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book report animals Animals in Translation: Using the Mysteries of Autism to Decode Animal Behavior. By Temple Grandin and good paper essay Catherine Johnson. Reviewed by Karen Davis, PhD, President of United Poultry Concerns. “People and animals need to use their faculties, and curiosity is an important faculty. So people and animals need new things to lower level, stimulate their brains with.” Temple Grandin, p. 98. “Birds should not be exposed to good general paper, disturbing noises or visual stimuli or strong vibrations, whether originating inside or outside the house. Visitors should not be allowed without proper supervision, because they could cause birds to panic and essay injure themselves in their rush to escape and for biosecurity reasons. Wild birds, pets, and other animals should, likewise, not be allowed in the poultry house.” United Egg Producers, “Animal Husbandry Guidelines for U.S. Egg Laying Flocks,” 2003 Edition. Temple Grandin is an paper essay animal science professor at Colorado State University and a consultant to the meat industry. Catherine Johnson specializes in neuropsychiatry and the brain. Johnson has two autistic sons, and isee essay lower level Grandin has autism.
Both writers have doctoral degrees and good paper have published other books. In Animals in Translation , they team up to argue that autism is “a kind of essay and its, way station on the road from animals to humans putting autistic people in the perfect position to translate ‘animal talk.’” People with autism have impaired social and communication skills and do not relate to good paper, the emotional states of other people, so it is fair to ask how autistic people actually compare neurologically and experientially with competent adult animals equipped with complex social and communication skills. Are autistic “translators” of animal life common and credible enough to mustang horse essay, support the contention that they’re in a perfect position to do this work? How do autistic perceptions of general paper essay, nonhuman animals compare with those of non-autistic animal empathizers? Bypassing these questions, the binding for dissertation authors contend that animals and autistic people are alike in having mostly simple, unambivalent emotions.
According to Grandin, animals “never have psychodrama” (apparently she never spent time in a lively chicken yard). “Children don’t either,” she says (oh, really?). “Emotionally,” says Grandin, “children are more like animals and autistic people, because children’s frontal lobes are still growing” (pp. 88-89). This is a familiar grouping: normal human children, mentally-challenged human adults, and general paper nonhuman animals are pitted together as having the mustang horse same basic level of (in)competence and a simple pictorial view of the essay world as “a swirling mass of tiny details” (p. 67). Mustang Essay? Grandin writes that even though autistic people have normal-sized brains, they have “trouble making connections.” Their brains ”function more like a child’s brain or an animal’s brain, but for paper essay different reasons” (p.
90). Grandin says she loves animals, especially cows, but fully upholds the essays human right to own, control, manipulate, mutilate, buy, sell, inseminate, incarcerate, and slaughter animals, ship them into outer space, and good general paper have sex with them for business purposes. (See the section, “How to Make a Pig Fall in Love,” where she describes men masturbating captive pigs getting sows to “stand for the man” and concludes that these pig breeders “respect the animals’ nature, and pay for they do a good job with their animals,” p.104). Wanton and good paper essay ignorant abuses are of day essays, course unacceptable, but economics and the property status of animals are sacrosanct. The question isn’t whether we should slaughter cows but “What does a cow headed to slaughter need in order to have a happy life?” (p. 179). Matthew Scully, in his book Dominion , marvels at how Grandin tries to balance her purported empathy for animals with “her consistent support of essay, intensive farming and its economic objectives” (p. 239). Dissertation? Grandin is commendable for getting meat industry people to pay a bit of attention to the animals they slaughter (at least when she’s around) and to how the slaughterhouse (“packing plant”) environment affects animal behavior. Getting cows to walk “nicely” to their death improves the bottom line (animal handling, meat quality and profits) while reducing animal stress. Paper? Animals in Translation is a compilation of often contradictory scientific data, personal anecdotes and children's conclusions (e.g. animals can’t have mixed emotions though examples in the book show otherwise), little of which is owed to general paper essay, the “mysteries of autism.” And Grandin is an day essays iffy witness at good general paper best.
Noting for instance that chickens show pain following debeaking (“trimming”), she goes on: “Ranchers trim chickens’ beaks because chickens get into horrible fights and will peck each other to death. The vet trims off the sharp point so the chicken can’t use it as a knife blade” (p. 183). For one thing, it isn’t a “vet” who debeaks chickens at the hatchery but an ordinary assembly-line worker, and Grandin says nothing to enlighten the children's day essays uninformed reader that the pecking to which she refers is abnormal behavior brought on by crowding, caging, boredom, filth, fear, disease, intentional food deprivation and other destructive factors of human origin. (Her discussion, elsewhere, of “psycho hens” focuses on the side-effect of high-strung anxiety in good general essay, egg-industry hens bred to advanced essay business, be pure white and “feed-efficient.” She attributes their “beating their own feathers off against the sides of good paper essay, their cages, until they were [are] half nude,” and their “violence” to the point of killing each other, to “warped” genetics, without a hint about the role of cages [p. 77]). Indeed, Grandin says several times in the book that horrible fights in essay, the wild are not compatible with survival “ Few adult animals apart from humans ever attack each other so violently that one of them dies” (p. Essay? 153). In the essays and politics section called “Rapist Roosters,” Grandin describes the abnormal violence that has begun to appear in roosters used for breeding “meat-type” offspring (the 6-week old baby birds consumers know as “chicken”). These so-called broiler breeder roosters often destroy the hens they’re locked up with in the breeder houses. Noting that “If roosters killed hens in nature, there wouldn’t be any chickens,” Grandin cites a poultry researcher’s claim that these types of roosters attack the hens because an unexpected consequence of breeding them for paper essay abnormally fast growth and overgrown muscles for human consumption is that they don’t do the courtship dance that tells the hen to crouch into on students, a sexually receptive position.
When the hen tries to escape, the rooster attacks her with his spurs or toes and slashes her to death (p. 70). Grandin lulls the lay reader, who may not get her little joke about companies “solving” the problem by “culling” the good essay worst offenders from the essay flock, into thinking it’s been fixed. Paper Essay? “I saw some of these chickens just a few months ago,” she says, “and they all behaved just as nicely as can be” (p. Advanced Essay Business And Its Publics? 77). This pathological rooster behavior shows what happens when you breed obsessively for a single trait at the expense of overall wellbeing. You get what Grandin calls “warped evolution,” and humans adjust to “the bad becoming normal” (p. 72) a good way to describe the entire factory farm system and “evolved” depravity (not just some tweakable details of it) that Grandin defends. Good General Essay? Her explanation of why “broiler breeder” roosters attack hens isn’t satisfactory anyway, as we have these very kinds of chickens here at our sanctuary, and I can tell you that the hens crouch during the dissertation spring and general essay summer mating season if you so much as lay your hand gently on essay business, the backs, or they will walk or run a little, then stop and crouch abruptly as you come up behind them, at which point I say to them, “At ease.” “Broiler” roosters (and hens) suffer from genetic fragility and unfitness.
They’re prone to good essay, painful lameness, obesity, heart failure, respiratory weakness and infection, heat stress, and juvenile death. Part of what’s wrong with them is binding for dissertation, that they have been artificially bred to good essay, become sexually mature at declaration around three months old instead of the normal six months, so that, halfway out of their infancy, if they are being used for paper essay breeding, they have adult sex hormones driving them without the neurobiological maturity of an adult bird. Add to this the advanced college essay and its publics barren environment and semi-starvation diet to which “broiler breeders” are subjected to control their weight for fertility purposes, plus the fact that the “broiler breeder” rooster’s body, legs, and feet are too big for the hens, who themselves are abnormally heavy, disproportioned and good general slow-moving, have thin, easily torn skin, and nowhere to escape to, and you have a human-engineered sick situation. Grandin’s proclaimed paucity of emotion, compartmentalized emotions, and subnormal sensitivity to pain (pp. 89, 188), her focus on technical fixes and disconnected brain functioning, her contention that slaughterhouse cattle don’t know they’re going to die and pay for dissertation claim of being unable to watch horror movies because the images stay in her conscious mind (because she doesn’t have an “unconscious” like normal people, she says on page 92), while having a stomach for the slaughterhouse but no stomach for vegetarianism (it makes her sick, she says, and good paper isn’t part of our “animal natures,” which, elsewhere she says, humans have outgrown, pp. 180, 307), dents the notion that she’s an animal-friendly “savant.” Many of the problems Grandin presents herself as uniquely spotting in isee essay prompts, the slaughterhouse environment are the good general paper kinds of declaration, things that an intelligent non-autistic outsider sees on entering an inbred culture comprising attitudes and customs so “normal” to the enculturated as to be invisible to them. At the beginning of the book Grandin strategically distances herself from the crude cruelty of the B.F. Skinner school of animal experimentation, in part because, as she rightly observes, it is ‘totally artificial. Good General Paper? What animals do in labs is nothing like what they do in isee essay lower level, the wild so what are you actually learning when you do these experiments?
You’re learning how animals behave in labs” (p. Paper? 16). Actually, the whole world is becoming, and much of it already is, like one of those labs, and Grandin shows no evidence of seeing this. This laboratory is already being extended into outer space, and mustang horse Grandin is complicit, not because she’s autistic but because she epitomizes normal societal schizophrenia our “love” for animals is general paper essay, compatible with subjecting them, anthropomorphically, to human-contrived dysfunction, degradation, family and social dismemberment, imprisonment, prurience and death, as long as it’s done “humanely.” If we ever become extinct, “the bad became normal” should be our epitaph.
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JC General Paper Essays: How to Prepare for General Paper (GP
E. B. Good General Paper Essay. White, The Art of the Essay No. On Students. 1. E. Paper Essay. B. White and his dog Minnie. If it happens that your parents concern themselves so little with the day essays, workings of boys’ minds as to christen you Elwyn Brooks White, no doubt you decide as early as possible to good general paper essay, identify yourself as E.B. Binding For Dissertation. White. General Paper Essay. If it also happens that you attend Cornell, whose first president was Andrew D. White, then, following a variant of the principle that everybody named Rhodes winds up being nicknamed “Dusty,” you wind up being nicknamed “Andy.” And so it has come about that for advanced and its fifty of his seventy years Elwyn Brooks White has been known to his readers as E.B.
White and to his friends as Andy. Andy White. Andy and Katharine White. The Whites. Andy and Katharine have been married for forty years, and in that time they have been separated so rarely that I find it impossible to think of good essay one without the other. On the occasions when they have been obliged to be apart, Andy’s conversation is so likely to isee essay prompts, center on Katharine that she becomes all the more present for good general being absent. The Whites have shared everything, from isee level professional association on general the same magazine to preoccupation with a joint ill health that many of their friends have been inclined to regard as imaginary.
Years ago, in a Christmas doggerel, Edmund Wilson saluted them for possessing “ mens sana in corpore insano, ” and it was always wonderful to children's day essays, behold the intuitive seesaw adjustments by which one of them got well in time for the other to get sick. What a mountain of good work they have accumulated in that fashion! Certainly they have been the strongest and paper essay most productive unhealthy couple that I have ever encountered, but I no longer dare to make fun of on students their ailments. Now that age is bestowing on them a natural infirmity, they must be sorely tempted to say to the rest of us, “You see? What did we tell you?” (“Sorely,” by essay the way, has been a favorite adverb of Andy’s- a word that brims with bodily woe and day essays that yet hints at paper, the heroic: back of for dissertation Andy, some dying knight out of Malory lifts his gleaming sword against the dusk.) Andy White is small and wiry, with an unexpectedly large nose, speckled eyes, and an air of being just about to turn away, not on an errand of any importance but as a means of remaining free to paper, cut and run without the nuisance of prolonged good-byes. Crossing the threshold of his eighth decade, his person is binding for dissertation uncannily boyish-seeming. Though his hair is good essay grey, I learn at this moment that I do not consent to the fact: away from him, I remember it as brown, therefore it is brown to me. Andy can no more lose his youthfulness by the tiresome accident of growing old than he could ever have been Elwyn by the tiresome un-necessary accident of baptism; his youth and his “Andy”-ness are intrinsic and advanced and its inexpungeable.
Katharine White is a woman so good-looking that nobody has taken it amiss when her husband has described in print as beautiful, but her beauty has a touch of blue-eyed augustness in it, and her manner is formal. It would never occur to me to good essay, go beyond calling her Katharine, and I have not found it surprising when her son, Roger Angell, an editor of The New Yorker , refers to her within the office precincts as “Mrs. White.” (Roger Angell is the son of her marriage to a distinguished New York attorney, Ernest Angell; she and Andy have a son, Joe, who is a naval architect and essay business publics whose boatyard is a thriving enterprise in the Whites’ hometown of paper Brooklin, Maine.) At the risk of pay for declaration reducing a man’s life to a sort of Merck’s Manual, I may mention that Andy White’s personal physician, Dana Atchley- giving characteristically short shrift to good general, a psychosomatic view of his old friend- has described him as having a Rolls Royce mind in a Model T body. With Andy, this would pass for a compliment, because in the tyranny of children's his modesty he would always choose to paper essay, be a Ford instead of a Rolls, but it would be closer to the truth to describe him as a Rolls Royce mind in a Rolls Royce body that unaccountably keeps bumping to a stop and and its humming to itself, not without infinite pleasure to others along the way. What he achieves must cost him a considerable effort and appears to cost him very little. His speaking voice, like his writing voice, is clear, resonant, and invincibly debonair. He wanders over the pastures of good paper his Maine farm or, for that matter, along the labyrinthine corridors of The New Yorker offices on West Forty-Third Street with the off-hand grace of a dancer making up a sequence of steps that the for dissertation, eye follows with delight and that defies any but his own notation. Clues to the bold and delicate nature of those steps are to be discovered in every line he writes, but the man and his work are so nearly one that, try as we will, we cannot tell the dancer from the dance. So many critics equate the success of a writer with an good essay unhappy childhood.
Can you say something of essays on students and politics your own childhood in Mount Vernon? As a child, I was frightened but not unhappy. My parents were loving and kind. Good Paper Essay. We were a large family (six children) and were a small kingdom unto ourselves. Nobody ever came to dinner. My father was formal, conservative, successful, hardworking, and worried.
My mother was loving, hardworking, and retiring. Essays On Students. We lived in a large house in a leafy suburb, where there were backyards and good stables and grape arbors. I lacked for nothing except confidence. I suffered nothing except the routine terrors of childhood: fear of the dark, fear of the future, fear of the return to school after a summer on a lake in declaration, Maine, fear of general paper essay making an appearance on a platform, fear of the essays on students and politics, lavatory in essay, the school basement where the slate urinals cascaded, fear that I was unknowing about things I should know about. I was, as a child, allergic to pollens and children's dusts, and still am.
I was allergic to platforms, and general paper still am. It may be, as some critics suggest, that it helps to have an unhappy childhood. If so, I have no knowledge of it. Perhaps it helps to day essays, have been scared or allergic to pollensI don’t know. At what age did you know you were going to follow a literary profession? Was there a particular incident, or moment? I never knew for essay sure that I would follow a literary profession. I was twenty-seven or twenty-eight before anything happened that gave me any assurance that I could make a go of writing. I had done a great deal of writing, but I lacked confidence in my ability to binding, put it to good use. I went abroad one summer and on good my return to children's day essays, New York found an general accumulation of mail at my apartment.
I took the letters, unopened, and went to a Childs restaurant on Fourteenth Street, where I ordered dinner and began opening my mail. From one envelope, two or three checks dropped out, from The New Yorker . I suppose they totaled a little under a hundred dollars, but it looked like a fortune to me. I can still remember the mustang essay, feeling that “this was it”I was a pro at last. It was a good feeling and I enjoyed the meal. What were those first pieces accepted by The New Yorker ? Did you send them in with a covering letter, or through an agent? They were short sketcheswhat Ross called “casuals.” One, I think, was a piece called “The Swell Steerage,” about the then new college cabin class on general transatlantic ships. I never submitted a manuscript with a covering letter or through an agent. I used to put my manuscript in the mail, along with a stamped envelope for the rejection. This was a matter of high principle with me: I believed in the doctrine of immaculate rejection. I never used an agent and did not like the looks of a manuscript after an agent got through prettying it up and putting it between covers with brass clips. (I now have an agent for such mysteries as movie rights and foreign translations.) A large part of all early contributions to The New Yorker arrived uninvited and unexpected.
They arrived in pay for dissertation declaration, the mail or under the arm of people who walked in with them. O’Hara’s “Afternoon Delphians” is good general one example out of declaration hundreds. For a number of years, The New Yorker published an average of fifty new writers a year. Magazines that refuse unsolicited manuscripts strike me as lazy, incurious, self-assured, and self-important. I’m speaking of good general magazines of general circulation. There may be some justification for isee lower level a technical journal to limit its list of contributors to persons who are known to good general paper essay, be qualified.
But if I were a publisher, I wouldn’t want to put out a magazine that failed to examine everything that turned up. But did The New Yorker ever try to publish the emerging writers of the time: Hemingway, Faulkner, Dos Passos, Fitzgerald, Miller, Lawrence, Joyce, Wolfe, et al? The New Yorker had an horse interest in publishing any writer that could turn in a good piece. It read everything submitted. General Paper. Hemingway, Faulkner, and the others were well established and well paid when The New Yorker came on the scene. The magazine would have been glad to publish them, but it didn’t have the money to for dissertation, pay them off, and for the most part they didn’t submit. They were selling to The Saturday Evening Post and other well-heeled publications, and in general were not inclined to contribute to the small, new, impecunious weekly. Good General Essay. Also, some of them, I would guess, did not feel sympathetic to The New Yorker ’s frivolity. Ross had no great urge to publish the big names; he was far more interested in essays and politics, turning up new and yet undiscovered talent, the Helen Hokinsons and the James Thurbers. General Essay. We did publish some things by children's day essays Wolfe“Only the Dead Know Brooklyn” was one. I believe we published something by Fitzgerald.
But Ross didn’t waste much time trying to corral “emerged” writers. General Paper Essay. He was looking for and politics the ones that were found by turning over good essay, a stone. What were the procedures in children's, turning down a manuscript by a New Yorker regular? Was this done by Ross? The manuscript of a New Yorker regular was turned down in essay, the same manner as was the manuscript of a New Yorker irregular. It was simply rejected, usually by the subeditor who was handling the author in question. Ross did not deal directly with writers and artists, except in business, the case of general a few old friends from an essays on students and politics earlier day.
He wouldn’t even take on general essay Woollcottregarded him as too difficult and fussy. Ross disliked rejecting pieces, and he disliked firing peoplehe ducked both tasks whenever he could. Did feuds threaten the essays and politics, magazine? Feuds did not threaten The New Yorker . The only feud I recall was the running battle between the editorial department and good paper the advertising department. For Dissertation. This was largely a one-sided affair, with the paper, editorial department lobbing an occasional grenade into the enemy’s lines just on general principles, to help them remember to stay out of sight. Ross was determined not to allow his magazine to be swayed, in the slightest degree, by the boys in advertising. As far as I know, he succeeded. When did you first move to New York, and for dissertation what were some of the good general essay, things you did before joining The New Yorker ? Were you ever a part of the Algonquin group?
After I got out of college, in 1921, I went to work in advanced college essay business publics, New York but did not live in good essay, New York. I lived at home, with my father and mother in Mount Vernon, and commuted to work. I held three jobs in about seven monthsfirst with the United Press, then with a public relations man named Wheat, then with the American Legion News Service. I disliked them all, and in the spring of 1922 I headed west in a Model T Ford with a college mate, Howard Cushman, to seek my fortune and as a way of getting away from pay for declaration what I disliked. I landed in Seattle six months later, worked there as a reporter on the Times for good general paper a year, was fired, shipped to Alaska aboard a freighter, and then returned to dissertation declaration, New York. It was on my return that I became an advertising manFrank Seaman Co., J. H. Newmark.
In the mid-twenties, I moved into a two-room apartment at 112 West Thirteenth Street with three other fellows, college mates of mine at Cornell: Burke Dowling Adams, Gustave Stubbs Lobrano, and paper essay Mitchell T. Galbreath. The rent was $110 a month. Split four ways it came to $27.50, which I could afford. My friends in children's day essays, those days were the fellows already mentioned. Good Paper Essay. Also, Peter Vischer, Russell Lord, Joel Sayre, Frank Sullivan (he was older and more advanced but I met him and liked him), James Thurber, and others. I was never a part of the dissertation declaration, Algonquin group. After becoming connected with The New Yorker, I lunched once at the Round Table but didn’t care for it and was embarrassed in the presence of the great. I never was well acquainted with Benchley or Broun or Dorothy Parker or Woollcott. I did not know Don Marquis or Ring Lardner, both of whom I greatly admired.
I was a younger man. Subscribe and good save nearly 40%. Already a subscriber? Sign in below. Last / Next Article. These Anemones, Their Song Is Made Up As They Float Along. Kara Walker’s Nightmares Are Our Own. Staff Picks: Fat Ladies, Flowers, and declaration Faraway Lands. Staff Picks: Pranks, Prints, and Penises.
We reached the good general, car, and I held the on students and politics, door open for him, but he didn't climb in right away. He stood there rocking on his crutch, gazing off at the sky and paper essay the fields and the fall trees starting to go the color of sherbet#133; To the Attic: Virginia Woolf and Abelardo Morell. Virginia Woolf’s mother, Julia Jackson, was the photographer Julia Margaret Cameron’s niece, and among Cameron’s loveliest subjects. She also served as inspiration for the charismatic figure of Mrs. Ramsay in Woolf ’s novel To the Lighthou Eudora Welty, The Art of Fiction No. 47. I met Eudora Welty in her room at the Algonquin Hotel an hour or so after her train had arrived in Penn Station.
She had given me the wrong room number, so I first saw her peering out of her door as the elevator opened. A tall, large-boned, gray-haired woman greeted me apologetically. She was admittedly nervous about mustang horse being interviewed, particularly on a tape recorder. Good General. After describing her train rideshe won’t flyshe braced herself and asked if I wouldn’t begin the mustang horse, questioning. Once the good paper essay, interview got underway, she grew more at ease. As she herself might say, she was “not unforthcoming.” She speaks deliberately with a deep Southern drawl, measuring her words. Children's Day Essays. She is extremely private and won’t reveal anything personal about herself. You wrote somewhere that we should still tolerate Jane Austen’s kind of family novel. Is Austen a kindred spirit? Tolerate ? I should just think so! I love and paper admire all she does, and mustang profoundly, but I don’t read her or anyone else for “kindredness.” The piece you’re referring to was written on good assignment for Brief Lives , an anthology Louis Kronenberger was editing.
He did offer me either Jane Austen or Chekhov, and Chekhov I do dare to think is more “kindred.” I feel closer to him in binding for dissertation, spirit, but I couldn’t read Russian, which I felt whoever wrote about him should be able to good essay, do. Chekhov is one of mustang horse usso close to today’s world, to good essay, my mind, and very close to the Southwhich Stark Young pointed out a long time ago. Why is Chekhov close to today’s South? He loved the singularity in people, the individuality. He took for granted the sense of family. He had the sense of fate overtaking a way of life, and his Russian humor seems to me kin to the humor of a Southerner.
It’s the kind that lies mostly in declaration, character. You know, in Uncle Vanya and essay The Cherry Orchard , how people are always gathered together and talking and talking, no one’s really listening. Yet there’s a great love and understanding that prevails through it, and a knowledge and acceptance of essays each other’s idiosyncrasies, a tolerance of them, and also an acute enjoyment of the dramatic. Like in The Three Sisters , when the general paper essay, fire is going on, how they talk right on through their exhaustion, and Vershinin says, “I feel a strange excitement in the air,” and laughs and sings and talks about the on students and politics, future. Good Paper Essay. That kind of responsiveness to essays and politics, the world, to whatever happens, out of good general paper their own deeps of character seems very southern to me. Anyway, I took a temperamental delight in Chekhov, and gradually the connection was borne in upon me. Do you ever return to Virginia Woolf? Yes. Binding. She was the one who opened the door.
When I read To the Lighthouse , I felt, Heavens, what is this? I was so excited by the experience I couldn’t sleep or eat. I’ve read it many times since, though more often these days I go back to her diary. Any day you open it to good general paper essay, will be tragic, and yet all the marvelous things she says about children's her work, about working, leave you filled with joy that’s stronger than your misery for her. Remember“I’m not very far along, but I think I have my statues against the sky”?* Isn’t that beautiful?
About your own work, are you surprised that Losing Battles was on the best-seller lista first for you, I believe? It occurred to good general essay, me right at first it must be a flukethat whoever had that place on the best-seller list had just got up and given me his seatlet the declaration, lady sit down, she’s tottering. Yet any reception would have surprised meor you could just as well say nothing would have surprised me, because I wasn’t thinking of how it would be received when I wrote it. I thought about the opinion of a handful of friends I would love to have love that book, but not about the public. Do you write for your friends? At the time of writing, I don’t write for my friends or myself, either; I write for it , for paper essay the pleasure of day essays it . Good Paper Essay. I believe if I stopped to wonder what So-and-so would think, or what I’d feel like if this were read by a stranger, I would be paralyzed. Binding. I care what my friends think, very deeplyand it’s only after they’ve read the finished thing that I really can rest, deep down.
But in the writing, I have to just keep going straight through with only the thing in mind and what it dictates. It’s so much an inward thing that reading the proofs later can be a real shock. When I received them for my first bookno, I guess it was for Delta Wedding I thought, I didn’t write this. It was a page of good general dialogueI might as well have never seen it before. Advanced Essay. I wrote to my editor, John Woodburn, and told him something had happened to that page in the typesetting. He was kind, not even surprisedmaybe this happens to all writers. He called me up and good general paper read me from the manuscriptword for word what the proofs said.
Proofs don’t shock me any longer, yet there’s still a strange moment with every book when I move from the position of horse writer to the position of reader, and I suddenly see my words with the eyes of the cold public. It gives me a terrible sense of good paper exposure, as if I’d gotten sunburned. Do you make changes in galleys? I correct or change words, but I can’t rewrite a scene or make a major change because there’s a sense then of someone looking over my shoulder. It’s necessary, anyway, to trust that moment when you were sure at isee essay prompts level, last you had done all you could, done your best for that time. When it’s finally in print, you’re deliveredyou don’t ever have to good paper essay, look at pay for dissertation declaration, it again. It’s too late to worry about its failings.
I’ll have to apply any lessons this book has taught me toward writing the next one. Is Losing Battles a departure from your previous fiction? I wanted to general, see if I could do something that was new for pay for dissertation me: translating every thought and feeling into action and good general paper speech, speech being another form of actionto bring the whole life of it off through the completed gesture, so to speak. I felt that I’d been writing too much by way of description, of introspection on the part of my characters. I tried to see if I could make everything shown, brought forth, without benefit of the author’s telling any more about what was going on inside the characters’ minds and hearts. For me, this makes almost certainly for comedywhich I love to write best of all. Now I see it might be a transition toward writing a play.
Did you know what you were going to write before you put it on paper? Yes, it was there in my head, but events proliferated as I went along. Isee Prompts Lower Level. For instance, I thought all the action in the novel would be contained in one day and night, but a folder started to fill up with things marked “Next A.M.” I didn’t foresee the stories that grew out of the storiesthat was one of the good paper, joys of working the novel out. I thought the book would be short, and instead it was three or four times longer than my normal work. Mustang. There’s no way of estimating its original length because I had great chunks of things in paper clips, which weren’t numbered until they went to the printer. And I must have thrown away at least as much as I kept in the book. Did you learn anything new about writing dialogue?
I believe so. In its beginning, dialogue’s the easiest thing in the world to write when you have a good ear, which I think I have. But as it goes on, it’s the most difficult, because it has so many ways to function. Sometimes I needed to make a speech do three or four or five things at oncereveal what the general paper essay, character said but also what he thought he said, what he hid, what others were going to think he meant, and what they misunderstood, and so forthall in his single speech. Binding. And the speech would have to paper, keep the essence of this one character, his whole particular outlook in concentrated form. This isn’t to say I succeeded. But I guess it explains why dialogue gives me my greatest pleasure in writing. I used to laugh out loud sometimes when I wrote itthe way P. G. Essay. Wodehouse is said to do. I’d think of paper some things my characters would say, and even if I couldn’t use it, I would write the scene out just to let them loose on somethingmy private show.
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Stragetic Management Essay Sample. USQ MGT8039 Strategic Leadership S2, 2005 Study Book (p 1.11), sighted that Hoskisson, Hitt and good general paper essay, Ireland (2004, p.37) defined strategic leadership as “the ability to anticipate, envision, maintain flexibility and empower others to create strategic change as necessary… managing through others, managing an entire enterprise rather that a functional subunit”. 2. Critical Analysis. Strategic management can be described as a process undertaken by top-level management. Thomson el all (2002, pp. 3-15)) elaborate that strategic management is process about defining the essay, purpose of existent of an organization, formulating a long term strategy to fit the general essay, organization’s external and internal situation, build sustainable advantage and improve organization performance. In contrast, strategic leadership is a function that drives the strategic management process in the organization. In view of this, the author would like to adopt a stand that strategic leadership is different from mustang horse strategic management but both intertwined and co-exist to compliment each other. Strategic management will not exist without strategic leadership.
The scope of top level management in this respect shall encompasses the Board of Directors, CEO and top management and the strategic leadership which, they exercise would be in-conjunction or individually. Emergence of globalization whilst giving new opportunities for organization to new markets, also exposes organization to new challenges for competitions and good paper essay, rapid changes of competitive environment. The strategic management undertaken by organization to address these challenges required strategic leadership to drive the task of crafting and executing the organization strategy. According to Richardson (1994), modern strategic management needs to be met by binding, a multi-skilled strategic leadership response and not adopt a stand of paper “this by and large, is the only way to do strategic leadership”. Pay For? Nicholls (1994) proposed that in order to counter the fast-changing business environment, organization through the role strategic leadership must adopt the fundamental changes in the way they think and behave with respect to both people and customers. In the good, process of strategic management, decisions making would have to on students and politics take place to determine the good general essay, direction of the strategy and according to Harrison Pelletier (1997) strategic decisions constitute the prompts level, essence of strategic leadership. Nicholls (1994) also added that strategic leadership of an organization requires equal attention to general paper essay both paths finding and culture building. Pay For Dissertation? He further explained that in “performing this strategic role, strategy formulation and good general paper, strategy implementation are no longer sequential and separate but are subsumed in the complementary leaderships of path finding and culture building”. Strategic thinking (Bonn, 2001), decision making (Harrison Pelletier, 1997) and culture building (Nicholls, 1994) which are associated with human cognitive capability and behavior, required strategic leadership approach in developing and capitalizing these aspects of human resource to support and ensure the success strategic management process. Even though the above observations were made to support the author stance, it would presumptuous to conclude that the practice of strategic leadership would ensure the success of strategic management.
Richardson (1994) in his “strategic configuration” model, explained that the domain of strategic management consist of many components, which includes, decisional processes, environmental circumstances, critical problems, political situation and leadership style. These components according to him, are multi-facet and interactive and the effectiveness of the pay for dissertation declaration, “strategic configuration” are dependent upon the deployment of all of the components. By definition, strategic leadership is different with strategic management but by being strategic in “nature” and by the definition of this course module, both have common association, which is the general paper essay, top-level management of organization. Essay Prompts Lower? In view of good this, strategic leadership needs to advanced business and its publics be analyzed and discuss in the context of strategic management. Bonn, I,” Developing Strategic Think as a Core Competency”, Management Decision, Vol. 39/1, 2001, pp 63-70.
Harrison, EF Pelletier, MA 1997, “CEO perception of strategic leadership”, Journal of Managerial Issues, Vol. Good General Paper? Ix, no. 3, pp. 299-317. Nicholls, J 1994, “The strategic leadership star: a guiding in delivering value to the custyomer”, Management Decision, vol.21, no. 8, pp. 21-6 (1994) Richardson, B 1994, “Comprehensive approach to strategic management: leading across the strategic management domain”, Management Decision, Vol.
32, No. 8, pp27-41. Thomson, AT, Strickland, AJ, Gamble, JE 2002, “Crafting and executing strategy: The quest for competitive advantage, edn. 14th, McGraw-Hill, New York, USQ MGT8039 Strategic Leadership S2, 2005 Study Book.
5. Annexure – Author Background. The author is currently holding a position of a Sales Manager, in an Australian owned, company, PolyPacific Polymers Sdn Bhd located in Malaysia. The author has about twenty years of working experience, which consist of fourteen years in the manufacturing and six years in the sales. The author was employed as a young supervisor at the age of twenty and climbs to the rank and file to the current position. Advanced College Essay Business And Its Publics? In term of leadership experience, the author has nine years of working experience in supervisory capacity and eleven years of working experience in good essay managerial capacity. During the course of working, the author has received training on prompts level, basic leadership skills. The author has not exposed to strategic leadership or strategic management as the strategic management process in good general the company was undertook by the CEO in horse conjunction with the Board of Directors of the company. The author has not completed MGT8002 and his limited knowledge of strategic management was acquired through reading during the course of his MBA studies. The reason the author chose to good paper essay do MGT8039 was mainly due to his special interest in leadership studies and intends to major in leadership and day essays, hoping to learn and general essay, be a better leader.
Apart having a profession as a Sales Manager, the author also involves in social work, training and teaching young people in the area of leadership. This also has been the motivating factor for mustang essay the author to embark on the specialization of leadership in general paper his MBA studies. Part B – Word Count -1042 words. For those who have not read any great leaders biographies and theirs accomplishments, the book provide good introduction of essay all the seven exceptional corporate leaders and their signature strategies. The books should be able to stir reader interest for more serious reading and learning on good general, other more in-depth leadership books. Krames’s rigorous analysis of each of the CEO and pay for dissertation, their strategies, provide reader an understanding of what are their strategies and how the strategies implemented and why they were implemented. The book not only discusses the framework of each of their strategies but also entails some of the example of the leaders’ relevant experience.
Through these leaders, the book portrays proven business insights, ideas and innovations of practiced by these world-class organizations. The inclusion of general paper thoughts provoking case studies and self-test “Assessing Your CEO Quotient” at each of the chapters provide interactive learning experience. The book could have provided experience from wider spectrum of leaders from other non-profit organization, corporate leaders from emerging economies and corporate leaders from Asia. The definition of successful leaders in this book is narrow is the sense its only from the perspective of immediate financial wealth creation. 4. General Learning Benefit. The author, being a novice in the area of strategic leadership studies found that the book provide a very good introduction to strategic leadership and corporate strategy. The books open the author mind on essay, the dynamism of good general paper essay strategic and dissertation declaration, critical thinking of good general essay addressing corporate problems. The author found that the “More Lesson From CEO” sections at the end of each chapter were practical and applicable to the author current profession. 5. Ranking of Learning Benefit of Each CEO. Out of essay prompts level all the CEOs the author has learned the most is from Andy Grove. Turning from negative situation to positive though it took resourcefulness to achieved, without real strong courage and determination, many leaders would not succeed.
These strong qualities possessed by Grove no doubts would have developed through his early days hardship and this had earned Grove the respect of being a leader. Through his ability see the condition Intel from the perspective of an outsider enable him to prepare Intel for drastic change and turn into a multi-billion dollars business. The author admired Grove leadership style based on good essay, truth telling. Ranking second after Grove is Herb Kelleher. The author learned the important of building performance-based culture in essay level business. Kelleher’s down-to-earth leadership style, by putting customer and employee, putting aside title and protocol caught the attention of the author especially when it came from the leader from big organization like Southwest.
Kelleher lean management structure that made him accessible by his front lines supervisor plus his flamboyant and people treatment breed loyalty and commitment from his staff. Ranking third is good general paper Sam Walton. Pay For Dissertation Declaration? Walton continuous endeavor to be better by learning from his competitors, and good general essay, remain faithful to his vision to provide lowest cost impressed the author. Normally when organization became big, they will not adopt lowest cost strategy. Lesson that the advanced, author draws from Walton leadership style was to lead by example in the aspect of learning from others.
Ranking fourth is Bill Gates. Bill Gates leadership approach to knowledge management was definitely a lesson that that the author have learned. Gates ability to see the general, future label him as visionary leader. Ranking fifth is Jack Welch. Jack Welch was good corporate strategies. Level? Though through learning organization make GE a great company, his “number one or number two” strategy was mean and good paper, neglected the human aspect which the author believe negate the overall leadership pursuit. This strategy though might work with big corporation like GE, might not work on pay for, the smaller organization. People commitment to good essay their job could be due to job security. Ranking sixth is Lou Gerstner. Gerstner approach to put IBM under the scrutiny of its customer and use the market feedback to transform IBM would be expected of him. His previous experience in Nabisco naturally would give IBM a fresh perspective of how to business would be directed.
No doubt his leadership abilities would have contributed to his success transforming IBM. Ranking seventh is Michael Dell. Dell approach to pay for build DELL business model surround the customer and his strategy of mass customization would be the natural things to do for highly competitive industry like computers. Whereas other failed, Dell succeeded to harness the power of Information Technology to build DELL supply chain. Probably other computer makers would have recognized the important of bringing the business closer to the customer but they fail to know how. 6. Other Prominent Leader. Another leader that the author regards to be prominent is Fujio Cho, the president of the Toyota Motor Corporation. Fortune reported that Toyota’s worldwide sales leapt 10%, to 7.5 million vehicles, posting strong growth in all regions. General? Toyota’s profits for fiscal year 2003 exceeded those of GM, Ford, DaimlerChrysler, and Volkswagen combined. Pay For? (Annex A) Cho portray his leadership style particularly dedicates his time through interaction with the working group on the production floor, congratulating them of their best achievement.
Cho leading by example has earned him admiration and respect from good essay his employees. (Annex B) Cho none compromising stand on environmental issue evident went he lambasted his own company saying “The sense of crisis we feel, despite increasing sales and profits, stems from advanced essay business our fear that we have no kept up. Particularly fears that we have not kept up with environmental issues…” (Annex C) To be globally competitive today, according to Cho, a company must be agile, able to make rapid decisions and respond quickly to changing business environments (Annex D) and general essay, this factor has brought Toyota to the current level. Cho leadership exemplifies the pay for dissertation, quest for organization for continuous improvement. Lesson that can be drawn by the author from his leadership and strategy are, his treatment for good general his employee, passion for quality and children's day essays, meeting customer expectation and respect for the environment. The reading of the book provides the author a good introduction of the practice and the dynamics of strategic leadership.
Based on experiences of these CEOs, the author realized that the application strategic leadership varies depending on the personality of the leadership and the circumstances and type of the organization they are in. Annex A -TOYOTA CEO FUJIO CHO IS NAMED FORTUNE’S ASIA BUSINESSMAN OF THE YEAR. Cho is driving Toyota to new heights-and straight past the competition. Hong Kong, January 24, 2005-FORTUNE announced today that Fujio Cho, CEO of good paper Toyota, is the Asia Businessman of the Year. Dissertation? Cho leads a company whose model lineup features some of the U.S. market’s most popular vehicles. Smart products and a sterling reputation for quality have lifted Toyota’s share of the U.S. market to 12%, and many industry analysts predict it will soon pass DaimlerChrysler to essay join the ranks of the U.S.
Big Three. Cho earns FORTUNE’s nomination for his near flawless execution of Toyota’s plan for global expansion. The story, “Full Speed Ahead,” appears in the February 7 issue of FORTUNE, on newsstands January 31 and at www.fortune.com. “By nearly every measure, Toyota is the advanced college business and its publics, world’s best auto manufacturer,” says FORTUNE writer Clay Chandler. Paper Essay? “It may be the world’s best manufacturer, period. Consider: Last year, Toyota’s worldwide sales leapt 10%, to 7.5 million vehicles, posting strong growth in all regions. Advanced College Essay Business? But Toyota has long since kicked the Japanese habit of chasing sales and market share at the expense of profit.” Toyota’s profits for fiscal year 2003 exceeded those of GM, Ford, DaimlerChrysler, and Volkswagen combined. Toyota has embarked on an ambitious international expansion plan, though Cho is good essay struggling with the essays, complexities of transplanting Toyota’s vaunted production methods to foreign soil.
For Cho, running Toyota is like “trying to good essay pull a handcart up a steep hill-there’s always tremendous danger if we relax, even for declaration a moment, we could loose momentum and be thrown to the bottom.” Cho downplays-but does not disavow-the objective widely reported in the Japanese press of capturing at 15% share of global vehicle sales by the end of the decade. But the multi-front blitzkrieg launched to reach that target has put unprecedented strain on the production process once hailed as the “machine that changed the world.” The dilemma, says Chandler, is how to paper maintain the pace without diluting what Toyota executives call their corporate DNA-a principle called kaizen, the isee lower level, notion that engineers, managers, and line workers collaborate continually to systematize production tasks and identify incremental changes to make work go more smoothly. Good General Essay? Cho not only has to day essays make this approach work in Toyota’s U.S. Essay? factories-where feedback from workers has made him change some of Toyota’s long-held approaches-but also in China, the world’s fastest growing auto market, where Toyota has forged a partnership with First Autoworks in Changchun. One of Toyota’s gambles has been the Prius, a hybrid car that critics claim has yet to be profitable. There is high demand in the U.S., and China is pressing for on students and politics access to the technology. General Essay? Getting an early grip on this market may turn out to have been a shrewd move on Cho’s part, says Chandler.
Many expect Cho to step down in June and take the binding for dissertation, more ceremonial role of good general paper chairman. “Whether Cho stays on,” concludes Chandler, “expect Toyota to keep pulling its handcart uphill-and to rush to essays on students the next mountain the moment it gains the summit.” FORTUNE, part of Time Inc., is the global leader in good general business, known for its unrivalled access to industry leaders and decision-makers throughout the world. FORTUNE’s Asia edition, based in Hong Kong, is dedicated to covering Asian business from mustang a trademark global perspective. With an Asian circulation of 85,000 and general paper, a worldwide circulation of 1,020,000, FORTUNE is one of the fastest growing magazines in the world. Founded in 1930, FORTUNE has grown to a worldwide circulation of over one million and a readership in excess of five million. Annexure B -An authentic Leader…
By Enrique Mora. Fujio Cho, President of the Toyota Motor Company, is an exemplary leader. In Japan the company has about pay for declaration a dozen plants, producing 3.5 million vehicles every year. Good General Paper Essay? Seldom is Cho found in his office. He dedicates most of his time on the floor of the college business publics, plants, congratulating the good, working groups with the best achievements. It has won him all Toyota’s 264,000 employees’ admiration and respect, and it also creates an exemplary image that should be followed by other executives. The world sees very few executives at Cho’s level spending so much time with employees.
Is it that companies have to be at the level of binding Toyota to have these leaders? Or maybe Toyota is at general essay, that level because of the day essays, practices of these leaders? Companies don’t succeed because of their names; it is their people who create energy for success. The success of a company is a direct result of good attitudes of the leaders who comprise it. We can all “make the difference.” Many times I hear negative comments of people complaining that “their company” does not respond to their positive and changing attitudes.
Error: We can All influence the results of the company. Isee Level? And, if by good general, chance, the company doesn’t have the advanced college essay business, appropriate atmosphere and vision to good paper essay capture and children's, take advantage of good general paper that positive energy, there is no problem. Get ready for a better opportunity, because you will surely find it. The example of Fujio Cho is impacting. Managers from all over the world should follow it if they want to meet the demands in day essays the evolution process called “World Class.” This determines the competitive position of a company in the coming years. This opportunity is in our hands, and good general paper essay, we should not waste it. Here is a few questions to ask yourself: 1. – How well do you know your people? Do you know their names?
Do they know your face? Do they come and talk to dissertation you? 2. – How do you show appreciation for the efforts of the people on general paper, your team? How do you publicly commend those employees who are doing outstanding jobs? 3. – Would you say that the atmosphere of your company is one of empowerment? Do you share the power and information with everyone, not just a select few? A leader’s success depends on the honest answers to these questions, since they determine: 1. – How will your company do in the short and medium term? 2. – What is the level of collaboration you will have from your labor force? The trend of the college essay business publics, automotive industry has clearly defined the economy in the last 60 years and it will continue to do so.
The arrogance of “the three big ones” of America has blinded them. Good General Paper Essay? They don’t seem to be willing to change, and they continue to loose market share and prestige. The Japanese industry, on the other hand, shares its “secrets” with everybody. Determine today what example you want to follow: that of the essays on students, winners or that of the general paper essay, losers. The industries of the world need Leaders, people who give authentic support instead of orders; who model the essay and its publics, behavior they want to see from others; who encourage ideas and new ways of improving processes and products; who “grow” new leaders for general paper the future. I wish you a day of binding change and good general, success, followed by another and another…… Annex C -Toyota experiences extreme self disappointment, somebody cry me a river. Posted Aug 9, 2004, 10:48 AM ET by Christopher Diken. Related entries: Hybrids/Alternative, Trends.
Despite raking in $10 billion in earnings last year and looking like it will surpass that mark this year, Toyota is not happy. Chairman Fujio Cho lambasted his own company last week, saying “The sense of crisis we feel, despite increasing sales and profits, stems from our fear that we have no kept up. Particularly fears that we have not kept up with environmental issues…” Ok, Fujio, I know it’s noble to be hard on yourself, as that’s how Toyota got to this point in the first place, but what about the essay prompts lower, unbridled success of the Prius and the manifold hybrid concepts like the Volta and Lexus’ pending RX hybrid SUV? It’s still not even close to enough, apparently, as Chairman Cho revealed plans to get 300,000 hybrids on tarmac by the end of next year. But, wait, this isn’t really about environmentally-responsible transport, is it? No, I didn’t think so: Toyota has long been forced to compete only with itself as far as quality and general, reliability were concerned; this year, however, the untarnishable reputation pitted slightly around the college essay business and its, edges as Hyundai passed Toyota in J.D.
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Custom Cholera Disease essay paper. Cholera is an acute intestinal disease. The disease is caused when a person consumes food or water contaminated with the bacterium, Vibrio cholerae (Barua and general paper essay, Greenough 1). After infection, the result is a painless watery diarrhea that dehydrates a person’s body. Patients with profuse amounts of diarrhea risk death due to binding, dehydration. People who have ingested the bacteria develop serious diarrhea within five days. Severe cases of the disease require immediate medical attention to good general paper, control body fluids and essay prompts, receive the general essay, necessary treatment. Patients are advised to take a lot of fluids and oral re-hydration salts so that their bodies can maintain the required levels of body fluids.
Cholera is an uncommon disease in children's the United States of America and other well developed countries. People who are at high risk are those traveling abroad where the good essay, epidemic is very common and people who eat undercooked foods from questionable environments. Cholera germ is transmitted in the stools. It spreads when a person consumes foods and drinks contaminated by human waste of dissertation declaration a cholera patient (Barua and good paper essay, Greenough 144). This happens in the developing countries where there are insufficient water supplies and poor waste disposal services. The disease spreads very fast in institutions like schools and pay for, prisons if not detected early enough. Good Paper Essay! Doctors and medical professionals advise that immediate treatment and attention is necessary to avoid loss of lives. To contain the epidemic, the people at risk are expected to first understand the day essays, modes of transmission to enable them be cautious when executing their daily hygiene practices. In developing countries, the disease causes deaths in every outbreak making it a serious health concern. Signs and good paper, Symptoms.
People who have ingested cholera germs develop diarrhea, dehydration and vomiting. Lower! The immediate signs are a loose diarrhea that includes whitish flecks with fishy smell. Diarrhea rate can be massive, meaning that the body can suffer dehydration very fast. When a person is infected by the cholera disease, a development of the following signs and symptoms occur as explained below. Vomiting coupled with nausea which is a symptom for an infection. Vomiting is an aggressive emptying of the tummy due to disturbed normal mechanisms of the stomach. The vomiting is caused by varying reasons like stomach infections, general diseases, problems with the central nervous system and unusual ingestion. Essay! Vomiting and nausea are also caused by diseases that have no direct involvement with the stomach.
Side effects of medications cause vomiting. Loss of skin elasticity and dry mucous membranes are the direct effects of severe dehydration. Medical attention is extremely required in such conditions. Rapid heart rate is binding, experienced. There are horrible feelings of essay irregular forceful pounding of the heart. The heart rate irregular beating is pay for, caused by the increased force of tightening of the good general essay, heart muscle. Dissertation Declaration! Irregular heart beating rates are noted, from the heart pounding very fast and very slow. People need immediate re-hydration to stop these indications from ongoing because these symptoms show that a patient has dehydrated. A dehydrated patient will eventually develop severe infection because of vomiting and diarrhea.
Children, elderly people and a community with poor nutrition have a higher risk of severely dehydration, causing serious effects like acute renal failure, coma and general essay, most seriously death (Barua and Greenough 219). The severe dehydration mostly occurs during the first four to nine hour after the first watery stool and a person risks death if untreated for for dissertation a period of good paper one day to a few days. For Dissertation! The cholera epidemic erupts in general paper essay developing countries where sanitation is poor and there is a shortage of either medical assistance or medical supplies. The mortality rate can be as high as fifty percent or slightly higher. Causes and day essays, Transmission. Cholera is caused by a bacterium known as Vibrio cholerae. The bacterium has a flagellum that aid in movement, and hair like structures known as pili which help the bacterium hook up to tissue (Keya and general paper essay, Chatterjee 22). There are many types of the cholera germ that cause cholera symptoms.
Severe cholera symptoms are caused by binding for dissertation, the O group germs which are O1 and O139. These cholera germs generate toxins. The bacterium uses the hair like structures to general essay, embed into human cells. Once the Vibrio cholerae germs are on the human cells, they cause extraction of water and electrolytes mainly from the gastrointestinal tract. The extracts are pumped into for dissertation the intestinal lumen where they are excreted in diarrhea (Keya and paper essay, Chatterjee 55). That is why a person who has diarrhea ends up been dehydrated after several diarrheal stools. Essay! The bacteria are transmitted by consumption of contaminated water and food. Undercooked Sea foods also transmit the bacteria if the source waters of the seafood were exposed to raw sewage. History of cholera.
Cholera has been with human beings for various centuries. In India, there were reported cases of cholera like disease in the early 1000 AD. The term cholera was derived from the greak work khole, meaning a sickness from bile and was later renamed to colere in French back in general essay the 14th century, and finally renamed in English to choler (Barua and Greenough 38). The term cholera was a term used in the 17th century to explain a severe gastro intestinal infection involving vomiting and diarrhea (Barua and Greenough 2). During these early times, there were numerous outbreaks of the cholera epidemic and in the 16th century, some cases were severe that they were noted in essays on students history. In the 18th century, England had one notable case where in 1854, an good, estimated five hundred people died in ten days, all having the symptoms of cholera.
During this England case, one Dr. Advanced College Publics! John Snow conducted a classic medical investigation which revealed the good general paper, main cause of the England epidemic. Children's! The infection came from a major source of water used by London inhabitants also known as the Broad street pump (Coleman 33). In response to the deaths, the medical professionals decided to stop the flow of water to the residents and good, removed the pump handle. After this action, it was noted that the deaths and rate of new infections slowed down and binding for dissertation, stopped (Hamlin 182). The doctor did not ascertain the root cause of the good paper essay, cholera germ. He showed how a possible transmission can occur and how an outbreak can be contained (Coleman 33). The real scientific study of the cholera epidemic started then. Similar severe outbreaks happened in essay publics other parts of the world like in the United States of America between the eighteenth and the nineteenth century. There have been seven severe worldwide cholera pandemic outbreaks since the early eighteenth century.
In the 21st century, multiple outbreaks have been noted in Iran, India, Vietnam and numerous African countries. In the general paper essay, last two years, severe outbreaks occurred in Nigeria and Haiti. From Dr. Snow’s studies, provision of safe water and food is the only of stopping the bacterium from being transmitted because the germ is easy transmitted in water and food. Medical response to a person with watery diarrhea starts from measurement of the possible volume of vomit and stool. The process is done to determine the amount of fluids lost and replacement needs. In cases where severe there is publics, a watery diarrhea and vomiting with signs of dehydration, recent travel to cholera prone environments and recent consumption of sea foods, a diagnosis of cholera bacteria is advised. Laboratory test that include stool gram stain culture, stool PCR and dark field microscopy must be done immediately (Barua and good general paper, Greenough 229). When all these tests are ongoing, general treatment should be done to the patient like provision of oral re-hydration salts solutions to avoid occurrence of dehydration. Identification of advanced essay business and its positive cholera bacteria presence means there is a contaminated water source which should be treated immediately to contain the bacteria.
Preliminary analysis is done by a professional caregiver. The caregiver collects the patient’s medical history and good general essay, observes the persons diarrhea for essay prompts level distinctive characteristics like rice-water diarrhea, particularly if a cholera disease outbreak has been reported. A medical professional needs a laboratory to identify the cholera germ. The bacterium is coma-shaped and thus distinctively identified. Definitive diagnosis helps to differentiate cholera from other diseases with similar symptoms and other protozoal, bacterial, or viral microorganisms that cause dysentery(Barua and Greenough 232). Most cholera infections are mild, with 75% of good general paper essay infected persons not developing any signs and symptoms. Conversely, the infected persons continue to spread the cholera germ back into the surroundings, risking infecting others with severe cholera disease.
In such persons, the huge amounts of watery diarrhea help wipe out the germs, resulting to a reduced infection. However, in such cases, dehydration remains as a deadly threat to the infected persons when untreated, especially among the vulnerable like the elderly and children. The risks of essay losing life among healthy adults within hours remain a threat. A recovery from a cholera bacteria infection results to a long-term immunity against the same. More Cholera Mysteries. Cholera bacteria have been mysterious and good, scientists and dissertation, medical professionals worked tirelessly to understand why the virulence of the germ was diverse in many strains (Coleman 67). A recorded number of strains failed to general paper, indicate illness.
The cholera germ is a toxin that attaches to the tissue and causes dehydration. Essays! This toxin was ultimately discovered to be the main factor behind virulence allied to strains that cause acute diarrhea. Rice water stool is an acute state caused by cholera toxin. Good Paper! The appearance is because the entercytes in the almost clear watery stool appear like rice grains. A supportive therapy of oral re-hydration salts is recommended because it has saved millions of horse essay lives. Antibiotics are administered in severe conditions to good essay, reduce period of diarrheal when infected. With proper re-hydration measures, the cholera organism fades out in five to six days and the infected person recovers uneventfully.
Studies conducted by marine scientists in the last decade have showed that open ocean is a favorable environment for the development of for dissertation a wide range of viruses. The number of good general essay viral particles examined indicates that not all of the viruses are infectious because most of them are inactivated by ultra violent radiation in the ocean’s photic zone. However, a small portion of the viruses escape the radiation and children's, infect several species of organisms (Coleman 67). How Cholera Epidemics Start. Cholera was non existence in paper essay human population until the epidemics started. Research has shown that there is no identified human carrier as the origin.
The cholera organisms grow best at temperatures that are above 170 C, and in dissertation a broth of sodium chloride, well lower than that of open ocean, although above that of fresh water (Barua and Greenough 107). Those conditions are present during spring and are the good general paper essay, ecological settings that favor an outbreak. Modern intensive field and laboratory studies have led to a discovery that Vibrio cholerae is harbored in advanced college essay and its publics estuaries of zooplankton communities that have many species of copepods that consist of myriad assemblages. Their egg sacks and in good general essay gut tracts is the breeding environments of these Organisms, including cholera germ. These discoveries helped scientists have a better description, and essay lower, understanding of the natural science of the cholera group of microorganisms (Barua and Greenough 107). Cholera is easily preventable through cautious hygienic sanitation, treatment of water, before using for drinking and cooking, and, hygienic handling of food. Paper Essay! The Center for Disease Control and Prevention recommends boiling water and treatment with chlorine before use. Children's Day Essays! Another way is to consume bottled water which is professionally treated. Good General Paper Essay! Food that is thoroughly cooked is safe and a person should peel their own raw food to declaration, ensure extreme hygiene before consumption. During an outbreak, a person is highly advised to avoid raw foods, ice and ice cream from street vendors.
Proper sanitation is the first step to safeguarding the community from dangerous bacteria. A person should dispose dead bodies away from water sources and good, carefully washing hands after such disposal. Construction of emergency sanitation amenities at a safe distance from any water supply is recommended. The amenities should have proper hygienic washrooms for the people who use the facilities. For Dissertation! Food should be cooked thoroughly with safe water and consumed hot. Sea food which has high risks of having the cholera bacteria should be washed with treated water and cooked thoroughly (Coleman 100). Avoiding a mixture of cooked food and raw food is very important. Exclusion of infected persons from preparing food is good paper essay, important. People should avoid sharing food together in communal containers because the cholera germ can be easily transmitted from advanced college essay and its publics one person to all the good general paper essay, others. Foods that are taken raw like fruits and dessert vegetables must always be washed with treated water and peeled by a person who has thoroughly cleaned hands.
There is day essays, a vaccine called Dukoral which is good, oral. College Business And Its Publics! The vaccine is general paper, available in isee lower some countries, but the Center for Disease Control and Prevention does not recommend it because it has incomplete defensive effects. Countries that use the vaccine advise all travelers to use it as a precautions measure. The most vital preventive measure is avoiding uncooked foods and using water from unknown sources. To ensure that the water is safe, a person needs to use treated water and good general, packaged drinks. Ecological Awareness Aimed at pay for declaration, Controlling of Cholera.
Realization that cholera disease is transmitted through contaminated water supply has driven scientists to employ massive technology for microorganisms detection. Good! The importance of technology involvement was because the epidemic has recorded massive deaths worldwide and mustang horse, can infect a large population that depends on a particular water source. An occurrence of a case of Vibrio cholerae has potential of contaminating the local water source and at times entire coastal regions (Barua and Greenough 107). With the advancement of technology, earth monitoring satellites are employed to simultaneously identify changes in climate patterns. These earth monitoring satellites are also used to good, monitor land and sea temperature patterns. With collection and availability of environmental data, medical professionals are in a position to predict a possible cholera epidemic and take preventive measures before the happening and in turn save millions of lives. In developing countries where cholera is common, health experts have taken awareness campaigns closer to the people. This is done by putting up warning billboards near open water bodies and in turn providing alternative water supply from a treated source to essays on students and politics, discourage unhygienic water usage. Again, local water treatment formulas are supplied to villages, to enable people treat their own water from home. Since sea food is at high risk of being contaminated, people near large water bodies are continuously being educated about the dangers of undercooked sea foods to ensure that they properly cook their food before consumption.
Other important awareness initiatives being taken are provision of regular water bodies’ contamination checkups. The checkups are funded by the government to help communities use tested water and avoid mass contamination by cholera germs. Cholera bacteria are deadly because they dehydrate the body. The first treatment is through oral re-hydration therapy. The person who is good, infected should take a lot of drinks. The therapy consists of huge amounts of essays water mixed with a little sugar and salt.
Mixtures of blend sugar and salt are packaged in sachets and are commercially available (Barua and Greenough 258). Good General! Consumption of huge volumes of oral re-hydration salts help flash out the children's, bacteria. General Paper! Commercial mixtures of re-hydration salts are not available everywhere. In such cases, there are homemade oral re-hydration salt recipes using the available household ingredients. In severe cases of cholera infection, huge volumes of fluid replacement are necessary to maintain the body’s fluid content. In such cases, antibiotics are administered to shorten the disease but re-hydration is extremely necessary even when the antibiotics are administered. Food should be given to on students, the patient as soon as the person can eat. The food should be coupled with more drinks to keep the general paper, intestines full.
Re-hydration can be used to prevent and treat dehydration. The intake of numerous volumes of drinks into the body does not cure cholera but gives enough allowance until the prompts lower, disease go away by itself. Research has shown that infections of cholera fade away with time if an paper, infected patient takes a lot of fluids to flash out the germ from the body. Medical professional advise against taking anti diarrheal drugs because they interfere with flashing of germs from the intestines. Cholera disease is a deadly disease that is transmitted through water contaminated with Vibrio cholerae bacteria. The disease is not common in developed countries because there is sufficient supply of clean treated water and hygienic sanitation systems. In Developing countries, the disease remains a threat because unlike developed countries, they don’t have enough clean and horse essay, treated water for human consumption.
Other than clean water, there are no proper mechanisms for waste disposal and sanitation. The governments of developing countries are unable to provide treated water to all people due to economic constrains. On the other hand, people who are near water bodies like rivers, lakes and general paper, oceans use the available water without boiling or treating. The other major reason why cholera epidemic infects masses is that an infected person will be unknowingly spread the germs back into the environment before noticing any signs and symptoms. The main mode of transmission being contaminated water sources, a large population sharing a water source risks being infected unknowingly. A healthy adult will have a mild infection in the first and second day of infection and level, will have spread the bacteria to many other people by the time the good paper essay, severe signs and for dissertation, symptoms develop. Essay! In developing countries, medical assistance is not locally available and people are not well informed of the mustang, dangers of such diseases. The unawareness results to mass spread of epidemics before medical teams move in to contain an outbreak.
The best simple way of preventing cholera disease from spreading is by using clean treated water and eating thoroughly cooked food. The other recommended action is to report diarrhea cases immediately to general essay, the nearest medical health center (Hamlin 249). This is to advanced essay business and its, ensure that a possible spread is contained and patients are treated early before a severe infection occurs.