), or that it is redeveloped as a case study of a particular local professional community. (Which would open up some fascinating questions ‐ how many of these people know each other? What spaces, online or offline, do they interact in, and do they share knowledge, for instance about minorities their audiences? Are there certain touchstone events or publics they communally make reference to?) As a more minor point with regard to the data set and what the authors want it to dissertation editing services do, there were some inconsistencies as to how the study was framed. On p.2 they variously describe the purpose as to “understand the experiences and perspectives of science communicators” and the goals as identifying “the basic interests and value orientations attributed to lay audiences by dissertation fellowships minorities, science communicators”. Later, on p.5, they note that the “research is essay and abilities inductive and seeks to build theory rather than generalizable claims”, while in the Discussion they talk again about having identified communicators‘ “personal motivations” (p.12).
There are a number of questions left hanging: is the purpose to dissertation fellowships minorities understand communicator experiences ‐ in which case why focus on perceptions of audiences? Where is theory being built, and in what ways can this be mobilised in future work? The way that the on skills study is framed and argued as a whole needs, I would suggest, to be clarified. Relatedly, my sense is that some of this confusion is fellowships minorities derived from what I find a rather busy analytical framework. For Journals! I was not convinced of the value of fellowships combining inductive and deductive coding: if the ‘human value typology’ the authors use is ‘universal’, then what is added by open coding? Or, alternatively, why let their open coding, and their findings from this, be constrained by an additional, rather rigid, framework? The addition of the considerable literature on news values to type the mix makes the discussion more confusing again. I would suggest that the authors either make much more clear the value of combining these different approaches ‐ building new theory outlining how they relate, and can be jointly mobilised in practice ‐ or fix on one. (My preference would be to focus on dissertation minorities, the findings from the open coding ‐ but that reflects my own disciplinary biases.) A more minor analytical point: the authors note that their interviewees come from rico thesis, slightly different professions, and communicate through different formats, have different levels of experience, and different educational backgrounds ‐ but as far as I can see there is no comparative analysis based on this. Were there noticeable differences in the interview talk based on dissertation, these categorisations? Or was the data set too small to identify any potential contrasts or themes?
A note explaining this would be useful. My final point has reference to the potential that this data set has, particularly if it is extended and developed. I would like to encourage the authors to take their analysis further: at the moment, I was not particularly surprised by the ways in which the communicators referenced news values or imagined their audiences. But it seems to statement for a patient spider me that the dissertation analytical work is not yet complete. Rico Thesis! What does it mean that communicators imagine audience values and fellowships preferences in the way that they do ‐ who is included and excluded by these imaginations? One experiment might be to consider what ‘ideal type’ publics are created in the communicators’ talk. Editing Collection;governmentalJurisdictions! What are the characteristics of the dissertation fellowships audiences constructed in the interviews and ‐ presumably ‐ in the communicative products of interviewees?
What would these people look like? There are also some tantalizing hints in thesis for a the Discussion that are not really discussed in the Findings ‐ of, for dissertation fellowships instance, the way in which communicator’s personal motivations may combine with their perceptions of audiences to shape their products. How does this happen? These are, of course, suggestions. But my wider point is that the authors need to show more clearly what is original and useful in thesis noiseless patient their findings ‐ what it is, exactly, that will be important to other scholars in the field.
Conclusions: The authors say: “. Minorities! provides a new, powerful way to generate and display matrix data in web presentations and in publications.” To use heat maps in web presentations and research paper topics publications is nothing new. I think that HmV makes it easier and user-friendly, but it’s not new. Bird Survey: As described, all sightings and dissertation fellowships calls were recorded and incorporated into paper example topics, distance analysis but it is not clear here whether or not distances to both auditory and visual encounters were measured the same way (i.e., with the rangefinder). Please clarify. Floor litter sampling: Not clear here whether or not litter cover was recorded as a continuous or categorical variable (percentage). If not, please describe percentage “categories” used.
Mean litter depth graph (Figure 2) and accompanying text reports the means and dissertation fellowships minorities sd but no post-hoc comparison test (e.g. Tukey HSD) need to report the rico thesis stats on which differences were/were not significant. Figure 3 you indicate litter depth was better predictor of bird abundance than litter cover, but r-squared is higher for litter cover. Need to minorities clarify (and also indicate why you chose only to shown depth values in Figure 3. The linear equation can be put in Figure 3 caption (not necessary to include in text). Figure 4 stats aren’t presented here; also, the caption states that tree loss and topics leaf litter are inversely correlated this might be taken to mean, given discussion (below) about pruning, that there could be a poaching threshold below which poaching may pay dividends to minorities Pipits (and above which Pipits are negatively affected). This warrants further exploration/elaboration.
The pruning result is arguably the most important one here this suggests an intriguing trade-off between poaching and paper topics bird conservation (in particular, the suggestion that pruning by poachers may bolster Pipit populations or at the very least mitigate against other aspects of habitat degradation). Worth highlighting this more in Discussion. Last sentence on p. 7 suggests causality (“That is because…”) but your data only support correlation (one can imagine that there may have been other extrinsic or intrinsic drivers of dissertation population decline). P. 8: discussion of classification of habitat types in ASF is certainly interesting, but could be made much more succinct in keeping with focus of writing research for journals this paper. P. 9, top: first paragraph could be expanded as noted before, tradeoff between poaching/pruning and Pipit abundance is worth exploring in more depth. Could your results be taken as a prescription for understory pruning as a conservation tool for the Sokoke Pipit or other threatened species? More detail here would be welcome (and also in Conclusion); in subsequent paragraph about dissertation minorities Pipit foraging behavior and specific relationship to essay on skills and abilities understory vegetation at varying heights could be incorporated into this discussion.
Is there any info about optimal perch height for foraging or for flying through the minorities understory? Linking to rico thesis results of other studies in ASF, is there potential for positive correlations with optimal habitat conditions for the other important bird species in fellowships ASF in order to dissertation editing collection;governmentalJurisdictions make more general conclusions about management? The manuscript is certainly well written and attractive, but I have some major concerns on the data analyses that prevent me to fellowships endorse its acceptance at the present stage. I see three main problems with the statistics that could have led to potentially wrong results and, thus, to completely misleading conclusions. First of all the Authors cannot run an research papers for journals ANCOVA in which there is a significant interaction between factor and covariate Tab. Dissertation Fellowships! 2 (a). Indeed, when the collection;governmentalJurisdictions assumption of common slopes is violated (as in their case), all other significant terms are meaningless. They might want to consider alternative statistical procedures, e.g. Johnson—Neyman method.
Second, the Authors cannot retain into the model a non significant interaction term, as this may affect estimations for the factors Tab. 2 (d). They need to remove the species x treatment interaction (as they did for other non significant terms, see top left of the same page 7). The third problem I see regards all the dissertation fellowships minorities GLMs in which species are compared. Authors entered the 'species' level as fixed factor when species are clearly a random factor. Entering species as fixed factors has the effect of dissertation editing badly inflating the denominator degrees of freedom, making authors’ conclusions far too permissive. They should, instead, use mixed LMs, in which species are the random factor. They should also take care that the degrees of freedom are approximately equal to the number of species (not the number of trials). To do so, they can enter as random factor the interaction between treatment and species. Data need to be re-analyzed relying on the proper statistical procedures to confirm results and conclusions. A more theoretical objection to dissertation fellowships the authors’ interpretation of results (supposing that results will be confirmed by research for journals, the new analyses) could emerge from the idea that male success in dissertation mating with the preferred female may reduce the probability of immediate female’s re-mating, and thus reduce the risk of editing services sperm competition on the short term.
As a consequence, it may be not beneficial to significantly increase the dissertation fellowships minorities risk of essay losing a high quality and dissertation inseminated female for a cost that will not be paid with certainty. The authors might want to consider also this for discussion. Lastly, I think that the scenario generated from comparative studies at species level may be explained by phylogenetic factors other than sexual selection. Type Questions On Merchant! Only the inclusion of phylogeny, that allow to account for dissertation minorities the shared history among species, into data analyses can lead to unequivocal adaptive explanations for the observed patterns. I see the difficulty in doing this with few species, as it is the case of the present study, but I would suggest the Authors to consider also this future perspective.
Moreover, a phylogenetic comparative study would be aided by the recent development of a well-resolved phylogenetic tree for the genus Poecilia (Meredith 2011). Page 5: since data on dissertation services, mate choice come from other studies is it so necessary to report a detailed description of methods for this section? Maybe the authors could refer to dissertation fellowships minorities the already published methods and only give a brief additional description. Page 6: how do the authors explain the complete absence of aggressive displays between the focal male and the audience male during the mate choice experiments? This sounds curious if considering that in all the examined species aggressive behaviors and dominance establishment are always observed during dyadic encounters. First, let me state what I now understand the analysis procedure to be:
For each subject the PD values across the 20 trials were converted to z-scores. For each stimulus, the mean z-score was calculated. The sign of the mean z-score for essay type each stimulus was used to make predictions. For each of the 20 trials, if the dissertation fellowships minorities sign of the z-score on that trial was the research for journals same as for the mean z-score for that stimulus, a hit (correct prediction) was assigned. In contrast, if the sign of the z-score on that trial was the opposite dissertation fellowships as for the mean z-score for that stimulus, a miss (incorrect prediction) was assigned. For each stimulus the rico thesis total hits and fellowships minorities misses were calculated. Rico Thesis! Average hits (correct prediction) for each stimulus was calculated across subjects.
If this is a correct description of the procedure, the fellowships minorities problem is that the same data were used to determine the sign of the essay on merchant of venice z-score that would be associated with a correct prediction and to determine the actual correct predictions. This will effectively guarantee a correct prediction rate above chance. To check if this is true, I quickly generated random data and used the analysis procedure as laid out above (see MATLAB code below). Dissertation Minorities! Across 10,000 iterations of 100 random subjects, the average “prediction” accuracy was. 57% for each stimulus (standard deviation, 1.1%), remarkably similar to the values reported by the authors in their two studies. In this simulation, I assumed that all subjects contributed 20 trials, but in the actual data analyzed in the study, some subjects contributed fewer than 20 trials due to artifacts in the pupil measurements.
If the above description of the analysis procedure is correct, then I think the authors have provided no evidence to support pupil dilation prediction of random events, with the results reflecting circularity in the analysis procedure. However, if the above description of the procedure is incorrect, the authors need to clarify exactly what the analysis procedure was, perhaps by essay, providing their analysis scripts. Interestingly, the authors’ conceptualization of a damaged neuron → H1 release → healthy neuron killing cycle does not take into account the H1-mediated proinflammatory glial response. This facet of the fellowships minorities study opens for these investigators a new avenue they may wish to writing research for journals follow: the role of H1 in stimulation of neuroinflammation with overexpression of cytokines. This is interesting, as neuronal injury has been shown to dissertation fellowships minorities set in motion an acute phase response that activates glia, increases their expression of cytokines (interleukin-1 and S100B), which, in research papers turn, induce neurons to produce excess Alzheimer-related proteins such as βAPP and ApoE (favoring formation of mature Aβ/ApoE plaques), activated MAPK-p38 and hyperphosphorylated tau (favoring formation of minorities neurofibrillary tangles), and α synuclein (favoring formation of Lewy bodies). Essay! To date, the neuronal response shown responsible for stimulating glia is dissertation neuronal stress related release of on skills sAPP, but these H1 results from Gilthorpe and colleagues may contribute to or exacerbate the dissertation fellowships role of sAPP.
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mba essay goal Almost all top business schools require applicants to write a Personal statement or Goals essay in which they discuss their goals and dissertation fellowships ambitions as they pertain to statement for a noiseless, the MBA degree, and often to the target school’s particular program. What should I write in a Statement of Purpose or 'Goals' essay? A statement of purpose or a ‘Goals’ essay requires you to dissertation fellowships minorities, make a logical connection between your past, present, and future. This means you need to tell a story that connects your past ( past work-experience), present (your need of an MBA from your target school to achieve your goals, and thesis your future (goals and objectives).
The Schools want to see that you have a clear plan/ vision for future and you have the ability to convince them of the same by fellowships minorities telling your story that is not only writing papers for journals clear and compelling, but also reveals your personal and professional attributes. Goals essay needs to be approached in different ways as per the specifications of essay prompt and the word limit specified by dissertation fellowships minorities various schools. However, a typical ‘goals’ essay should have the following structure: Structure of a typical Goals Essay: Past: (about 30-35% of essay) Begin your essay with a story/ event/ life experience that reflects passion for your chosen field e.g. marketing or finance or any other field.Make sure your opening statement is compelling enough to hook the Ad Com and make them continue reading your essay .There are several ways of making an statement for a patient engaging beginning: a quote, an interesting description, an fellowships minorities anecdote, a question, a startling statement, or statistics. You may choose any method that works for you to draw the reader into your story. The following is an example of an and abilities engaging beginning that hooks the fellowships, reader with a real- life example/anecdote:
My love and passion for finance dates back the time when I was only 13 years old and used to ponder at the stock prices in rico thesis, the newspaper for countless hours. Later, at 15, and only one week into my first job at a bank, I purchased my first stock. Minorities. Today, at writing, 25, banking and finance still enthuse me. Every morning, I go to dissertation, work motivated and writing for journals with a smile, enjoying my commute time reading finance books. After drawing the reader's attention by your story of passion, continue with your story and fellowships provide details about how you have pursued your interest/passion and progressed along your career path these 3-4 years (or whatever your work experience is).
Be specific in explaining how you have risen in noiseless, positions/ responsibilities and fellowships salary in order to writing research, illustrate that your abilities are recognized and rewarded by dissertation your company. Future: (about 25-30 % of essay and abilities essay) Now explain how your past experience have shaped your future goals and objectives and what are your plans for the future. Be clear and decisive for dissertation minorities short term goals (even if you are not 100% sure. Show that you have put some thought into it. For example, you should precisely state if you are a career enhancer and your short term goal is to dissertation collection;governmentalJurisdictions, rise to the next level in your current company, or if you are career changer and your objective is to learn new skills through MBA so you can change your career path. After you have specified your short term goals, go ahead and discuss your long term goals. It is ok to dissertation fellowships, be more broad and rico thesis idealistic for long term goals, but explain steps (A to B to C) to make sure there is a logical connection between short term and fellowships minorities long term goals. For example, you should not say that your long term goal is to be CEO of xyz company if your past experience, current skills set and your short term goals do not at all seem to research papers, be leading to dissertation, that direction. Present: (about 25-30 % of essay) After having discussed your future goals, explain how an MBA fits in the puzzle of the grand scheme of for a patient spider your career path.
In other words, elaborate why you believe that an dissertation MBA is the next logical step in dissertation, your career path. Be specific when explaining how certain specific skills acquired during MBA will bring you closer to dissertation minorities, the fulfillment of for journals your goals. Dissertation Minorities. For example, if your goal is to be an entrepreneur, explicitly state how an MBA will teach you the required skills of handling competitive threats, allocating resources, and making decisions. Also, explain why now is the thesis for a noiseless patient, right time for you to do an MBA for dissertation further advancement in dissertation editing, your career. Most schools (UCLA, kenan Flagler, LBS ) specifically want to know ‘ why MBA now’?
However, even if they don't ask ‘Why MBA’, I would recommend that you should answer this question as this would help demonstrate the fellowships minorities, clarity of your vision. Why Target School? Once you have satisfactorily answered ‘Why MBA?’ and ‘Why MBA now?’ your next step is to explain 'why target school'. Discuss how you will use their resources to research paper topics, achieve your goals? Remember, schools always want to hear compelling reasons for dissertation fellowships minorities each candidate’s need for their particular MBA program. (10-15 % of essay) When the School asks 'Why We'? When the schools specifically ask you why you are interested in rico thesis, them (UCLA, Tuck, Columbia, Chicago etc.), you need to provide a detailed explanation (depending on the word-limits specified by them) how their specific resources will help you meet your objective. Dissertation. You may refer to a conversation with a student or a professor which will not only make your essay an interesting and engaging read, but will also validate your genuine enthusiasm for this schools. Essay On Skills And Abilities. In short, make a convincing argument of dissertation fellowships how their offerings (classes, faculty, clubs, alumni, other programs etc.) are closely related to your goals. Go online, visit campus, classes, talk to professors, students, and alumni, and discuss your experiences of research paper visiting classes, programs, professors, if you can. When the School doesn't ask 'Why We'?
Even when the school asks a generic question Why do you need an MBA to reach your goals? it is in fact, also asking you Why do you need an MBA from our school? and “How will you use our resources to achieve your goals?’ Therefore, it still makes sense to make a brief statement about your interest and need of their specific offerings. Contribution to the target School: Often a school will ask applicants what they will bring to dissertation minorities, their MBA program if they are selected as students (Ross, Cornell Fuqua, Kenan Flagler etc.). In this case, you can refer to such possible contributions as participation or leadership in research paper topics, particular club, in classroom discussions or team work. You can also state that your international background would bring global perspective to minorities, teams or course work, or your personal characteristics like humor or enthusiasm will facilitate bonding between class mates or team groups. Even if the school doesn’t ask you to discuss your contribution, you can still mention (if space permits) what you will bring to the school and why you are a good match for essay on skills and abilities their program? Summing up, think of dissertation minorities answering ‘Goals’ question by making logical connections between your past (past experience), and future (future goals and thesis noiseless patient spider objectives) present (need of an dissertation fellowships MBA). Explain how your personal and professional experiences have shaped your goals, how an MBA from on skills and abilities, your target school would help you achieve your goals, and dissertation how you will add significant value to the school with your skills and statement for a noiseless experience. Furthermore, while telling your story, you need to fellowships, make sure it reveals your personal characteristics e.g. leadership, persistence, intelligence, creativity, diligence, integrity ability to work in teams etc.
Lastly, and rico thesis most importantly, since schools word their 'Goals' question differently based on what they are looking for in their potential students, you need to make sure to structure and modify details of your story as per the essay prompt. Almost all top business schools require applicants to write a Personal statement or Goals essay in which they discuss their goals and ambitions as they pertain to fellowships, the MBA degree, and thesis for a patient spider often to the target school’s particular program. What should I write in a Statement of Purpose or 'Goals' essay? A statement of dissertation fellowships purpose or a ‘Goals’ essay requires you to make a logical connection between your past, present, and writing research papers future. This means you need to tell a story that connects your past ( past work-experience), present (your need of an MBA from your target school to achieve your goals, and your future (goals and objectives). The Schools want to see that you have a clear plan/ vision for future and fellowships minorities you have the ability to convince them of the same by services collection;governmentalJurisdictions telling your story that is minorities not only clear and compelling, but also reveals your personal and professional attributes. Goals essay needs to rico thesis, be approached in different ways as per the specifications of essay prompt and the word limit specified by various schools. However, a typical ‘goals’ essay should have the following structure: Structure of a typical Goals Essay: Past: (about 30-35% of essay) Begin your essay with a story/ event/ life experience that reflects passion for fellowships minorities your chosen field e.g. marketing or finance or any other field.Make sure your opening statement is compelling enough to hook the noiseless patient, Ad Com and dissertation make them continue reading your essay .There are several ways of making an engaging beginning: a quote, an interesting description, an anecdote, a question, a startling statement, or statistics.
You may choose any method that works for writing research papers you to draw the reader into your story. The following is an example of an engaging beginning that hooks the reader with a real- life example/anecdote: My love and passion for minorities finance dates back the time when I was only 13 years old and used to ponder at the stock prices in the newspaper for essay questions on merchant countless hours. Later, at 15, and only one week into my first job at a bank, I purchased my first stock. Minorities. Today, at writing papers for journals, 25, banking and finance still enthuse me. Every morning, I go to work motivated and with a smile, enjoying my commute time reading finance books. After drawing the reader's attention by your story of passion, continue with your story and provide details about how you have pursued your interest/passion and progressed along your career path these 3-4 years (or whatever your work experience is). Be specific in explaining how you have risen in positions/ responsibilities and salary in order to illustrate that your abilities are recognized and dissertation fellowships rewarded by your company. Future: (about 25-30 % of essay) Now explain how your past experience have shaped your future goals and objectives and what are your plans for the future. Be clear and decisive for thesis patient spider short term goals (even if you are not 100% sure. Show that you have put some thought into it.
For example, you should precisely state if you are a career enhancer and your short term goal is to rise to the next level in your current company, or if you are career changer and fellowships minorities your objective is to learn new skills through MBA so you can change your career path. After you have specified your short term goals, go ahead and discuss your long term goals. It is ok to editing services collection;governmentalJurisdictions, be more broad and idealistic for dissertation minorities long term goals, but explain steps (A to B to rico thesis, C) to make sure there is a logical connection between short term and long term goals. For example, you should not say that your long term goal is to be CEO of xyz company if your past experience, current skills set and your short term goals do not at minorities, all seem to be leading to questions on merchant, that direction. Present: (about 25-30 % of essay) After having discussed your future goals, explain how an MBA fits in the puzzle of the grand scheme of your career path.
In other words, elaborate why you believe that an fellowships MBA is the next logical step in your career path. Be specific when explaining how certain specific skills acquired during MBA will bring you closer to the fulfillment of your goals. For example, if your goal is to be an entrepreneur, explicitly state how an MBA will teach you the required skills of handling competitive threats, allocating resources, and making decisions. Also, explain why now is the editing services, right time for you to do an MBA for further advancement in your career. Most schools (UCLA, kenan Flagler, LBS ) specifically want to know ‘ why MBA now’? However, even if they don't ask ‘Why MBA’, I would recommend that you should answer this question as this would help demonstrate the clarity of your vision. Why Target School?
Once you have satisfactorily answered ‘Why MBA?’ and ‘Why MBA now?’ your next step is to explain 'why target school'. Discuss how you will use their resources to dissertation minorities, achieve your goals? Remember, schools always want to hear compelling reasons for writing research papers each candidate’s need for their particular MBA program. (10-15 % of essay) When the School asks 'Why We'? When the dissertation fellowships minorities, schools specifically ask you why you are interested in paper example topics, them (UCLA, Tuck, Columbia, Chicago etc.), you need to provide a detailed explanation (depending on dissertation fellowships the word-limits specified by them) how their specific resources will help you meet your objective. You may refer to a conversation with a student or a professor which will not only make your essay an interesting and engaging read, but will also validate your genuine enthusiasm for this schools. In short, make a convincing argument of writing research papers how their offerings (classes, faculty, clubs, alumni, other programs etc.) are closely related to dissertation fellowships, your goals. Go online, visit campus, classes, talk to professors, students, and thesis statement noiseless patient alumni, and discuss your experiences of visiting classes, programs, professors, if you can. When the School doesn't ask 'Why We'? Even when the fellowships minorities, school asks a generic question Why do you need an MBA to thesis statement spider, reach your goals? it is in fact, also asking you Why do you need an MBA from fellowships minorities, our school? and “How will you use our resources to thesis for a noiseless, achieve your goals?’ Therefore, it still makes sense to make a brief statement about your interest and need of their specific offerings. Contribution to the target School: Often a school will ask applicants what they will bring to fellowships minorities, their MBA program if they are selected as students (Ross, Cornell Fuqua, Kenan Flagler etc.).
In this case, you can refer to such possible contributions as participation or leadership in particular club, in classroom discussions or team work. You can also state that your international background would bring global perspective to teams or course work, or your personal characteristics like humor or enthusiasm will facilitate bonding between class mates or team groups. Even if the school doesn’t ask you to rico thesis, discuss your contribution, you can still mention (if space permits) what you will bring to the school and why you are a good match for their program?
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6 Ways to Prevent Cheating on Homework. Minorities! One of the most frustrating aspects of teaching in dissertation services, today#8217;s world is the cheating epidemic. There#8217;s nothing more irritating than getting halfway through grading a large stack of papers only to realize some students cheated on the assignment. There#8217;s really not much point in minorities, teachers grading work that has a high likelihood of having been copied or otherwise unethically completed. So. What is a teacher to do? We need to on skills and abilities, be able to assess students.
How can we prevent cheating on homework? Like most new teachers, I learned the hard way over the course of many years of teaching that it is dissertation minorities, possible to editing collection;governmentalJurisdictions, reduce cheating on fellowships, homework, if not completely prevent it. Research Topics! Here are six suggestions to keep your students honest and to fellowships minorities, keep yourself sane. One of the reasons students cheat on homework is because they are overwhelmed. I remember vividly what it felt like to be a high school student in honors classes with multiple extracurricular activities on my plate. Other teens have after school jobs to help support their families, and on skills, some don#8217;t have a home environment that is conducive to studying. While cheating is never excusable under any circumstances, it does help to walk a mile in our students#8217; shoes. If they are consistently making the decision to cheat, it might be time to reduce the amount of homework we are assigning. I used to give homework every night especially to my advanced students. I wanted to push them.
Instead, I stressed them out. They wanted so badly to be in fellowships minorities, the Top 10 at graduation that they would do whatever they needed to do in order to complete their assignments on time even if that meant cheating. When assigning homework, consider the grade level, maturity, and outside-of-school commitments involved. Think about the kind of writing papers for journals, school and home balance you would want for your own children. Go with that. Allowing students time in class to get started on their assignments seems to prevent cheating to some extent.
When students have class time, they are able to knock out part of the assignment, which leaves less to fret over later. Additionally, it gives them an opportunity to ask questions. When students are confused while completing assignments at minorities, home, they often seek #8220;help#8221; from essay and abilities a friend instead of going in early the next morning to request guidance from the teacher. Fellowships! Often, completing a portion of a homework assignment in class gives students the confidence that they can do it successfully on their own. Plus, it provides the social aspect of learning that many students crave. Instead of fighting cheating outside of class , we can allow students to work in pairs or small groups in essay on skills and abilities, class to learn from each other. If students are cheating on dissertation minorities, homework, they probably lack the vision for how the work is thesis noiseless patient, beneficial. Dissertation! In order to curb cheating, it#8217;s important to consider the meaningfulness and valuable of the assignment from students#8217; perspectives. Collection;governmentalJurisdictions! They need to see how it is relevant to them. Dissertation Fellowships! In my class, I#8217;ve learned to for a noiseless patient spider, assign work that cannot be copied.
I#8217;ve never had luck assigning worksheets as homework because even though worksheets have value, it#8217;s generally not obvious to teenagers. It#8217;s nearly impossible to catch cheating on worksheets that have #8220;right or wrong#8221; answers. That#8217;s not to say I don#8217;t use worksheets. I do! But.
I use them as in-class station, competition, and practice activities, not homework. So what are examples of more effective and meaningful types of homework to minorities, assign? Ask students to complete a reading assignment and respond in writing. Have students watch a video clip and answer an oral entrance question. Essay On Skills! Require that students contribute to an online discussion post. Assign them a reflection on the day#8217;s lesson in the form of fellowships, a short project, like a one-pager or a mind map. As you can see, these options require unique, valuable responses, thereby reducing the opportunity for students to cheat on them. If you#8217;re sincerely concerned about students cheating on assignments, consider reducing the point value.
Reflect on your grading system. Are homework grades carrying so much weight that students feel the need to cheat in dissertation editing, order to maintain an fellowships, A? Each teacher has to type questions of venice, do what works for him or her. In my classroom, homework is worth the least amount out of any category.If I assign something for which I plan on giving completion credit, the dissertation minorities point value is editing services, even less than it typically would be. Projects, essays, and fellowships, formal assessments count for much more. To some extent, this part is out of educators#8217; hands. Much of the ethical and moral training a student receives comes from editing services collection;governmentalJurisdictions home. Still, we can do our best to create a classroom culture in which we continually talk about integrity, responsibility, honor, and the benefits of working hard.
What are some specific ways can we do this? Talk to fellowships minorities, students about cheating. Explain to them that there are different kinds. Many students are unaware, for rico thesis instance, that the dissertation fellowships #8220;divide and conquer (you do the first half, I#8217;ll do the second half, and then we will trade answers)#8221; is cheating. As a class, develop expectations and consequences for questions on merchant students who decide to take short cuts.
Decorate your room with motivational quotes that relate to honesty and doing the right thing. Discuss how making a bad decision doesn#8217;t make you a bad person. It is an opportunity to grow. Fellowships Minorities! Share with students that you care about them and statement for a noiseless, their futures. The assignments you give them are intended to prepare them for success. Offer them many different ways to seek help from you if and when they are confused. Provide revision opportunities for homework assignments.
Explain that you partner with their parents and that guardians will be notified if cheating occurs. Dissertation Fellowships! Explore hypothetical situations. What if you have a late night? Let#8217;s pretend you don#8217;t get home until after orchestra and Lego practices. Type! You have three hours of homework to do. You know you can call your friend, Bob, who always has his homework done. How do you handle this situation?
EDUCATE ABOUT PLAGIARISM. Many students don#8217;t realize that plagiarism applies to more than just essays. At the beginning of the school year, teachers have an energized group of students, fresh off of summer break. I#8217;ve always found it#8217;s easiest to motivate my students at this time. I capitalize on dissertation minorities, this opportunity by beginning with a plagiarism mini unit. While much of the information we discuss is about writing, I always make sure my students know that homework can be plagiarized. Speeches can be plagiarized. Videos can be plagiarized. Anything can be plagiarized, and the repercussions for stealing someone else#8217;s ideas (even in the form of a simple worksheet) are never worth the time saved by doing so. In an ideal world, no one would cheat. Research Topics! However, teaching and dissertation fellowships minorities, learning in the 21st century is much different than it was fifty years ago.
Cheating? It#8217;s increased. Maybe because of the digital age. Maybe because of differences in morals and values of our culture. Rico Thesis! Maybe because people are busier. Maybe because students don#8217;t see how the school work they are completing relates to their lives. No matter what the root cause, teachers need to be proactive about preventing cheating on homework whenever possible. Personally, I#8217;d never advocate for completely eliminating homework.
To me, it has the potential and value to teach students many lessons both related to school and fellowships, life. Still, the #8220;right#8221; answer to research, this issue will be different for each teacher, depending on her community, students, and minorities, culture. Do you have different techniques that have proven effective for you? Please share them with us in the comments. We would love to learn from you. If you#8217;re interested in the plagiarism mini-unit I like to use at the beginning of the year, click on statement for a spider, the image below.
An avid reader and writer, I've had the privilege of dissertation minorities, teaching English for over a decade. I have degrees in English, Curriculum Instruction, and Reading as well as a reading specialist certification. In my free time, I enjoy loving on my kids, deconstructing sentences, analyzing literature, making learning fun, working out, and drinking a good cup of coffee. Topics! 5 Ways Teachers Can Help Students Cope with Natural Disasters. Teaching about Censorship and Banned Books in High School.
A Unique Kinesthetic Writing Process Activity for. The Problem with Calling on Students to. 8 Meaningful Essay Prewriting Activities. Tips for an Excellent Teacher Evaluation. Teaching Vocabulary in High School. 5 Ways Teachers Can Help Students Cope. Three Grammar and Writing Lessons that Empower.
How Avoiding Comparisons Can Help You Fight. Dissertation Fellowships! What ELA Teachers Can Learn from type on merchant a. Making Positive Parent Phone Calls. Book Club (Part 3): Assessments and Accountability. Book Club (Part 2): Establishing Expectations and. Why We Should Teach Students How to. You are so right about communicating the purpose of the assignment and giving students time in class to do homework. Fellowships! I also use an article of the on merchant of venice week on plagiarism. I give students points for the learning not the doing.
It makes all the difference. I tell my students why they need to learn how to do #8220;#8212;#8221; for dissertation fellowships minorities high school or college or even in life experiences. Since, they get an A or F for the effort, my students are more motivated to give it a try. No effort and they sit in my class to work with me on the assignment. Showing me the effort to learn it #8212; asking me questions about the assignment, getting help from a peer or me, helping a peer are all ways to get full credit for the homework- even if it#8217;s not complete. I also choose one thing from each assignment for the test which is a motivator for learning the material not just #8220;doing it.#8221; Also, no one is dissertation, permitted to earn a D or F on a test. Minorities! Any student earning an F or D on a test is then required to do a project over the weekend or at lunch or after school with me. All of this reinforces the rico thesis idea learning is what is the dissertation fellowships goal. Giving students options to show their learning is also important. Cheating is greatly reduced when the goal is to learn and not simply earn the grade. Thanks for sharing your unique approaches, Sandra!
Learning is definitely the goal, and getting students to own their learning is key. Hi, I'm Melissa Kruse, creator of Reading and Writing Haven. I love all things ELA. and essay type questions on merchant, coffee!
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Free Essays on Current Issues In India. ?South Asia -- Southern Asia comprises the countries of Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India , Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka • SAARC Regional Development • Pakistan- India Relations: From Hostility To Thaw- Exploring A New South Asian Destiny • American Exit From Afghanistan, 1914 The. What Should Be Done About the Issue of Kashmir. The issue of Kashmir has been the dissertation minorities, center of many debates and has even at times led to essay type, war between the three countries Pakistan, India and China who each occupy territory in Kashmir. In the dissertation fellowships minorities, Partition of India and Pakistan Kashmir with a Muslim majority was immediately occupied by India and ever since. ? Current Ethical Issue in Business PHL/323 September 3, 2010 Gabriel Lewall Current Ethical Issue in Business In the recent years, there are many factors to consider for the way business is conducted, for any business small or large. Some factors, including the economy, competition between. February 2012 INDIAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT, AHMEDABAD Table of Contents Executive Summary 2 1. Collection;governmentalJurisdictions? Current Energy Scenario in India 4 2. Solar Energy Sector in India and its issues 4 2.1. Barriers to entry 5 2.2.
Low acceptance 6 3. Role of the dissertation minorities, government 6 4. Jawaharlal Nehru. LEGAL ISSUES ON FOREIGN INVESTMENTS IN INDIA. ? CURRENT AFFAIRS LEGAL ISSUES ON FOREIGN INVESTMENTS IN INDIA As a result of various policy initiatives taken, the Indian economy has been rapidly changing from a restrictive regime to a liberal one. The present legal framework allows an essay on skills easy entry to a foreign investor in India . The liberalization. [pic] Delhi, August 14 2005: President Dr.
A.P.J Abdul Kalam's speech: My Dear Citizens of India , On the eve of the dissertation fellowships minorities, 59th Independence Day, I extend to on merchant of venice, you my best wishes for your happiness and fellowships prosperity. My greetings to all our people at home and thesis noiseless patient spider abroad. Let us resolve, on this occasion, to. China and India a Political comparison. ?China and India a Political Comparison Thomas Hendricks POL353: Comparative Politics Instructor: Pamela Hunter 11/2/14 Introduction India and China are two very interesting and fascinating countries when one discusses their political systems, political cultures.
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Human Development Challenges: Illiteracy in India. The economy of India has developed rapidly in dissertation editing services the last years to become the ninth largest economy in the world by nominal GDP with astonishing growth rates of gross national income per dissertation, capita since 2002 (Google Public Data Explorer, 2011). India's per capita income (in current US$) has nearly tripled. Penetration or Growth of Mobile Marketing in India. Penetration or Growth of Mobile Marketing in India . In the last 3 years, mobile has become the greatest media for on skills and abilities, communication in India . Marketers are utilizing this to promote their service using mobile. Mobile advertising is a form of advertising where marketers target mobile users for marketing. 10/2/2014 Obama and India - Essays - Mishrasanchit Is Obama good for India ? November 7, 2008 posted by minorities indiatime | There’s a lot of discussion going on about whether the American president-elect will be better for India than the current American president.
I don’t think there is anything fundamentally. Is Obama good for India ? November 7, 2008 posted by indiatime | There’s a lot of research paper topics discussion going on about whether the American president-elect will be better for India than the current American president. I don’t think there is anything fundamentally wrong about dissertation minorities asking that question. But I just think. MBS1123 ?MARKETING MANAGEMENT Title: A Review of the growth, issues and challenges faced by for a noiseless patient India as an emerging economy in retail marketing. BY JASIR ABDUL RASHEED Academic Honesty Policy Statement I, hereby attest that contents of this attachment are my own work.
Referenced works, articles. The Progress of School Education in India. An ESRC Research Group The progress of school education in dissertation fellowships minorities India GPRG-WPS-071 Geeta Gandhi Kingdon Global Poverty Research Group Website: http://www.gprg.org/ The support of the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) is gratefully acknowledged. The work was part of the programme of. Anti-Colonial Nationalismi in British Colonial India. Anti-Colonial Nationalism in British Colonial India Ian Andrews INTP248 ID#: 300141754 Word Count: 1755 A thorough analysis of India during the questions of venice, fight for dissertation, freedom from research papers for journals, colonial British rule must include three different aspects: the origins, the nature, and the scope of the conflict. The. West Bengal as to form new State called Gorkhaland. The demand for Gorkhaland as a constituent state within the Union of India has been the fellowships, oldest demands in the history of modern India , till now its gain nothing rather remains as history creator of rico thesis Indian Gorkha even after more than hundred years.
Over. Critical Analysis of Pharm.D in India. Analysis of Pharm.D. in dissertation fellowships minorities India : Exploring the Way Ahead INTRODUCTION: Pharmacy education in India was mainly focused on pharmaceutical science courses rather than clinical/pharmacotherapeutic courses until 2008, when Pharm.D. was introduced and of venice began to be offered in India , to minorities, focus towards clinical. Inulin Market – Current Trends, Issues Challenges, 2016 - 2026. Inulin Market – Current Trends, Issues Challenges, 2016 - 2026 R e s e a r c h About Us Persistence Market Research (PMR) is a market intelligence company, providing global business information reports and services. Our exclusive blend of thesis noiseless patient spider quantitative forecasting and trends analysis provides. The Brave New World: India- a Nation in Transition. THE BRAVE NEW WORLD: INDIA - A NATION IN TRANSITION. One of the most influential doctrines in Western Europe since the late eighteenth century is that all humans are divided into fellowships groups called ‘nations’.
India is one such nation where multifarious ethnicities converge into a unified psychological consciousness. Hindu Militancy and for a spider the State of Interreligious Dialogue in India. HINDU MILITANCY AND THE STATE OF INTERRELIGIOUS DIALOGUE IN INDIA The Present Context: As the second largest democracy in the world, India sustains a political system identified itself as the Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic. It has a history of long-standing tolerance and peace. Terrorism in India can be attributed to many low intensity conflicts within its borders. The regions with long term terrorist activities today are Jammu and Kashmir,Mumbai, Central India (Naxalism) and Seven Sister States (independence and autonomy movements). Dissertation Fellowships Minorities? In the research for journals, past, the Punjab insurgency led to. Weekly Current Affairs update Feb 7 to13, 2010 (for BANK PO General Awareness UPSC General Studies) List of contents Section A: INDIA Section B: WORLD Section C: ECONOMY CORPORATE Section D: SPORTS Major news of the week Section A: INDIA Justice Chandramauli Kumar Prasad sworn-in as Supreme. Space Program and Business in fellowships minorities India. Space Program and Business in India – Legal Perspectives Shashi Sharma* Table of Contents Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………..1 I. The National Space Program of India ……………………………………………….
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minorities of both states, second in september1965 and fellowships this was followed by the Tashkent Declaration on 10th January 1966, it was a peace agreement between India and Pakistan., third 1971 which paved the way for 1972 Shimla Accord between Bhutto and Indira, and fourth was in 1999 the Kargil war. There are also. Research paper What are reasons for conflict between India and Pakistan on the Kashmir issue ? The conflict between India and research example Pakistan, two nations united by dissertation fellowships minorities history but divided by destiny, runs deep. Their rivalries over five decades have prevented both countries from realizing their full economic. The Interlinking of questions Indian Rivers in India and Its Implications on Environment. The Interlinking of Indian Rivers in India and its implications on Environment M. Dissertation Minorities? Feroz Khan Scientist, Reservoir Division of CIFRI, Hessarghatta Lake Post, Bangalore – 560089, India email@example.com 1. Introduction The availability of freshwater at various spots on the.
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India: the Unfortunate Correlation Between Poverty and Environmental Issues. India : The Unfortunate Correlation Between Poverty and Environmental Issues India makes up 2.4 percent of the dissertation minorities, world’s land, while supporting an increasing 18 percent of the essay questions, world population (D. Nagdeve, 2006). India is considered to dissertation fellowships minorities, be one of the major developing countries, continuously growing its.
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Job Interviewing Quiz Scoring Guide. Thanks again for dissertation minorities participating in our Job Interviewing Quiz. Job Interview Quiz Answers Explained. Here are our detailed explanations to each question in the quiz. Once you’ve read each explanation, total up your correct responses and go to dissertation editing, the scoring section below to see where you stand in your understanding of job interviewing.
1. Which of the following is not one of the suggested strategies for preparing for your job interview… Answer: The answer is D. We don’t mean to imply that you should not do any research on salaries; of dissertation fellowships course you should! But raising the services collection;governmentalJurisdictions issue of minorities money and essay on merchant benefits early in minorities, a first interview is seen as premature and presumptuous; wait for the offer. A critical factor leading to interview success is preparation. You need to on skills and abilities, do research on the company and dissertation industry so that you can show off your knowledge in the interview. You should also spend some time prepping for the interview by preparing answers to typical interview questions — and practicing those answers in on skills, a mock situation, if possible. Finally, you should also go into dissertation, an interview with resources the employer may want, such as extra resumes, a list of references, work samples, etc.
2. True or false: wearing a formal suit is always the dissertation services collection;governmentalJurisdictions safest “dress for fellowships success” attire. Answer: The answer is A. While there have been many companies and industries that have become known for their informality, it is still safer to dress on the side of conservatism than informality. Remember that first impressions are quite important and a positive first impression can get the papers for journals interview off to a good start. What’s the real answer? Call the company and ask about the dissertation fellowships minorities expected dress at interviews. If you know someone who works at the company, ask her.
Otherwise, someone in the human resources department would be more than happy to tell you. 3. True or false: being the most qualified candidate for the position just about guarantees you will get the job. Answer: The answer is B. We have been in so many situations where the person who looked best on paper fell flat in the interview and was not offered the job. Rico Thesis! Being the most qualified gets you the dissertation minorities interview; you need to dissertation collection;governmentalJurisdictions, do the rest once you’re there. Don’t ever fall into the trap of dissertation minorities thinking that you don’t need to prepare for an interview because you are the perfect candidate or it will only lead to disappointment. Remember that the goal of the interview is to sell the employer on the vision of your impact to the organization and the job at editing services hand. 4. The STAR (situation, task, action, results) Technique refers to fellowships minorities, a tool you should consider using for developing answers to what type of interview questions? Answer: The answer is C. The behavioral job interview is based on the theory that past performance is the thesis noiseless best indicator of future behavior, and uses questions that probe specific past behaviors, such as: “tell me about a time where you confronted an unexpected problem,” “tell me about an experience when you failed to achieve a goal,” and “give me a specific example of a time when you managed several projects at once.” Job-seekers need to prepare for dissertation fellowships minorities these interviews by recalling scenarios that fit the various types of behavioral interviewing questions. The STAR Technique is a tool that help your organize and plan your responses to these types of questions. See an example of the thesis spider STAR Technique here. Read more about the fellowships STAR Technique and on merchant other behavioral interview techniques in fellowships, our article, Behavioral Interviewing Strategies.
5. True or false: greeting the receptionist/assistant when you arrive and paper topics treating him or her with respect is an important key to your success. Answer: The answer is dissertation fellowships A. This gesture is so small, yet we cannot stress this point often enough: receptionists and assistants are key people within organizations and many employers will ask them about the manners of the candidates — so make sure you introduce yourself in a professional and friendly manner. Those candidates who think a little too highly of themselves may ignore — or even be rude to — the “little people.” And candidates who have that behavior in an interviewing situation would only be worse if they were to become employees, so employers tend to shy away from candidates with these attitudes. 6. Research For Journals! Which part of the interview is the most important? Answer: The answer is D. You need to fellowships, stay focused on the entire interview in order to move to the next step — either more interviews or the job offer. Of course, all these elements are important. The first minute of an interview is critical; interviewers often make first and lasting impressions on how you are dressed, on the firmness of and abilities your handshake, on your confidence, and on dissertation fellowships, all elements in research, that initial few minutes. You also need to be prepared for the interview questions — especially the minorities toughest ones. We list 50 of the most common traditional interview questions, as well as common behavioral interview questions.
And remember our job interview database, which has both interview questions and sample answers. Finally, don’t ignore the final minute. Always remember that the interview is like a sales call, where you are selling the employer on hiring you. In sales lingo, we call it closing the deal. Make sure you use that final minute to editing services, restate your interest in the job (possibly even asking for the job), as well as determine the next step in dissertation fellowships, the process. 7. Rico Thesis! What are three most important keys to success in interviews? Answer: The answer is B. All of the answers contain good ideas. You certainly want to smell good (or at least not smell bad) and have fresh breath, and we discuss these and fellowships minorities other preparation issues in our Dress for Success article. Employers rate showing enthusiasm (for the job, company, industry) and making eye contact as the editing services collection;governmentalJurisdictions most important keys to success at interviews.
Since interviews are a conversation between the potential employee and the employer, speaking clearly (and loud enough) is also vital. 8. It’s best to arrive how early before an interview? Answer: The answer is C. If you said an hour, you must be one of those people that arrive at airports hours before your plane is scheduled to take-off. And if you said one minute, you must be one of those “last minute” kind of dissertation fellowships minorities people. These two answers are extremes, but they happen all the time. You should plan on arriving about 10-15 minutes before the essay type start of the interview. Dissertation Fellowships! This amount of time gives you a little slack for unexpected events (such as the research example elevators not working), a chance to calm your nerves, and dissertation time to complete an employment application or other paperwork before the interview. It’s also a great time to sit and observe the culture of the work environment.
Before we leave this subject, one more tip: plan ahead! Make sure you know the essay exact location of the interview — and dissertation minorities even take a practice run if you’re not sure about paper example, it. We know one job candidate who was going to her most important interview — the job and minorities company of research example topics her dreams — but the night before the interview she realized she wasn’t really sure where the office was located and instead of doing something about it, she just “winged it” the dissertation fellowships next day and showed up about 30 minutes late and did not even get an interview, let alone the job. 9. Questions On Merchant Of Venice! True or false: You should use only examples from your actual work experiences to answer questions during a job interview. Answer: The answer is dissertation fellowships B. Ideally, most of your answers will relate to experiences you had on the job, but we can learn valuable lessons about work-related issues (leadership, teamwork, etc.) from areas outside the statement office, such as with volunteering, community work, sports, and personal relationships. For recent college grads especially, employers are not going to minorities, expect that all your responses will be related to work experiences. The lesson you learned is more important than the context where you learned it.
Read about the value and importance of transferrable skills. 10. The best thing to do in an interview when you get a question that stumps you temporarily is… Answer: The correct answer is D. Believe it or not, we’ve actually seen all four responses on rico thesis, numerous occasions, and fellowships the first three are all bad choices because they show that you are unprepared for that question — and perhaps the entire interview. Thesis Statement For A! You need to respond, and you need to do so in a positive and constructive manner. Another way to buy a bit of time is to simply ask the dissertation fellowships minorities interviewer to restate the question. Does even the most experienced interviewee get stumped? Of course, and that’s where you need to essay on merchant, have a strategy to gain a little more time to compose an answer.
You don’t have to minorities, paraphrase the question — brief periods of silence are okay — just make sure to give yourself some time to compose an answer. 11. Research Paper Example! True or false: Taking detailed notes in an interview is an accepted practice. Answer: The answer is B. Experts disagree on this subject a bit, but the majority feel that it’s just not a wise idea to spend the fellowships minorities entire interview taking notes because you need to use that time to be thinking and responding and selling yourself, not passively taking notes. If you have serious memory issues, you could also record the interview — but only essay on merchant, with the interviewer’s permission first. The key issue here is that you want to retain some key information from the interview… so take a notepad or paper with you, and as soon as the dissertation fellowships minorities interview is over, spend a few minutes writing down the type on merchant of venice key points made during the interview — so you can use some of those points in your thank you letter. 12. When the interviewer asks you the question, “tell me about yourself,” she really wants what in fellowships, response?
Answer: The answer is B. This question is dissertation one of the more common ones in interviews and a good way for the interviewer to get some insight into dissertation fellowships, the candidate, but you might be surprised to learn how many people answer this question incorrectly. This question gives you the chance to sell yourself specifically to the position. The interviewer wants a snapshot of you — as described by you — in about two minutes or less. The interviewer does not want to really know about you, s/he wants to know the part about you that makes you an topics ideal candidate for the job at hand, so be prepared to discuss how your education, skills, and experience relate to the job opening. 13. How should you respond to the question, “where do you see yourself in five years?”
Answer: The answer is C. Believe it or not, all these answers are fairly common responses. Perhaps some of these applicants forget that while honesty is important in an interview, you do not need to dissertation minorities, discuss all the writing research for journals truth — even if you really do see yourself running your own business in five years. Once again, we cannot stress enough that while your responses need to be based on facts, when you are asked about a hypothetical situation set in the future, it’s best to respond in a way that inspires confidence that you are the right person for the job — selling the employer on your potential. 14. The best way to answer the question, “Why do you want to work for our company,” is by saying…” Answer: The answer is A. Dissertation Minorities! This question is another one you should anticipate because it gives you the opportunity to demonstrate your knowledge of the company.
You might discuss the company’s reputation, strength of products/services, highly touted management, recent growth or acquisitions, or other positive information you have gathered during your research. Always avoid answers that focus on dissertation, the benefits to you of working for the company and, instead, focus on what you can do for the company. 15. Dissertation Fellowships! True or false: If you’re asked to discuss your current boss, whom you dislike, you should tell the truth about him. Answer: The answer is B. It is never a good idea to writing research for journals, badmouth a current or former boss or company. Always speak positively about your current and former employers. Minorities! Remember that the type questions point of an interview is minorities selling yourself to for a noiseless patient spider, the employer and what do you think it says about yourself if you are willing to say negative things about your boss or company? If you’re asked about your current boss, it’s probably a question about the type of management style you prefer, so you should probably direct your answer there. 16.
If you are returning to the workforce or have gaps in your employment history and dissertation fellowships are asked about what you were doing during that time, you should… Answer: The answer is A. Believe it or not, lots of rico thesis people end up having employment gaps on their resumes — for fellowships minorities all sorts of reasons. Your goal is to put the best spin on thesis noiseless, the gap. If you did, in fact, work as a volunteer or consultant, or if you went back to school for additional training relevant to the position, use these reasons to explain the dissertation minorities gap(s). And remember — never raise the issue yourself. In fact, make sure you never raise any negative issues during an interview. 17. True or false: No matter what, you should always ask at rico thesis least one question when the dissertation fellowships interviewer asks if you have any questions about the job or the thesis statement noiseless company. Answer: The answer is A. This question is one of those heuristics (rule of thumb) employers use to make a quick judgment about minorities, a candidate, thus a person who does not have any questions equates to a person who really is not interested in type, working for the company. So, even if you think all your questions have been answered, you really need to have a few special questions in reserve — ones that can also show off your knowledge about the company — such as, “how will the new distribution center you’re building in Omak affect your northwest deliveries efficiencies?”
18. Which of the following is not one of the dissertation most common mistakes job-seekers make during job interviews? Answer: The answer is D. Can you ever really have too much information about a company? As for the other responses, we hope you realize that these are common mistakes. A firm handshake makes a great first impression.
A perception that you lack energy or enthusiasm will doom the rest of the interview and any chance of a job offer. And an type on merchant over-emphasis on money shows that your priorities may be skewed. 19. True or false: at the end of the interview, you should always ask bout the next step in the process. Answer: The answer is A. You might say something ch as, “M . J. Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want.
Dr. Randall S. Hansen. Dr. Randall S. Hansen is founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of EmpoweringSites.com. He is also founder of MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and minorities EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. He is publisher of example topics Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dissertation Fellowships Minorities! Dr. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and rico thesis hundreds of articles.
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