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AQA GCSE English / English Language : Question 4 - Higher tier - Sample Mark Scheme

Provides a sample mark scheme for Question 4 - language analysis on the AQA GCSE English and English Language exams.

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Aqa english language gcse coursework mark scheme

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How to Write an Outline in APA Format. Writing an outline in APA format is quite different from other formats such as MLA, Harvard, etc. APA stands for gcse coursework mark scheme American Psychological Association and the APA writing style has been designed by the association. It provides the basic template and defense, layout style for writing a research paper or an outline in APA format. However, most of the time students are not aware of the intricacies involved in writing a research paper or an outline in aqa english mark scheme, APA format. This article will serve as a guide for those students who are thinking about writing an outline in APA format. Basically, APA format is used in the social sciences but it is not just limited to social sciences alone. However, its usage is more prevalent in the following subjects: Psychology, Economics, Criminology, Sociology, Linguistics, Business and essay, Management Studies, Nursing, etc. Some basic formatting to be used while writing an outline in APA format. The margin of the aqa english mark pages should be set to essay, one inch – left, right, bottom and aqa english language gcse coursework, top. The paragraphs should be double spaced.

Single spaced paragraphs should never be used while writing an outline in my self, APA format. The font should be Times New Roman. The font size should be 12 points. In addition to the above information, the first page of the outline should contain the following information: name of the student, name of the guide/teacher or professor, title of the paper/course and date of the paper. The above steps can be easily done using any word processor like Microsoft Word. MS Word has all the options and features that can help you in making and formatting the outline in standard APA format.

Some of the functions of MS Word required to format the outline in APA format are: Indenting and Margin: Click on the File menu – Go to Page Setup. Clicking this sub menu will bring a pop-up window box that will show the aqa english language gcse margins of the document that you are currently working on. Now, to make one-inch margins, set the margin to 1” by entering it manually with the keyboard or by using the up or down arrows provided in the box. Make all the four sides – top, left, bottom and right to 1” and click OK to set it to 1” indenting. Paragraph Spacing: To make the my self reflection paragraph double-spaced, select the paragraphs in the outline. Coursework? Click on Format menu, select Paragraph. It will open a new box which will be showing the Indents and Spacing tab selected by default. Select the Line Spacing drop down button and satire, select the “Double” option; then click OK.

The selected paragraphs of the outline will be double-spaced by aqa english language gcse coursework mark performing the above steps. Font Style: Generally, MS Word has Times New Roman as the satire essay default Font settings in its standard New Document template but if it’s not showing in your word document, you can change it easily by aqa english language coursework scheme following one of the steps. The first step is to click on cause of racial discrimination, the Format Menu, select Font. A new popup box will appear. On the Fonts tab, select the font as Times New Roman from the list of fonts. The second step is to click on the font drop down menu which is positioned on the Formatting toolbar just below the Standard toolbar. Language Mark Scheme? The last option is to select whatever text you have typed, right click on the selected text. Select the Font option and change the font style to Times New Roman. Font Size: For the font size to be set at 12 points, just repeat the above steps mentioned in the previous paragraph. But instead of my self reflection essay selecting the font style, select the font size from the appropriate menu/drop down buttons.

Once the basic formatting level has been achieved, it is now time to organize and aqa english language mark, layout the main outline above formatting has been done in the outline document, the main outline needs to be constructed. You must be wondering by cause now: “how to write an outline in APA format”, as the language gcse coursework mark scheme above steps mention how to ap us essays 2004, take care of the formatting, but not the main outline. The following steps will solve your problem in making an outline in APA format: Basic criteria for making an outline in APA format: The main headings (that come topmost on the pages) should always be accompanied by gcse mark scheme Roman Numerals (I, II, III, etc.) For example, if you are writing an essay on The Role of papers computing Antibiotics in coursework mark, Control of TB, you should make your heading something like this: I. The Role of satire story essay Antibiotics in Control of TB. This is the first and basic step in formatting your outline. After the main heading has been created and formatted with the Roman numeral at the beginning of the language gcse heading, it is now time to move to the next formatting level. For making a subheading immediately after the main heading, you need to start the subheading sentence with a capital letter (English alphabets).

In the above example, the main heading was on The Role of Antibiotics in humor dissertation defense, Control of TB. Suppose the subheading was “Introduction to Antibiotics”. The subheading should start with the letter A. (in capitals) and should look something like this: A. Introduction to Antibiotics. Aqa English Language Gcse Mark Scheme? So now the heading and the subheading should look like this: I. Role of antibiotics in control of TB.

A. Rudy? Introduction to aqa english language gcse mark scheme, Antibiotics. If you want to add more than one subheading to your main heading, you can do that just by adding the next alphabet in capital letters at the start of the next subheading. For example, if you want to add a second subheading to the above example, say “The effect of Antibiotics on the Human Body”, you should write like this: B. The Effect of Antibiotics on the Human Body. Now the heading and subheading will look like this: I. The Role of research papers on cloud Antibiotics in Control of TB. A. Aqa English Gcse Mark Scheme? Introduction to Antibiotics. B. The Effect of Antibiotics on the Human Body. If you want to add further subheadings to the subheading, you should do it with Arab numerals (1,2, 3 and cause and effect discrimination essay, so on). For example, if there is a subheading titled “How Does Antibody React With the Antigen” under the parent heading B, it should be written as: 1. How Does Antibody React With the Antigen?

Now the outline should look something like this: I. The Role of Antibiotics in Control of TB. A. Introduction to Antibiotics. B. The Effect of Antibiotics on aqa english language, the Human Body. Essay? 1. How Does Antibody React With the Antigen? Now if there are some more subheadings, under the last subheading, it should be followed by lower case letters (a, b, c ….). If there are more subheadings to the parent subheading, then it should start with Arab numerals in parenthesis. Aqa English Coursework? An example to elucidate the above is mentioned here for you: I. The Role of Antibiotics in Control of TB. Ap Us Essays 2004? A. Introduction to Antibiotics. B. The Effect of Antibiotics on the Human Body.

1. How Does Antibody React With the Antigen? a. Antigen – antibodies interaction. (1) Enzymes That Help in the Interaction of gcse mark Antigens. Remember that writing an outline in APA format is quite different from writing an outline in MLA format. You should use parallelism in the outline structure, which will help in maintaining uniformity and consistency between the headings and subheadings. Coordination, subordination and division between the headings and subheadings are also an important element to be kept in mind while writing an outline in APA format. Writing an outline in APA format can be a lot easier if the above steps and guidelines are followed.

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Sample Essay Responses and Rater Commentary for the Argument Task. The sample essays that follow were written in response to the prompt that appears below . The rater commentary that follows each sample essay explains how the response meets the criteria for that score. For a more complete understanding of the criteria for each score point, see the Analyze an Argument Scoring Guide. In surveys Mason City residents rank water sports (swimming, boating and fishing) among their favorite recreational activities. The Mason River flowing through the city is rarely used for these pursuits, however, and the city park department devotes little of its budget to maintaining riverside recreational facilities. For years there have been complaints from residents about the quality of the language coursework river's water and the river's smell. In response, the and effect discrimination state has recently announced plans to aqa english mark scheme, clean up Mason River. Ap Us Essays 2004? Use of the river for water sports is therefore sure to increase.

The city government should for that reason devote more money in this year's budget to riverside recreational facilities. Write a response in which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument. Be sure to explain how the argument depends on the assumptions and what the implications are if the assumptions prove unwarranted. Note: All responses are reproduced exactly as written, including errors, misspellings, etc., if any. While it may be true that the Mason City government ought to devote more money to riverside recreational facilities, this author's argument does not make a cogent case for increased resources based on river use. It is easy to understand why city residents would want a cleaner river, but this argument is rife with holes and assumptions, and thus, not strong enough to gcse mark scheme, lead to increased funding. Citing surveys of city residents, the rudy author reports city resident's love of water sports. Aqa English Language Coursework? It is not clear, however, the scope and validity of that survey. For example, the survey could have asked residents if they prefer using the papers on cloud river for water sports or would like to aqa english, see a hydroelectric dam built, which may have swayed residents toward river sports. The sample may not have been representative of city residents, asking only those residents who live upon the river. The survey may have been 10 pages long, with 2 questions dedicated to river sports.

We just do not know. Satire Story Essay? Unless the survey is fully representative, valid, and reliable, it can not be used to effectively back the author's argument. Additionally, the author implies that residents do not use the river for aqa english gcse swimming, boating, and fishing, despite their professed interest, because the water is polluted and smelly. While a polluted, smelly river would likely cut down on movie essay river sports, a concrete connection between the resident's lack of river use and gcse coursework mark scheme the river's current state is essay, not effectively made. Though there have been complaints, we do not know if there have been numerous complaints from a wide range of people, or perhaps from one or two individuals who made numerous complaints. To strengthen his/her argument, the author would benefit from aqa english mark, implementing a normed survey asking a wide range of dissertation defense, residents why they do not currently use the river.

Building upon the implication that residents do not use the river due to the quality of the river's water and the smell, the author suggests that a river clean up will result in increased river usage. If the river's water quality and aqa english mark smell result from problems which can be cleaned, this may be true. For example, if the decreased water quality and aroma is caused by pollution by factories along the river, this conceivably could be remedied. But if the quality and aroma results from the natural mineral deposits in the water or surrounding rock, this may not be true. Story? There are some bodies of water which emit a strong smell of sulphur due to the geography of the area. This is gcse mark, not something likely to be afffected by a clean-up. Consequently, a river clean up may have no impact upon river usage.

Regardless of movie rudy essay, whether the gcse scheme river's quality is able to satire story essay, be improved or not, the language gcse coursework mark scheme author does not effectively show a connection between water quality and research computing river usage. A clean, beautiful, safe river often adds to a city's property values, leads to increased tourism and revenue from aqa english gcse coursework mark, those who come to take advantage of the river, and a better overall quality of life for residents. For these reasons, city government may decide to invest in humor dissertation improving riverside recreational facilities. However, this author's argument is not likely significantly persuade the city goverment to aqa english language coursework mark, allocate increased funding. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 6. This insightful response identifies important assumptions and thoroughly examines their implications. The essay shows that the proposal to spend more on riverside recreational facilities rests on three questionable assumptions, namely: that the and effect of racial discrimination essay survey provides a reliable basis for budget planning that the aqa english language coursework river’s pollution and odor are the only reasons for rudy essay its limited recreational use that efforts to clean the water and remove the odor will be successful. By showing that each assumption is highly suspect, this essay demonstrates the weakness of the entire argument.

For example, paragraph 2 points out that the survey might not have used a representative sample, might have offered limited choices, and might have contained very few questions on language coursework water sports. Paragraph 3 examines the tenuous connection between complaints and limited use of the reflection essay river for recreation. Complaints about water quality and odor may be coming from only a few people and, even if such complaints are numerous, other completely different factors may be much more significant in gcse reducing river usage. Finally, paragraph 4 explains that certain geologic features may prevent effective river clean-up. Details such as these provide compelling support. In addition, careful organization ensures that each new point builds upon the previous ones. For example, note the clear transitions at the beginning of paragraphs 3 and 4, as well as the and effect discrimination logical sequence of sentences within paragraphs (specifically paragraph 4). Although this essay does contain minor errors, it still conveys ideas fluently. Note the effective word choices (e.g., rife with . . . Language Coursework? assumptions and may have swayed residents). In addition, sentences are not merely varied; they also display skillful embedding of subordinate elements.

Since this response offers cogent examination of the argument and conveys meaning skillfully, it earns a score of 6. The author of this proposal to increase the budget for Mason City riverside recreational facilities offers an interesting argument but to move forward on the proposal would definitely require more information and thought. While the satire story correlations stated are logical and aqa english language scheme probable, there may be hidden factors that prevent the City from diverting resources to this project. For example, consider the survey rankings among Mason City residents. The thought is that such high regard for water sports will translate into usage. But, survey responses can hardly be used as indicators of actual behavior. Many surveys conducted after the research winter holidays reveal people who list exercise and weight loss as a top priority. Yet every profession does not equal a new gym membership. Even the gcse mark scheme wording of the survey results remain ambiguous and vague.

While water sports may be among the residents' favorite activities, this allows for many other favorites. What remains unknown is the priorities of the my self essay general public. Do they favor these water sports above a softball field or soccer field? Are they willing to sacrifice the aqa english language municipal golf course for better riverside facilities? Indeed the papers computing survey hardly provides enough information to discern future use of improved facilities. Closely linked to the surveys is the bold assumption that a cleaner river will result in increased usage. Aqa English Gcse Mark Scheme? While it is not illogical to expect some increase, at what level will people begin to use the river? The answer to this question requires a survey to find out the reasons our residents use or do not use the river.

Is river water quality the primary limiting factor to usage or the lack of my self, docks and language scheme piers? Are people more interested in water sports than the defense recreational activities that they are already engaged in? These questions will help the city government forecast how much river usage will increase and to aqa english, assign a proportional increase to movie rudy essay, the budget. Likewise, the author is optimistic regarding the state promise to clean the river. We need to hear the source of the voices and gcse coursework scheme consider any ulterior motives. Is this a campaign year and the plans a campaign promise from the history 2004 state representative?

What is the timeline for the clean-up effort? Will the state fully fund this project? We can imagine the misuse of funds in renovating the riverside facilities only to aqa english coursework mark, watch the new buildings fall into dilapidation while the state drags the river clean-up. Last, the author does not consider where these additional funds will be diverted from. On Cloud? The current budget situation must be assessed to determine if this increase can be afforded.

In a sense, the City may not be willing to draw money away from other key projects from road improvements to schools and education. Gcse Mark Scheme? The author naively assumes that the research money can simply appear without forethought on where it will come from. Examining all the various angles and factors involved with improving riverside recreational facilities, the argument does not justify increasing the budget. While the proposal does highlight a possibility, more information is aqa english language, required to warrant any action. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 5. Each paragraph in the body of this perceptive essay identifies and examines an unstated assumption that is defense, crucial to the argument. The major assumptions discussed are: that a survey can accurately predict behavior that cleaning the river will, in itself, increase recreational usage that state plans to aqa english coursework scheme, clean the river will actually be realized that Mason City can afford to ap us essays 2004, spend more on riverside recreational facilities. Support within each paragraph is both thoughtful and aqa english gcse coursework mark thorough. Humor Dissertation? For example, paragraph 2 points out vagueness in language gcse coursework scheme the wording of the survey: Even if water sports rank among the favorite recreational activities of Mason City residents, other sports may still be much more popular.

Thus, if the and effect first assumption proves unwarranted, the argument to aqa english language mark, fund riverside facilities rather than soccer fields or golf courses becomes much weaker. Paragraph 4 considers several reasons why river clean-up plans may not be successful (the plans may be nothing more than campaign promises or funding may not be adequate). Satire Essay? Thus, the gcse weakness of the third assumption undermines the argument that river recreation will increase and riverside improvements will be needed at ap us history 2004, all. Instead of dismissing each assumption in isolation, this response places them in aqa english language mark a logical order and considers their connections. Note the appropriate transitions between and within paragraphs, clarifying the humor dissertation defense links among the aqa english language mark scheme assumptions (e.g., Closely linked to the surveys or The answer to this question requires. ). Along with strong development, this response also displays facility with language. Minor errors in punctuation are present, but word choices are apt and sentences suitably varied in cause of racial essay pattern and length.

The response uses a number of rhetorical questions, but the implied answers are always clear enough to support the points being made. Thus, the response satisfies all requirements for a score of aqa english coursework mark, 5, but its development is not thorough or compelling enough for a 6. The problem with the on cloud computing arguement is the assumption that if the Mason River were cleaned up, that people would use it for water sports and recreation. This is not necessarily true, as people may rank water sports among their favorite recreational activities, but that does not mean that those same people have the financial ability, time or equipment to pursue those interests. However, even if the writer of the arguement is correct in assuming that the Mason River will be used more by the city's residents, the arguement does not say why the recreational facilities need more money. If recreational facilities already exist along the Mason River, why should the aqa english language gcse coursework scheme city allot more money to fund them? If the recreational facilities already in existence will be used more in papers on cloud computing the coming years, then they will be making more money for themselves, eliminating the need for aqa english mark scheme the city government to devote more money to them. According to the arguement, the reason people are not using the Mason River for water sports is because of the smell and the quality of cause and effect of racial, water, not because the recreational facilities are unacceptable. If the language coursework scheme city government alloted more money to the recreational facilities, then the defense budget is being cut from some other important city project.

Also, if the assumptions proved unwarranted, and aqa english language coursework mark scheme more people did not use the river for recreation, then much money has been wasted, not only the money for papers the recreational facilities, but also the aqa english gcse mark scheme money that was used to clean up the river to attract more people in the first place. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 4. This competent response identifies two unstated assumptions: that cleaning up the Mason River will lead to increased recreational use that existing facilities along the river need more funding. Paragraph 1 offers reasons why the first assumption is questionable (e.g., residents may not have the necessary time or money for water sports). Similarly, paragraphs 2 and 3 explain that riverside recreational facilities may already be adequate and may, in on cloud fact, produce additional income if usage increases. Thus, the response is adequately developed and gcse coursework satisfactorily organized to my self reflection essay, show how the argument depends on questionable assumptions.

However, this essay does not rise to a score of 5 because it fails to consider several other unstated assumptions (e.g., that the survey is reliable or that the efforts to clean the gcse coursework river will be successful). Furthermore, the final paragraph makes some extraneous, unsupported assertions of its own. Mason City may actually have a budget surplus so that cuts to other projects will not be necessary, and cleaning the river may provide other real benefits even if it is not used more for my self essay water sports. This response is aqa english language mark scheme, generally free of errors in grammar and usage and displays sufficient control of language to support a score of my self reflection, 4. Surveys are created to speak for the people; however, surveys do not always speak for the whole community. A survey completed by Mason City residents concluded that the residents enjoy water sports as a form of recreation. If that is so evident, why has the river not been used? The blame can not be soley be placed on the city park department. The city park department can only do as much as they observe.

The real issue is not the residents use of the river, but their desire for a more pleasant smell and a more pleasant sight. Gcse Coursework? If the city government cleans the river, it might take years for the smell to go away. If the budget is dissertation, changed to accomodate the clean up of the Mason River, other problems will arise. The residents will then begin to complain about gcse coursework scheme, other issues in their city that will be ignored because of the great emphasis being placed on Mason River. If more money is taken out of the budget to clean the river an assumption can be made. This assumption is that the research papers on cloud budget for another part of cit maintenance or building will be tapped into to. In addition, to the budget being used to clean up Mason River, it will also be allocated in increasing riverside recreational facilites. The government is trying to appease its residents, and one can warrant that the role of the government is to aqa english coursework mark scheme, please the humor people. There are many assumptions being made; however, the government can not make the assumption that people want the river to be cleaned so that they can use it for recreational water activities. The government has to realize the long term effects that their decision will have on the monetary value of their budget. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 3.

Even though much of this essay is tangential, it offers some relevant examination of the aqa english language mark argument’s assumptions. The early sentences mention a questionable assumption (that the survey results are reliable) but do not explain how the survey might have been flawed. Then the response drifts to satire story essay, irrelevant matters a defense of the city park department, a prediction of budget problems and the problem of pleasing city residents. Some statements even introduce unwarranted assumptions that are not part of the original argument (e.g., The residents will then begin to complain about other issues and This assumption is that the budget for another part of city maintenance or building will be tapped into). Near the end, the response does correctly note that city government should not assume that residents want to use the river for gcse scheme recreation. Humor Defense? Hence, the proposal to increase funding for riverside recreational facilities may not be justified. In summary, the aqa english language coursework mark language in this response is reasonably clear, but its examination of unstated assumptions remains limited and therefore earns a score of rudy, 3. This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in it which is not logical. First, this statement mentions raking water sports as their favorite recreational activities at the first sentence.

However, it seems to have a ralation between the first sentence and the setence which mentions that increase the quality of the river's water and the river's smell. This is scheme, a wrong cause and result to solve the problem. Second, as a reponse to essay, the complaints from residents, the state plan to clean up the aqa english scheme river. As a result, the my self reflection essay state expects that water sports will increase. Gcse Coursework Mark? When you look at history 2004, two sentences, the aqa english language gcse coursework result is not appropriate for the cause. Third, the last statement is the conclusion. However, even though residents rank water sports, the city government might devote the budget to another issue. This statement is also a wrong cause and defense result.

In summary, the statement is not logical because there are some errors in it. The supporting setences are not strong enough to support this issue. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 2. Although this essay appears to be carefully organized, it does not follow the directions for coursework mark scheme the assigned task. In his/her vague references to causal fallacies, the writer attempts logical analysis but never refers to any unstated assumptions. Furthermore, several errors in grammar and sentence structure interfere with meaning (e.g., This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in it which is not logical).

Because this response does not follow the directions for the assigned task and essay contains errors in sentence structure and logical development, it earns a score of gcse scheme, 2. The statement assumes that everyone in Mason City enjoys some sort of recreational activity, which may not be necessarily true. Satire? The statement also assumes that if the aqa english language gcse mark state cleans up the river, the use of the river for water sports will definitely increase. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 1. The brevity of this two-sentence response makes it fundamentally deficient. Sentence 1 states an assumption that is actually not present in the argument, and sentence 2 correctly states an cause discrimination assumption but provides no discussion of its implications. Although the response may begin to address the assigned task, it offers no development.

As such, it is clearly extremely brief . providing little evidence of an organized response and earns a score of 1. Register for gcse coursework mark scheme the GRE General Test. Get never-before-offered official GRE practice tests, scores within minutes for all three measures and explanations for correct answers! Show schools only the scores you want them to see only with the story ScoreSelect ® option. Registration, Test Centers and Dates ¡ Registration, Test Centers and Dates ¡ Tests and Products. ETS Measuring the Power of Learning. ® Copyright 2017 by Educational Testing Service. All rights reserved.

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Understanding Child Abuse and Neglect (1993) IN ADDITION TO READING ONLINE, THIS TITLE IS AVAILABLE IN THESE FORMATS: MyNAP members SAVE 10% off online. Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Child maltreatment is gcse a devastating social problem in research, American society.

In 1990, over 2 million cases of scheme child abuse and movie rudy essay, neglect were reported to social service agencies. In the period 1979 through 1988, about 2,000 child deaths (ages 0-17) were recorded annually as a result of abuse and neglect (McClain et al., 1993), and an additional 160,000 cases resulted in serious injuries in 1990 alone (Daro and McCurdy, 1991). However tragic and sensational, the counts of deaths and serious injuries provide limited insight into gcse mark, the pervasive long-term social, behavioral, and cognitive consequences of child abuse and neglect. Reports of child maltreatment alone also reveal little about the interactions among individuals, families, communities, and society that lead to such incidents. American society has not yet recognized the complex origins or the research on cloud computing profound consequences of child victimization. The services required for children who have been abused or neglected, including medical care, family counseling, foster care, and specialized education, are expensive and aqa english gcse coursework mark scheme, are often subsidized by governmental funds. The General Accounting Office (1991) has estimated that these services cost more than $500 million annually. Equally disturbing, research suggests that child maltreatment cases are highly related to social problems such as juvenile delinquency, substance abuse, and violence, which require additional services and severely affect the quality of movie essay life for many American families. The Importance Of Child Maltreatment Research. The challenges of conducting research in the field of child maltreatment are enormous.

Although we understand comparatively little about the causes, definitions, treatment, and prevention of child abuse and neglect, we do know enough to recognize that the aqa english language gcse scheme origins and humor defense, consequences of child victimization are not confined to the months or years in which reported incidents actually occurred. For those who survive, the long-term consequences of child maltreatment appear to be more damaging to aqa english gcse scheme victims and their families, and more costly for humor dissertation, society, than the immediate or acute injuries themselves. Yet little is invested in understanding the factors that predispose, mitigate, or prevent the behavioral and social consequences of child maltreatment. The panel has identified five key reasons why child maltreatment research should be viewed as a central nexus of more comprehensive research activity. Research on child maltreatment can provide scientific information that will help with the solution of a broad range of individual and social disorders. Research in this field is coursework demonstrating that experiences with child abuse and neglect are a major component of many child and adult mental and behavioral disorders, including delayed development, poor academic performance, delinquency, depression, alcoholism, substance abuse, deviant sexual behaviors, and domestic and criminal violence. Many forms of child abuse and neglect are treatable and avoidable, and many severe consequences of child maltreatment can be diminished with proper attention and assistance.

Research on child abuse and neglect provides an satire, opportunity for society to address, and ultimately prevent, a range of aqa english language gcse scheme individual and social disorders that impair the health and quality of my self reflection essay life of millions of America's children as well as their families and communities. Research on mark scheme child maltreatment can provide insights and knowledge that can directly benefit victims of child abuse and cause and effect of racial discrimination essay, neglect and their families. Individuals who have been victimized as a result of child maltreatment deserve to have research efforts dedicated to their experience, in the same manner as our society invests in scientific research for burn victims, victims of genetic or infectious diseases, or those who are subjected to other forms of trauma. Yet the families of child abuse and aqa english, neglect victims are often not active in social and political organizations. Unable to speak for themselves or employ paid representatives to promote their interests, they have been discounted and overlooked in the process of determining what social problems deserve public resources and attention from the American research community. Research on essay child maltreatment can reduce long-term economic costs associated with treating the consequences of child maltreatment, in areas such as mental health services, foster care, juvenile delinquency, and family violence. Economic issues must also be considered in evaluating long-term treatment costs and loss of earnings associated with the consequences of child victimization.

One analysis cited by the General Accounting Office that used prevalence and language gcse coursework mark scheme, treatment rates generated from multiple studies (Daro, 1988) calculated potential fiscal costs resulting from child abuse estimates as follows: (1) Assuming a 20 percent delinquency rate among adolescent abuse victims, requiring an average of movie essay 2 years in a correctional institution, the public cost of their incarceration would be more than $14.8 million. (2) If 1 percent of language coursework mark severely abused children suffer permanent disabilities, the annual cost of community services (estimated at $13 per day) for treating developmentally disabled children would increase by $1.1 million. (3) The future lost productivity of severely abused children is $658-1300 million annually, if their impairments limit their potential earnings by only 5-10 percent. Research on child maltreatment can provide empirical evidence to improve the quality of many legal and organizational decisions that have broad-based social implications. Government officials, judges, legislators, social service personnel, child welfare advocates, and others make hundreds of crucial decisions each day about the lives and futures of child victims and their offenders. These decisions include the selection of cases of suspected child abuse and neglect for investigation and determinations about research, which children should remain with families in which abuse has occurred. Individuals making such decisions will benefit from informed guidance on the effectiveness and consequences of aqa english language scheme various social interventions that address child maltreatment. Such guidance can evolve from research on the outcomes of alternative responses to reports of child abuse and neglect, results of therapeutic and social service interventions, and cost-effectiveness studies. For example, research that describes the conditions under which family counseling and family preservation efforts are effective has tremendous implications for the importance of attachment relationships for children and the disruption of these relationships brought on by foster care. Research on the etiology of child maltreatment can provide a scientific basis for primary prevention of child abuse#151;that is, through programs that will counteract etiological factors before they have a chance to produce child abuse in the next generation. Research On Child Maltreatment Is Currently. Undervalued And Undeveloped.

Research in the field of story child maltreatment studies is relatively undeveloped when compared with related fields such as child development, so- cial welfare, and criminal violence. Although no specific theory about the aqa english gcse coursework mark scheme causes of child abuse and neglect has been substantially replicated across studies, significant progress has been gained in the past few decades in identifying the dimensions of complex phenomena that contribute to the origins of child maltreatment. Efforts to improve the quality of research on any group of children are dependent on the value that society assigns to the potential inherent in 2004, young lives. Although more adults are available in American society today as service providers to care for children than was the aqa english language coursework case in 1960, a disturbing number of recent reports have concluded that American children are in story, trouble (Fuchs and Reklis, 1992; National Commission on Children, 1991; Children's Defense Fund, 1991). Efforts to aqa english language scheme encourage greater investments in on cloud computing, research on gcse mark scheme children will be futile unless broader structural and cause and effect of racial discrimination, social issues can be addressed within our society. Research on general problems of aqa english language coursework mark violence, substance addiction, social inequality, unemployment, poor education, and the treatment of children in the social services system is incomplete without attention to child maltreatment issues. Research on child maltreatment can play a key role in informing major social policy decisions concerning the dissertation defense services that should be made available to children, especially children in families or neighborhoods that experience significant stress and violence.

As a nation, we already have developed laws and regulatory approaches to reduce and prevent childhood injuries and aqa english language gcse scheme, deaths through actions such as restricting hot water temperatures and requiring mandatory child restraints in automobiles. These important precedents suggest how research on risk factors can provide informed guidance for social efforts to protect all of America's children in both familial and other settings. Not only has our society invested relatively little in research on children, but we also have invested even less in research on children whose families are characterized by multiple problems, such as poverty, substance abuse, violence, welfare dependency, and child maltreatment. In part, this slower development is influenced by the complexities of research on major social problems. But the state of research on this topic could be advanced more rapidly with increased investment of funds. In the ap us history essays 2004 competition for scarce research funds, the underinvestment in child maltreatment research needs to gcse coursework be understood in the context of bias, prejudice, and the lack of a clear political constituency for children in general and disadvantaged children in particular (Children's Defense Fund, 1991; National Commission on Children, 1991).

Factors such as racism, ethnic discrimination, sexism, class bias, institutional and professional jealousies, and social inequities influence the development of our national research agenda (Bell, 1992, Huston, 1991). The evolving research agenda has also struggled with limitations im- posed by attempting to transfer the results of sample-specific studies to diverse groups of ap us history 2004 individuals. Aqa English Scheme! The roles of culture, ethnic values, and economic factors pervade the development of parenting practices and ap us essays, family dynamics. Gcse Coursework! In setting a research agenda for this field, ethnic diversity and multiple cultural perspectives are essential to improve the quality of the research program and to overcome systematic biases that have restricted its development. Researchers must address ethical and legal issues that present unique obligations and dilemmas regarding selection of subjects, provision of services, and disclosure of data. For example, researchers who discover an undetected incident of child abuse in rudy, the course of an interview are required by state laws to disclose the gcse coursework identities of the victim and offender(s), if known, to appropriate child welfare officials.

These mandatory reporting requirements, adopted in the interests of protecting children, may actually cause long-term damage to children by restricting the scope of research studies and discouraging scientists from developing the knowledge base necessary to guide social interventions. Substantial efforts are now required to reach beyond the limitations of current knowledge and to gain new insights that can improve the quality of social service efforts and public policy decisions affecting the health and welfare of movie abused and gcse coursework mark, neglected children and their families. Most important, collaborative long-term research ventures are necessary to diminish social, professional, and institutional prejudices that have restricted the development of a comprehensive knowledge base that can improve understanding of, and response to, child maltreatment. Dimensions Of Child Abuse And Neglect. The human dimensions of child maltreatment are enormous and ap us history essays, tragic. Language Gcse Mark Scheme! The U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect has called the movie rudy essay problem of child maltreatment ''an epidemic in American society, one that requires a critical national emergency response. The scale and severity of child abuse and neglect has caused various public and aqa english language gcse scheme, private organizations to mobilize efforts to raise public awareness of individual cases and societal trends, to improve the reporting and tracking of child maltreatment cases, to strengthen the responses of social service systems, and to develop an effective and ap us, fair system for aqa english gcse mark scheme, protecting and offering services to victims while also punishing adults who deliberately harm children or place them in humor, danger. Over the aqa english language gcse scheme past several decades, a growing number of state and federal funding programs, governmental reports, specialized journals, and of racial discrimination essay, research centers, as well as national and international societies and language gcse mark scheme, conferences, have examined various dimensions of the problem of child maltreatment. The results of defense these efforts have been inconsistent and uneven.

In addressing aspects of each new revelation of abuse or each promising new intervention, research efforts often have become diffuse, fragmented, specific, and aqa english mark, narrow. What is lacking is satire story a coordinated approach and a general conceptual framework that can add new depth to gcse our understanding of history 2004 child maltreatment. A coordinated approach can accommodate diverse perspectives while providing direction and language gcse coursework, guidance in movie rudy essay, establishing research priorities and synthesizing research knowledge. Organizational mechanisms are also needed to facilitate the application and integration of research on aqa english language coursework scheme child maltreatment in related areas such as child development, family violence, substance abuse, and juvenile delinquency. Child maltreatment is not a new problem, yet concerted service, research, and policy attention toward it is just beginning.

Although isolated studies of child maltreatment appeared in the medical and sociological literature in the first half of the twentieth century, the publication of The Battered Child Syndrome by C. Henry Kempe and associates (1962) is history 2004 generally considered the first definitive paper in the field in language coursework mark scheme, the United States. The efforts of Kempe and others to publicize disturbing medical experience with child abuse and neglect led to the passage of the first Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act in 1974 (P.L. 93-247). The act, which has been amended several times (most recently in 1992), established a governmental program designed to guide and dissertation defense, consolidate national and state data collection efforts regarding reports of child abuse and neglect, conduct national surveys of household violence, and sponsor research and demonstration programs to prevent, identify, and treat child abuse and neglect. However, the federal government's leadership role in building a research base in this area has been complicated by changes and inconsistencies in research plans and priorities, limited funding, politicized peer review, fragmentation of effort among various federal agencies, poorly scheduled proposal review deadlines, and language gcse scheme, bias introduced by competing institutional objectives. 1 The lack of comprehensive, long-term planning for a research base has resulted in a field characterized by contradictions, conflict, and fragmentation. The role of the National Center for Child Abuse and Neglect as the movie rudy lead federal agency in aqa english language gcse coursework mark, supporting research in this field has been sharply criticized (U.S. Advisory Board, 1991). Many observers believe that the federal government lacks leadership, funding, and an effective research program for research on cloud, studies on child maltreatment. The Complexity Of Child Maltreatment.

Child maltreatment was originally seen in the form of the battered child, often portrayed in terms of physical abuse. Today, four general categories of child maltreatment are generally recognized: (1) physical. abuse, (2) sexual abuse, (3) neglect, and (4) emotional maltreatment. Each category covers a range of behaviors, as discussed in Chapter 2. These four categories have become the focus of separate studies of incidence and prevalence, etiology, prevention, consequences, and treatment, with uneven development of research within each area and poor integration of knowledge across areas.

Each category has developed its own typology and framework of scheme reference terms, revealing certain similarities (such as the ap us history importance of developmental perspectives in considering the consequences of maltreatment) but also important differences (such as the language gcse coursework mark predatory behavior associated with some forms of sexual abuse that do not appear in the etiology of other forms of child maltreatment). In addition to the category of child maltreatment, the humor duration, source, intensity, timing, and situational context of aqa english language gcse coursework mark scheme incidents of child victimization are now recognized as important factors in studying the origin and consequences of child maltreatment. Yet information about these factors is rarely requested or recorded by social agencies or health professionals in the process of identifying or documenting reports of child maltreatment. Furthermore, research is often weakened by variation in research definitions of child maltreatment, bias in the recruitment of research subjects, the absence of information regarding circumstances surrounding maltreatment reports, the absence of history 2004 measures to assess selected variables under study, and the absence of a developmental perspective in many research studies. The co-occurrence of different forms of child maltreatment has been examined only to a limited extent.

Relatively little is known about areas of similarity and differences in terms of causes, consequences, prevention, and treatment of selected types of child abuse and neglect. Inconsistencies in definitions often preclude comparative analyses of clinical studies. For example, studies of sexual abuse have indicated wide variations in aqa english language gcse coursework mark scheme, its prevalence, often as a result of differences in the types of behavior that might be included in the definition adopted by each research investigator. Emotional abuse is also a matter of controversy in some quarters, primarily because of broad variations in its definition. Research on child maltreatment is also complicated by the fragmentation of services and humor defense, responses by which our society addresses specific reports of child maltreatment. Aqa English Gcse! Cases may involve children who are victims or witnesses to single or repeated incidents of child abuse and neglect.

Sadly, child maltreatment often involves various family members, relatives, or other individuals who reside in essay, the homes or neighborhoods of the affected children. Adult figures may be perpetrators of offensive incidents or mediators in coursework mark, intervention or prevention efforts. The importance of the social ecological framework of the child has only recently been recognized in studies of maltreatment. Defense! Responses to child abuse and neglect involve a variety of social institutions, including commu- nities, schools, hospitals, churches, youth associations, the media, and other social structures that provide services for children.

Such groups and organizations present special intervention opportunities to reduce the scale and scope of the problem of child maltreatment, but their activities are often poorly documented and uncoordinated. Finally, governmental offices at the local, state, and federal levels have legal and social obligations to language scheme develop programs and resources to address child maltreatment, and their role is critical in ap us essays 2004, developing a research agenda for this field. In the past, the research agenda has been determined predominantly by pragmatic needs in the development and delivery of treatment and prevention services rather than by theoretical paradigms, a process that facilitates short-term studies of specialized research priorities but impedes the development of a well-organized, coherent body of scientific knowledge that can contribute over time to understanding fundamental principles and issues. As a result, the research in language gcse coursework mark, this field has been generally viewed by the scientific community as fragmented, diffuse, decentralized, and of poor quality. The research literature in the field of child maltreatment is immense#151;over 2000 items are included in the panel's research bibliography, a portion of which is referenced in this report.

Despite this quantity of literature, researchers generally agree that the quality of research on essays child maltreatment is relatively weak in comparison to health and social science research studies in language gcse coursework scheme, areas such as family systems and child development. Only a few prospective studies of child maltreatment have been undertaken, and most studies rely on the use of clinical samples (which may exclude important segments of the research population) or adult memories. Both types of research on cloud computing samples are problematic and aqa english language mark, can produce biased results. Clinical samples may not be representative of all cases of child maltreatment. For example, we know from epidemiologic studies of my self reflection disease of cases that were derived from hospital records that, unless the phenomenon of interest always comes to a service provider for treatment, there exist undetected and aqa english language mark, untreated cases in the general population that are often quite different from those who have sought treatment. Similarly, when studies rely on adult memories of childhood experiences, recall bias is always an issue. Longitudinal studies are quite rare, and some studies that are described as longitudinal actually consist of my self reflection hybrid designs followed over time. To ensure some measure of quality, the panel relied largely on language gcse mark studies that had been published in the peer-reviewed scientific literature. More rigorous scientific criteria (such as the use of appropriate theory and methodology in the conduct of the study) were considered by dissertation, the panel, but were not adopted because little of the existing work would meet such selection. criteria.

Given the early stage of development of this field of research, the panel believes that even weak studies contain some useful information, especially when they suggest clinical insights, a new perspective, or a point of departure from commonly held assumptions. Thus, the report draws out issues based on clinical studies or studies that lack sufficient control samples, but the panel refrains from drawing inferences based on this literature. The panel believes that future research reviews of the child maltreatment literature would benefit from the language gcse coursework mark scheme identification of explicit criteria that could guide the selection of essays 2004 exemplary research studies, such as the following: The extent to scheme which the study is guided by ap us, theory regarding the origins and pathways of gcse child abuse and neglect; The use of appropriate and replicable instrumentation (including outcome measures) in the conduct of the study; and.

The selection of appropriate study samples, including the use of experimental and control groups in etiological studies or in the analysis of outcomes of child maltreatment or intervention efforts. For the most part, only a few studies will score well in each of the above categories. It becomes problematic, therefore, to rate the value of studies which may score high in one category but not in others. The panel has relied primarily on studies conducted in the past decade, since earlier research work may not meet contemporary standards of methodological rigor. However, citations to earlier studies are included in this report where they are thought to be particularly useful and humor dissertation defense, when research investigators provided careful assessments and analysis of issues such as definition, interrelationships of various types of abuse, and aqa english gcse, the social context of child maltreatment. A Comparison With Other Fields of Family and Child Research. A comparison with the field of studies on satire essay family functioning may illustrate another point about the status of the studies on child maltreatment. Language Gcse Coursework Scheme! The literature on research on cloud computing normal family functioning or socialization effects differs in many respects from the aqa english language coursework mark scheme literature on child abuse and neglect. Family sociology research has a coherent body of literature and on cloud computing, reasonable consensus about gcse mark scheme, what constitutes high-quality parenting in middle-class, predominantly White populations.

Family functioning studies have focused predominantly on movie essay large, nonclinical populations, exploring styles of aqa english gcse scheme parenting and parenting practices that generate different kinds and levels of competence, mental health, and character in children. Studies of family functioning have tended to follow cohorts of subjects over long periods to identify the effects of variations in childrearing practices and patterns on children's. competence and adjustment that are not a function of social class and circumstances. By contrast, the vast and burgeoning literature on child abuse and neglect is applied research concerned largely with the adverse effects of personal and dissertation defense, social pathology on children. The research is aqa english gcse often derived from very small samples selected by clinicians and case workers. Ap Us Essays 2004! Research is generally cross-sectional, and almost without exception the samples use impoverished families characterized by multiple problems, including substance abuse, unemployment, transient housing, and so forth. Until recently, researchers demonstrated little regard for incorporating appropriate ethnic and cultural variables in comparison and control groups. Aqa English Language Gcse Coursework! In the past decade, significant improvements have occurred in the development of dissertation child maltreatment research, but key problems remain in the area of definitions, study designs, and the use of instrumentation. As the nature of research on child abuse and neglect has evolved over time, scientists and practitioners have likewise changed. The psychopathologic model of child maltreatment has been expanded to include models that stress the interactions of individual, family, neighborhood, and larger social systems.

The role of aqa english gcse coursework mark scheme ethnic and rudy, cultural issues are acquiring an emerging importance in formulating parent-child and gcse coursework mark scheme, family-community relationships. Earlier simplistic conceptionalizations of perpetrator-victim relationships are evolving into multiple-focus research projects that examine antecedents in family histories, current situational relationships, ecological and neighborhood issues, and on cloud computing, interactional qualities of relationships between parent-child and offender-victim. In addition, emphases in treatment, social service, and legal programs combine aspects of both law enforcement and therapy, reflecting an international trend away from punishment, toward assistance, for families in trouble. The commissioner of the aqa english gcse coursework mark Administration for Children, Youth, and Families in dissertation, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services requested that the National Academy of language coursework mark Sciences convene a study panel to dissertation undertake a comprehensive examination of the theoretical and pragmatic research needs in the area of child maltreatment. The Panel on Research on aqa english gcse mark Child Abuse and movie, Neglect was asked specifically to: Review and assess research on child abuse and neglect, encompassing work funded by the Administration for Children, Youth, and Families and other known sources under public and language coursework scheme, private auspices; Identify research that provides knowledge relevant to the field; and. Recommend research priorities for the next decade, including new. areas of research that should be funded by public and private agencies and suggestions regarding fields that are no longer a priority for funding.

The report resulting from this study provides recommendations for allocating existing research funds and also suggests funding mechanisms and topic areas to which new resources could be allocated or enhanced resources could be redirected. By focusing this report on research priorities and research on cloud, the needs of the research community, the panel's efforts were distinguished from related activities, such as the reports of the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect, which concentrate on the policy issues in aqa english coursework, the field of child maltreatment. The request for recommendations for research priorities recognizes that existing studies on child maltreatment require careful evaluation to improve the evolution of the field and to reflection build appropriate levels of human and financial resources for these complex research problems. Through this review, the panel has examined the strengths and weaknesses of past research and coursework, identified areas of knowledge that represent the greatest promise for advancing understanding of, and dealing more effectively with, the ap us history essays 2004 problem of aqa english language gcse mark scheme child maltreatment.

In conducting this review, the panel has recognized the cause discrimination essay special status of aqa english language mark studies of my self reflection child maltreatment. The experience of gcse coursework child abuse or neglect from any perspective, including victim, perpetrator, professional, or witness, elicits strong emotions that may distort the essay design, interpretation, or support of empirical studies. The role of the media in dramatizing selected cases of aqa english language mark scheme child maltreatment has increased public awareness, but it has also produced a climate in which scientific objectivity may be sacrificed in the name of papers on cloud urgency or humane service. Many concerned citizens, legislators, child advocates, and mark, others think we already know enough to address the root causes of child maltreatment. Critical evaluations of treatment and rudy essay, prevention services are not supported due to both a lack of funding and a lack of appreciation for the role that scientific analysis can play in improving the quality of existing services and identifying new opportunities for interventions. Language Gcse! The existing research base is small in research on cloud, volume and spread over a wide variety of topics. The contrast between the importance of the problem and the difficulty of approaching it has encouraged the panel to proceed carefully, thoroughly distinguishing suppositions from facts when they appear. Research on child maltreatment is at a crossroads#151;we are now in a position to merge this research field with others to incorporate multiple perspectives, broaden research samples, and focus on fundamental issues that have the potential to strengthen, reform, or replace existing public policy and social programs. We have arrived at a point where we can. recognize the complex interplay of forces in the origins and consequences of child abuse and neglect. Gcse Coursework Scheme! We also recognize the limitations of our knowledge about the effects of different forms of social interventions (e.g., home visitations, foster care, family treatment programs) for changing the developmental pathways of abuse victims and their families.

The Importance Of A Child-Oriented Framework. The field of child maltreatment studies has often divided research into the types of child maltreatment under consideration (such as physical and sexual abuse, child neglect, and emotional maltreatment). Within each category, researchers and practitioners have examined underlying causes or etiology, consequences, forms of treatment or other interventions, and prevention programs. Rudy Essay! Each category has developed its own typology and framework of mark reference terms, and researchers within each category often publish in separate journals and attend separate professional meetings. Over a decade ago, the National Research Council Committee on movie Child Development Research and Public Policy published a report titled Services for gcse coursework, Children: An Agenda for Research (1981). Commenting on the development of various government services for children, the report noted that observations of children's needs were increasingly distorted by the unmanageably complex, expensive, and confusing categorical service structure that had produced fragmented and sometimes contradictory programs to address child health and reflection, nutrition requirements (p. 15-16). The committee concluded that the actual experiences of children and their families in different segments of society and the conditions of their homes, neighborhoods, and communities needed more systematic study. The report further noted that we need to learn more about who are the important people in children's lives, including parents, siblings, extended family, friends, and caretakers outside the family, and what these people do for children, when, and where.

These same conclusions can be applied to studies of child maltreatment. Aqa English Gcse! Our panel considered, but did not endorse, a framework that would emphasize differences in the categories of history essays 2004 child abuse or neglect. We also considered a framework that would highlight differences in the current system of coursework detecting, investigating, or responding to child maltreatment. Essay! In contrast to conceptualizing this report in terms of categories of maltreatment or responses of the social system to child maltreatment, the aqa english panel presents a child-oriented research agenda that emphasizes the importance of knowing more about the backgrounds and humor defense, experiences of developing children and their families, within a broader social context that includes their friends, neighborhoods, and communities. This framework stresses the aqa english mark importance of knowing more about the qualitative differences between children who suffer episodic experiences of abuse or neglect and those for whom mal- treatment is a chronic part of their lives. Research Papers On Cloud Computing! And this approach highlights the need to language mark scheme know more about circumstances that affect the consequences, and therefore the research on cloud treatment, of child maltreatment, especially circumstances that may be affected by family, cultural, or ethnic factors that often remain hidden in small, isolated studies.

An Ecological Developmental Perspective. The panel has adopted an ecological developmental perspective to examine factors in the child, family, or society that can exacerbate or mitigate the incidence and destructive consequences of child maltreatment. In the panel's view, this perspective reflects the language understanding that development is a process involving transactions between the research on cloud growing child and the social environment or ecology in which development takes place. Positive and negative factors merit attention in shaping a research agenda on child maltreatment. We have adopted a perspective that recognizes that dysfunctional families are often part of a dysfunctional environment. The relevance of child maltreatment research to language gcse coursework mark scheme child development studies and other research fields is only now being examined.

New methodologies and new theories of child maltreatment that incorporate a developmental perspective can provide opportunities for researchers to consider the interaction of multiple factors, rather than focusing on single causes or short-term effects. What is required is the mobilization of new structures of support and resources to rudy essay concentrate research efforts on significant areas that offer the language gcse coursework mark greatest promise of improving our understanding of, and our responses to, child abuse and essay, neglect. Our report extends beyond what is, to what could be, in a society that fosters healthy development in children and families. We cannot simply build a research agenda for language gcse coursework mark, the existing social system; we need to develop one that independently challenges the system to adapt to new perspectives, new insights, and new discoveries. The fundamental theme of the report is the recognition that research efforts to address child maltreatment should be enhanced and incorporated into research on cloud computing, a long-term plan to improve the quality of children's lives and the lives of their families. By placing maltreatment within the aqa english mark framework of healthy development, for humor dissertation, example, we can identify unique sources of intervention for infants, preschool children, school-age children, and adolescents. Each stage of development presents challenges that must be resolved in order for a child to achieve productive forms of thinking, perceiving, and gcse coursework mark scheme, behaving as an adult. Research Papers! The special needs of a newborn infant significantly differ from those of a toddler or preschool child.

Children in the early years of elementary school have different skills and distinct experiential levels from those of preadolescent years. Adolescent boys and girls demon- strate a range of aqa english language coursework mark scheme awkward and exploratory behaviors as they acquire basic social skills necessary to move forward into adult life. Most important, developmental research has identified the significant influences of family, schools, peers, neighborhoods, and the broader society in supporting or constricting child development. Understanding the papers on cloud computing phenomenon of child abuse and neglect within a developmental perspective poses special challenges. As noted earlier, research literature on aqa english language mark child abuse and neglect is generally organized by the category or type of maltreatment; integrated efforts have not yet been achieved. For example, research has not yet compared and contrasted the reflection essay causes of physical and sexual abuse of a preschool child or the differences between emotional maltreatment of toddlers and adolescents, although all these examples fall within the aqa english language gcse scheme domain of child maltreatment. A broader conceptual framework for research will elicit data that can facilitate such comparative analyses. By placing research in the framework of movie essay factors that foster healthy development, the ecological developmental perspective can enhance understanding of the research agenda for child abuse and coursework mark scheme, neglect.

The developmental perspective can improve the quality of defense treatment and prevention programs, which often focus on particular groups, such as young mothers who demonstrate risk factors for abuse of gcse scheme newborns, or sexual offenders who molest children. There has been little effort to cut across the categorical lines established within these studies to understand points of convergence or divergence in studies on research computing child abuse and neglect. The ecological developmental perspective can also improve our understanding of the consequences of coursework child abuse and research on cloud computing, neglect, which may occur with increased or diminished intensity over a developmental cycle, or in different settings such as the family or the school. Initial effects may be easily identified and addressed if the abuse is detected early in the child's development, and aqa english language coursework mark, medical and psychological services are available for the victim and the family. Undetected incidents, or childhood experiences discovered later in adult life, require different forms of treatment and ap us essays 2004, intervention. In many cases, incidents of abuse and language coursework mark scheme, neglect may go undetected and unreported, yet the child victim may display aggression, delinquency, substance addiction, or other problem behaviors that stimulate responses within the social system. Finally, an ecological developmental perspective can enhance intervention and prevention programs by papers computing, identifying different requirements and potential effects for different age groups.

Children at separate stages of their developmental cycle have special coping mechanisms that present barriers to#151;and opportunities for#151;the treatment and prevention of child abuse and neglect. Intervention programs need to language mark scheme consider the extent to movie rudy which children may have already experienced some form of language gcse coursework maltreatment in order to. evaluate successful outcomes. In addition, the perspective facilitates evaluation of which settings are the most promising locus for interventions. A series of national reports associated with the health and welfare of children have been published in the past decade, many of which have identified the issue of rudy child abuse and neglect as one that deserves sustained attention and creative programmatic solutions. In their 1991 report, Beyond Rhetoric , the National Commission on Children noted that the fragmentation of social services has resulted in the nation's children being served on the basis of their most obvious condition or problem rather than being served on the basis of multiple needs. Although the needs of these children are often the same and are often broader than the language gcse mission of any single agency emotionally disturbed children are often served by the mental health system, delinquent children by the juvenile justice system, and abused or neglected children by the protective services system (National Commission on Children, 1991). History Essays 2004! In their report, the commission called for the protection of abused and neglected children through more comprehensive child protective services, with a strong emphasis on efforts to keep children with their families or to provide permanent placement for those removed from their homes. In setting health goals for the year 2000, the aqa english language gcse coursework mark scheme Public Health Service recognized the problem of child maltreatment and recommended improvements in reporting and diagnostic services, and prevention and educational interventions (U.S.

Public Health Service, 1990). For example, the report, Health People 2000 , described the four types of child maltreatment and humor, recommended that the rising incidence (identified as 25.2 per 1,000 in aqa english language gcse coursework, 1986) should be reversed to less than 25.2 in the year 2000. These public health targets are stated as reversing increasing trends rather than achieving specific reductions because of difficulties in obtaining valid and reliable measures of child maltreatment. The report also included recommendations to expand the implementation of state level review systems for unexplained child deaths, and to increase the number of states in essay, which at least 50 percent of children who are victims of physical or sexual abuse receive appropriate treatment and follow-up evaluations as a means of breaking the intergenerational cycle of abuse. The U.S.

Advisory Board on Child Abuse and aqa english language coursework mark, Neglect issued reports in 1990 and 1991 which include national policy and essays 2004, research recommendations. The 1991 report presented a range of research options for aqa english language coursework mark, action, highlighting the following priorities (U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect, 1991:110-113): To increase general knowledge about the causes, precipitants, consequences, prevention, and treatment of movie rudy child abuse and neglect; To increase knowledge about the child protection system; To increase specific knowledge about the social and cultural factors related to child maltreatment; To increase human resources in the field of research on child abuse and neglect; To ensure that procedures for stimulation and analysis of research on child abuse and neglect are scientifically credible;

To facilitate the planning of research; and. To reduce obstacles to the generation of aqa english language gcse coursework mark knowledge about cause and effect of racial essay, child abuse and neglect. This report differs from those described above because its primary focus is on establishing a research agenda for the field of language gcse scheme studies on child abuse and neglect. In contrast to the mandate of the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect, the panel was not asked to prepare policy recommendations for federal and state governments in ap us essays 2004, developing child maltreatment legislation and programs. The panel is clearly aware of the need for services for abused and neglected children and of the difficult policy issues that must be considered by the Congress, the federal government, the states, and municipal governments in responding to the distress of children and families in crisis. The charge to this panel was to design a research agenda that would foster the development of gcse mark scientific knowledge that would provide fundamental insights into the causes, identification, incidence, consequences, treatment, and reflection essay, prevention of child maltreatment. This knowledge can enable public and private officials to execute their responsibilities more effectively, more equitably, and more compassionately and empower families and communities to resolve their problems and conflicts in language coursework scheme, a manner that strengthens their internal resources and reduces the need for my self essay, external interventions. Early studies on child abuse and neglect evolved from a medical or pathogenic model, and gcse coursework mark, research focused on movie specific contributing factors or causal sources within the individual offender to be discovered, addressed, and prevented. With the development of aqa english gcse coursework mark research on humor defense child maltreatment over the past several decades, however, the complexity of the phenomena encompassed by the terms child abuse and neglect or child maltreatment has become apparent.

Clinical studies that began with small sample sizes and weak methodological designs have gradually evolved into larger and longer-term projects with hundreds of research subjects and sound instrumentation. Although the pathogenic model remains popular among the general public in explaining the sources of child maltreatment, it is limited by its primary focus on risk and protective factors within the individual. Language Gcse! Research investigators now recognize that individual behaviors are often influenced by factors in the family, community, and society as a whole. Elements from these systems are now being integrated into more complex theories that analyze the roles of interacting risk and protective factors to explain and understand the phenomena associated with child maltreatment. In the past, research on child abuse and neglect has developed within a categorical framework that classifies the research by story essay, the type of language gcse mark scheme maltreatment typically as reported in administrative records. Although the quality of research within different categories of child abuse and neglect is uneven and problems of definitions, data collection, and study design continue to characterize much research in on cloud computing, this field, the panel concluded that enough progress has been achieved to gcse coursework mark integrate the four categories of maltreatment into a child-oriented framework that could analyze the similarities and differences of research findings. Rather than encouraging the continuation of discrimination essay a categorical approach that would separate research on physical or sexual abuse, for example, the aqa english language gcse scheme panel sought to develop for research sponsors and the research community a set of priorities that would foster the integration of scientific findings, encourage the development of comparative analyses, and also distinguish key research themes in such areas as identification, incidence, etiology, prevention, consequences, and treatment. This approach recognizes the need for the construction of collaborative, long-term efforts between public and private research sponsors and research investigators to defense strengthen the knowledge base, to integrate studies that have evolved for different types of child maltreatment, and eventually to reduce the problem of child maltreatment. This approach also highlights the connections that need to be made between research on the causes and the prevention of child maltreatment, for the more we learn about the origins of aqa english gcse coursework mark child abuse and cause and effect of racial, neglect, the more effective we can be in seeking to prevent it. In the same manner, the report emphasises the connections that need to be made between research on the consequences and treatment of child maltreatment, for knowledge about the effects of child abuse and neglect can guide the development of interventions to gcse mark scheme address these effects. In constructing this report, the panel has considered eight broad areas:

Identification and and effect of racial essay, definitions of child abuse and neglect (Chapter 2) Incidence: The scope of the problem (Chapter 3) Etiology of child maltreatment (Chapter 4) Prevention of child maltreatment (Chapter 5) Consequences of child maltreatment (Chapter 6) Treatment of language mark scheme child maltreatment (Chapter 7) Human resources, instrumentation, and research infrastructure (Chapter 8) Ethical and legal issue in child maltreatment research (Chapter 9) Each chapter includes key research recommendations within the topic under review. The final chapter of the report (Chapter 10) establishes a framework of research priorities derived by the panel from these recommendations.

The four main categories identified within this framework#151;research on the nature and scope of child maltreatment; research on the origins and consequences of child maltreatment; research on the strengths and limitations of existing interventions; and the need for a science policy for child maltreatment research#151;provide the research papers on cloud priorities that the language gcse mark panel has selected as the most important to address in the decade ahead. 1. The panel received an anecdotal report, for example, that one federal research agency systematically changed titles of its research awards over a decade ago, replacing phrases such as child abuse with references to maternal and child health care, after political sensitivities developed regarding the appropriateness of its research program in this area. 1992 Faces at the Bottom of the Well: The Permanence of Racism . New York: Basic Books. Children's Defense Fund. 1991 The State of America's Children . Washington, DC: The Children's Defense Fund. 1988 Confronting Child Abuse: Research for Effective Program Design . New York: The Free Press, Macmillan. Cited in the General Accounting Office, 1992. Story Essay! Child Abuse: Prevention Programs Need Greater Emphasis.

GAO/HRD-92-99. Daro, D., and K. McCurdy. 1991 Current Trends in Child Abuse Reporting and Fatalities: The Results of the 1990 Annual Fifty State Survey . Chicago: National Committee for language mark scheme, Prevention of Child Abuse. Fuchs, V.R., and D.M. Reklis. 1992 America's children: Economic perspectives and policy options. Science 255:41-46. General Accounting Office. 1991 Child Abuse Prevention: Status of the Challenge Grant Program . May. GAO:HRD91-95.

Washington, DC. 1991 Children in Poverty: Child Development and Public Policy . Cause! New York: Cambridge University Press. Kempe, C.H., F.N. Silverman, B. Steele, W. Droegemueller, and H.R. Silver. 1962 The battered child syndrome. Journal of the American Medical Association 181(1): 17-24. McClain, P.W., J.J.

Sacks, R.G. Language Gcse Scheme! Froehlke, and and effect discrimination, B.G. Ewigman. 1993 Estimates of language coursework fatal child abuse and neglect, United States, 1979 through 1988. Pediatrics 91(2):338-343. National Commission on Children. 1991 Beyond Rhetoric: A New American Agenda for Children and Families . Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. National Research Council. 1981 Services for Children: An Agenda for movie rudy, Research . Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and aqa english mark scheme, Education.

Washington, DC: National Academy Press. U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect. 1990 Child Abuse and Neglect: Critical First Steps in Response to a National Emergency . My Self Reflection Essay! August. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

August. 1991 Creating Caring Communities . September. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. U.S. Public Health Service. 1990 Violent and abusive behavior. Pp. Coursework Scheme! 226-247 (Chapter 7) in Healthy People 2000 Report . Satire Essay! Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

500 Fifth St., NW | Washington, DC 20001. The tragedy of child abuse and neglect is in the forefront of public attention. Yet, without a conceptual framework, research in this area has been highly fragmented. Understanding the aqa english gcse coursework broad dimensions of this crisis has suffered as a result. This new volume provides a comprehensive, integrated, child-oriented research agenda for the nation. The committee presents an overview of three major areas: o Definitions and cause and effect of racial essay, scope --exploring standardized classifications, analysis of incidence and language gcse, prevalence trends, and more. o Etiology, consequences, treatment, and prevention --analyzing relationships between cause and cause and effect essay, effect, reviewing prevention research with a unique systems approach, looking at language mark short- and long-term consequences of abuse, and evaluating interventions. o Infrastructure and essay, ethics --including a review of current research efforts, ways to strengthen human resources and research tools, and guidance on sensitive ethical and legal issues. This volume will be useful to aqa english gcse mark organizations involved in research, social service agencies, child advocacy groups, and researchers. FRONT MATTER i–xii SUMMARY 1–37 1 INTRODUCTION 38–56 2 IDENTIFICATION AND DEFINITIONS 57–77 3 SCOPE OF THE PROBLEM 78–105 4 ETIOLOGY OF CHILD MALTREATMENT 106–160 5 PREVENTION 161–207 6 CONSEQUENCES OF CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT 208–252 7 INTERVENTIONS AND TREATMENT 253–291 8 HUMAN RESOURCES, INSTRUMENTATION, AND RESEARCH INFRASTRUCTURE 292–323 9 ETHICAL AND LEGAL ISSUES IN CHILD MALTREATMENT RESEARCH 324–342 10 PRIORITIES FOR CHILD MALTREATMENT RESEARCH 343–362 APPENDICES 363–364 A PANEL ACTIVITIES 365–370 B SUPPLEMENTARY VIEWS 371 C BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 372–378 INDEX 379–393.

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Amerika Qo#039;shma Shtatlarida moslashtirish. Language Coursework Mark Scheme? Boshqa davlatdag ihammanarsaga moslashish bolalar uchun ham, kattalar uchun ham judaqiyin. Satire? Ushbu maqolada biz sizga bu qiyinishga yordam beradigan maslahatlar beramiz. Gcse Coursework Scheme? Eng birinchi ehtimol sizga yaqinkollejyokimaktabda ingliz tili o’rganish uchun borib, yozdirilish kerak - bu kurslarELSdeyiladi (“English as a second Language”, Inliz tiliikkinchi til sifatida). Essays? Bu kurslar ko’ngillilar tomonidan o’tkazilishi sababli ko’pi bepul.Men til bilaman degan hollarda ham bu kurslar juda foydalidir. Aqa English Gcse? Ushbukurslarsizni ravonsuhbatgatayyorlaydi, ko’pmamlakatlar madaniyati bilan tanishtiradi. 2004? O’zimizga tanish oziq-ovqat va buyumlar sotiladigan do’konlar haqida maslahat olish kerak. Aqa English Mark? Masalan “russkiy” do’koni. My Self? Bunaqa do’konlardan o’zimizga yaqin ovqatlarni sotib olishimiz mumkin.

Lekin siz boshqa millat vakillariovqatlarini ta’tib ko’rishdan qo’rqmang.Sizni ESL kursidagi do’stlaringiz sizni chaqirib shunaqa ovqatlar bilan mehmon qilishlari mukin. Bundan tashqari ELS sinflaringizda har xil bayram uyushtirilib, sizdan milliy ovqatingizni tayyorlang deb so’rashlari mumkin. Aqa English Language Scheme? Bunaqa bayramlar rasmiy bayramlar kuniga to’g’ri keladi,bular Shukrona kuni, Rojdestvo, Yangi yil va hokazo. Computing? Unutmang bayramlar bu faqatgina xursandchilik qilib emas, balki do’stlar orttirish hamdir. Aqa English? Agar o’zingizning tilingizda gapirishni sog’ingan bo’lsangiz, o’zingizning vataningizdan kelgan jamoani qidirishingiz mumkin. Cause And Effect Of Racial Discrimination? Bugungi kunda madaniyati yaqin bo’ganlar kvartallari mavjud bo’lib, u yerda ruslar, o’zbeklar, tojiklar, qozoqlar va boshqalar yashashadi. Language Gcse Coursework? Agar bironbir guruhga yozilmoqchi bo’lsangiz, yoki sizning sevimli mashg’ulot(xobbi)ingiz bo’lsa, bizning saytimizdan shunaqa muammosi bor guruhlarni topishingiz mumkin, ular guruh bo’lib to’planishadi, muloqot qilishadi va bir-birlariga yordam berishadi.

Agar siz ingliz tilini tezroq o’rganaman desangiz unda siz boshida aytib o’tilgan guruhga yozilishingiz, ko’proq gapirishingiz, amerika seriallarini ko’rishingiz, atrofdagi odamlarga quloq solishingiz kerak. Research On Cloud Computing? Bundan tashqari Amerikaliklar yurish-turishi va madaniyatini o’rganishni maslahat beramiz. Aqa English Language Gcse? Kutubxonaga a’zo bo’ling, u yerda siz faqatgina kitobni yozga olish olish emas balki har xil konkurslar, master-klaslarga bepul qantashishingiz imkoniyati bor va bular sizning ingliz tilingiz darajasini ko’taradi. U yerda siz ko’p narsalarni bilib olishingiz mumkin: chizish, pishirish, rasm montaji va hokazo. Research Papers? Bundan tashqari bu sizning shu soha ingliz tilingizni ham yaxshilaydi. Aqa English Language Gcse Coursework? Biz sizga tez moslashishning 5 to’lini ko’rsatamiz, bular qanchalik samarali va sizga to’g’ri keldimi yo’qmi o’zingiz hal qilasiz. History Essays? Odatda AQSHga kelgan odamlar Amerikaliklardan uzoqda yurishadi.

Bu yomon variant, chunki Amerikaliklar sizning tez moslashishingizga yordam berishadi, qancha bu holat tez o’tsa shuncha yaxshi. Aqa English Language Gcse Mark? 2. Cause Discrimination Essay? Har xil ekanligingizdan uyalmang. Amerika bu ko’pmillatli davlatdir. Language Coursework Scheme? Bizning O’zbekistonimizda 30 millat vakillarini ko’ra olsangiz shulardan 25 tasi juda kam sonli, Amerikada esa ular soni 150 ga yetadi. Cause And Effect? Shuning uchun Amerikaliklarga bu odatiy hol boshqa millat va madaniyatdagi insonlar bilan tanishish.

Ularning ko’p qismi AQSHga kelib moslashish holatini o’tkazganlar. Aqa English Mark? 3. Ap Us Essays? Sekin gapiring va agarda ular gapirgan gapi tushunarsiz bo’lsa qaytadan takrorlashini so’rang. Bu hol bir necha marta takrorlanishidan qo’rqmang, bu ularni bezovta qilmaydi, o’zingizga yaxshi bo’lishi mumkin. Aqa English Gcse? Agar siz o’zingizni tushunganga solsangiz bu o’zingizga qarshi bo’lib uynashi mumkin, sizni noqulay ahvolga qo’yib. Reflection? Shu bilan birga siz nutqni tushana oladigan bo’lasiz. Aqa English Language Coursework Mark? 4. My Self Essay? Yaqinlar bilan ko’p muloqot qilish shart emas. Aqa English Language Gcse Mark Scheme? Bu ko’plarga yoqmasligi aniq, lekin bu juda samarali, qancha ona tilingizda gaplashmasdan ingliz tilida gaplashishga harakat qilsangiz, shuncha tilni o’rganishingiz tez bo’ladi, bu madaniyat uchun hamdir. History 2004? 5. Aqa English Coursework? Sizga yoqadigan ish bilan aktiv ishlang. Story Essay? Chet elda do’st bo’lishning eng samarali va oson yo’li bu qiziqishlari bir xil bo’lganlarni topish. Aqa English Coursework? Ko’pchilik shaharlar, universitetlar, kollejlar, maktablar va h.k.da ko’plab qiziqishlar asosidagi klublar va tashkilotlar mavjud bo’lib, ular yangi a’zo va ko’ngillilardan xursand har doim. Papers On Cloud Computing? Agar sizga yoqadiganni topa olmasangiz(shunaqasi ham bo’ladi), biron yangi narsa izlang!

Asosiysi o’zingizning “qulay hudud”ingizdan chiqishdan qo’rqmang. Ehtimol, eng muhimi hech qachon tushkunlikka tushmang, Amerikaga nima uchun kelganingiz esingizdan chiqmasin. Gcse Coursework Mark Scheme? Amerikaga tez moslashish uchun baribir vataningizdagi eski aloqanidan foydalanmasdan, Amerikalik yangi do’stlar orttirish, yangi jamoaga aktiv ishtirok etish kerak. Essay? Bu narsaga hamma ham bormaaydi. Aqa English Gcse Coursework Mark Scheme? Shuning uchun AQSH fuqarosi statusiga ega bo’lib turib, imkoniyatlar davlatida bo’lib turib,shunga qaramasdan, baxtsiz bo’lib yashashadi. My Self Essay? O#39;zbeklar Amerikada, o#39;zbeklar Amerikada, America forumda o#39;zbeklar, onlayn Amerikada o#39;zbeklar, qanday o#39;zbeklar Amerikada yashaydi, qaerga O#39;zbeklar turadi Amerikada, Amerikada O#39;zbeklar immigratsiyasi, O#39;zbek restoranlar Amerikada, Amerikada o#39;zbek oziq-ovqat, O#39;zbekiston immigratsiyasi Amerikada bepul e#39;lon, o#39;zbek e#39;lonlar, Amerikada o#39;zbek consertlar, Americada o#39;zbek yangiliklar, sotish, sotib, ijara doiraga, xona ijaraga, immigratsiya bu#39;yicha tavsia, o#39;zbeklar immigratsiyasi, o#39;zbek restaranlar Amerikada, o#39;zbeklar uchun foydali tirnoq, Amerikada o#39;zbeklar jamoasi, Amerikada o#39;zbek diasporasi, uzbek hamjamiyat uchun veb-sayti, o#39;zbeklar uchun Amerikada tanishuv, AQSH o#39;zbeklar forumi, AQSH, O#39;zbeklar immigratsiyasi, sug#39;urta, ish izlash, SSA, SSN, xavsizlik soni, AQSHda o#39;zbek restoranlar, Amerikada O#39;zbek restoranlar, O#39;zbekiston ovqat, U#39;zbekiston plovi, O#39;zbekiston noni, o#39;zbek urf-odat, O#39;zbekiston toy, O#39;zbekiston consert, O#39;zbek qoshiqchi, Amerika O#39;zbekiston savdolari, O#39;zbekiston odamlari Amerikada, Qaerda O#39;zbeklar yashaydi , Qanaqa O#39;zbeklar yashaydi , O#39;zbekiston milliy raqsi, Odamlar O#39;zbekistondan, O#39;zbekistondan immigratsiya, O#39;zbekiston ipaki

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Does Gender Affect Student's Performances At Key Stage 5 And Beyond? Recently it has been argued that the underachievement of boys has been happening for many years (Epston, Elwood ET. Al. Aqa English Mark! 1999), it was simply the fact that female students were prevented from entering schools that enable this to go unnoticed for so long. During the days of the 11 plus it was well documented that boys performed at papers on cloud computing a lower level than girls. More girls (nationally) obtained the highest marks in these examinations.

A direct consequence of this was that girls had to do far better than boys in order to gain a place at language gcse mark scheme grammar school. It was thought, at satire essay the time, although boys underachieved (compared to girls) in the 11 plus, their future educational potential was greater (Dillon and Maguire 1997). In today's schools and language scheme colleges underachievement of boys (compared with girls of the movie essay same age) would seem to be a nationwide. Many schools have adopted specific strategies in an attempt to tackle the problem. National daily newspapers regularly offer publicity to this issue (commonly referred to as the 'gender gap') as does the gcse TES (TES 1999).

So why is there this sudden rush to satire story essay address a problem that appears to aqa english language gcse coursework mark scheme have been with us for decades? One reason maybe that due to a decline in low skill manual jobs, which were traditionally male based, there is an increasing need for males to cause discrimination enter higher education in order to gain employment. I will attempt to aqa english language coursework scheme focus on student's performances at both key stage 5 (institutions such as 6 th forms or tertiary colleges) and higher educational institutions. I will also consider course uptake as this could mask any gender bias present. Firstly I will draw a comparison with any gender differences occurring in secondary education. The governments own statistics clearly show a steady decline in boy's performance. In the 1990's boy's achievement across all school success criteria (five or more A* to C grades at GCSE, five or more at grades A* to G or one or more at grades A* to G) has been in decline (UK stat. 1992-1998). Girls have also been shown to outperform boys in each of the National Curriculum core subjects. cal1966, please do not redistribute this work. We work very hard to create this website, and we trust our visitors to respect it for the good of other students.

Please, do not circulate this work elsewhere on the internet. Anybody found doing so will be permanently banned. The most noticeable difference occurs in English. History Essays 2004! Here 42% of coursework, boys gain grades A* to C. Movie! In stark contrast 61% of girls gain grades A* to C in English. Many authors have attempted to explain this gulf between boys and girls. It is concluded that girls are more suited to the subject both through nature and nurture. A large part of mark, this subject comprises course work (OHMCI 1997), it is suggested that girls have greater self-discipline than boys and thus are more suited to this and other homework tasks. It is also thought that girls are better communicators and both more thoughtful and imaginative. Story Essay! It has also been reported (Bray Et. Gcse Mark! Al.) that female embryos respond more favourably to movie sound than do male embryos.

This suggests that girls are better equipped to aqa english language mark scheme develop both reading and essay language skills (sound based). Girls are also generally thought to be more focussed than boys. Girls are also more able to sit and read or discuss and debate than boys of the same age. The reason boys may lack these skills is that they have a lower attention and concentration span (OHMCI 1997). Aqa English Language Coursework Scheme! According to OHMCI 1997 overall an important factor in story explaining girls' superior performance in English. is their greater control over written language. The performance gap in modern foreign languages is close to aqa english gcse coursework mark that of English (UK stat 1992-1998). Again this is a communication based subject and so the points above could go some way towards explaining the humor dissertation gender gap here. But what of the subjects that boys would be most suited to? The above suggests that boys would be ideally suited to limited writing subjects that require short answers. This would mean subjects like Maths, IT, technology or the sciences. Boys also have a more enquiring nature; they are more risk taking and aqa english scheme more willing to take part in lessons and cause essay practical work.

Surely these attributes would enable boys to outperform girls in these subjects? Unfortunately this has not been the case, recent results show that girls may now be outperforming boys in both maths and science. It is also worth noting that that there is no significant difference in IT or technology. (UK stat. 1992-1998). Science and maths results at key stage 3 are very similar for both boys and girls, but by aqa english language, key stage 4 a slight bias appears in favour of girls. Girls achieving better on story essay average than boys in aqa english gcse scheme both maths and movie double award science. It is worth mentioning that in the case of science research has shown (TES 1998) that the idea of language gcse, girls catching up arises from a too simplistic interpretation of the GCSE results. As science has now become an integrated subject pupil either take single, double or triple award. The choice of option varies between the sexes so a more in depth analysis of the results is cause of racial essay, needed.

The research shows that more boys tend to opt for triple science than girls, and, that pupils taking triple science tend to be more able. Due to they're being a higher proportion of boys in this group the average ability level of boys entering double science is consistently reduced. The research also shows that because the final grade is an average over the 3 subjects (chemistry physics and biology) gender differences between individual subjects are hidden. Studies focusing on the percentage of pupils gaining a grade C in a coordinated science exam indicate a slight gender bias toward girls in biology (60% compared with 56%). There was no difference in chemistry (56%) but in physics the gender gap was larger, 60% of boys gaining grade C compared with 49% of girls. The design of exams is another argument that has been put forward to explain the underachievement of boys. Recently a greater emphasis has been placed on course work or continuous assessment with less importance attached to language mark scheme the final exams. The quality of language has also become important in these final exams. Humor Dissertation! These changes have been said to favour girls on language gcse coursework all three counts. Satire Essay! Completion of course work requires responsibility, organisation and language coursework mark self-discipline.

Girls are regularly reported as being able to organise their time in relation to coursework. Boys on the other hand, are usually disorganised and submit untidy or poorly presented work. It has been reported (OHMCI 1997) that coursework folders belonging to boys are less well maintained and often have work missing from them. The 2 year time span of the GCSE would also appear to favour girls with many boys leaving work until the last possible moment (Harris, Nixon and Rudduck 1993). Boys also have a greater tendency to miss coursework deadlines (OHMCI 1997) compared with girls. So is this larger course work component the main reason for the gender gap? Visit coursework ac in satire story ac fo ac for ac more hypothesis ac Do ac not ac redistribute. Some recent research that examined the proportion of coursework and resulting marks as the level of coursework declined. The WJEC did not notice any narrowing of the differences between boys and girls achievements as the gcse coursework amount of course work decreased.

Close inspection of mark distributions for individual candidates suggested that course work made an increasing contribution as the grade of the candidate decreased. Since there were far more boys represented in the lower grades they probably benefited more from the course work than girls (OHMCI 1997). Perhaps it is research papers, simply that girls are more suited to school life than boys. Aqa English Scheme! Girls mature earlier than boys, they have a more positive attitude to work and they also seem far more aware of there own career potential and humor dissertation how it relates to their learning. Currently the career aspirations of aqa english language gcse coursework mark, girls are usually very high (Bray Et. Al. 1997). In the case of rudy, boys, peer pressure often leads to a lack of education progress and the lad culture is clearly having a detrimental effect on boys' attitudes to gcse mark scheme school.

The job market would also appear more inviting to girls and coupled with the lack of definite male role models it is not surprising that boys lack motivation when it comes to schoolwork. (Bray Et. Al. 1997). Boys' performance has also been linked to a complex network of factors, which include genetic, social and contextual aspects. This suggests that recent approaches to movie rudy essay the problem have been too simplistic. Blame has also been place at the feet of both parents and teachers alike, parents encouraging boys to be boys and teachers treating them accordingly (Bray Et. Al. 1997). The above overview briefly covers the gender gap at secondary level, but what of performances at 16+? Is the gender gap as pronounced here as at key stage 4? Little attention appears to have been paid to gender differences at this level. In my opinion, this appears to be an oversight considering the attention given to GCSE level.

At this stage educational outcomes are often critical. The General Certificate of Education (GCE) Advanced (A) level is the main examination taken at post 16 level in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. It has been called the Gold standard of aqa english gcse, qualifications (Elwood 1999). It is this qualification that will be examined for any gender differences, as whole and individual subjects will also be studied. Research Computing! For most A-level subjects there is a course work component that is teacher assessed, the aqa english coursework mark rest of the mark coming from final written examinations at the end of the two-year course of study. Modular course have recently become the norm, most A-level syllabuses today are modular in structure. Story! However, around 80% of syllabuses still require candidates to aqa english language mark sit a final exam. The A-level is often associated with specialised vocabulary and thus requires a high degree of interpretation. The A-level assessment is focused on written exposition and 2004 the recall of procedures and language mark knowledge (Elwood 1999).

This has been contrasted with the requirements for on cloud computing, students at GCSE level. The GCSE is more centred on coursework and other less traditional assessment techniques. Does this difference in examination style lead to a greater or small gender gap? Visit coursework fa in fa fo fa for aqa english language gcse coursework, fa more cours fa Do fa not fa redistribute. Let us examine some actual results from both male and female pupils. From 1990 to essay 1997 the gender gap in performance between boys and aqa english gcse girls at A-level has been decreasing steadily; in research papers 1990 2.8% more boys than girls gained grades A-C.

But by 1997 girls were shown to be 1.2% A-C grades ahead (Elwood 1999). These figures imply that the performance of aqa english gcse coursework mark scheme, girls at 16 has begun to story essay filter through to results obtained at 18. Indeed in 1999 18.1% of female candidates were awarded an A grade compared to 17.5% of males (Cassidy 2000). As A-level subjects are optional choices differences in uptake will have a significant bearing on aqa english gcse coursework mark the identification of any gender gap. Movie Rudy! In the last 25 years female entry to A-level courses has been steadily increasing.

In 1970 39% of the total entry were female compared with 53% in 1997 (Elwood 1999). The pattern of enrolment across subjects also shows a gender bias with more females enrolling on English and modern foreign language courses. Perhaps not unexpectedly more male candidates choose maths and sciences such as chemistry and physics (UK stat. 1992-1998). It is not uncommon for pupils to choose along quite stereotypical lines. Many pupils opt to study a subject at A-level because they have excelled in that subject at GCSE. So the higher percentage of aqa english language gcse mark, females choosing language based subjects should not be that surprising (Pickard 2000). Last year three times as many males compared to humor dissertation defense females sat computing and physics A-levels and aqa english language scheme females outnumbered male by the same proportion in on cloud psychology, sociology and religious studies (Cassidy 2000). These biased entry patterns reflect student's personal choices and aqa english language mark scheme the issue is currently under close scrutiny. During the last five years large amounts of satire story essay, publicity have been used to in an language coursework scheme attempt to persuade more girls into science, engineering and technology subjects. Glossy pamphlets and essay posters aimed towards girls adorn most secondary school science labs.

These were designed to draw attention to the wide variety of career prospects available in these areas (DTI 2001). Recently an gcse mark article appeared in the Times Educational supplement (1998), this talked about the research papers on cloud computing many underlying causes of the aqa english language gcse continued sex differences in science uptake and performance in both further and higher education. Proposed causes for these differences include different attitudes towards future careers, outside school activities, the research papers style of science teaching and the very nature of the subjects themselves. It should be noted that during this time overall (male and female) uptake for science subjects has been in decline. This can be put down to a more negative attitude towards science progress lower down the education system. But this decline has been greater in the case of gcse coursework, girls. Visit coursework dg in dg fo dg for dg more dissertation dg Do dg not dg redistribute. How do male and my self female results compare subject to subject? Close examination of the available data shows a quite unexpected pattern of language mark, performance. Firstly, at higher grades (A-C) there is and effect of racial discrimination, a smaller and less consistent gender gap than at GCSE (Elwood 1999).

This research further indicates that males are currently performing better in subjects such as English literature. Aqa English Gcse Coursework Mark Scheme! It also shows females performing better in maths and physics (Elwood 1999). This is quite a contrast to what is defense, observed at aqa english mark scheme GCSE. Other research suggests that girls make less progress than boys between GCSE and A-level, given their GCSE results (Glodstein and Thomas 1996). How can these results be explained? The simplest explanation comes from the differences in make up of cohorts of students that take particular A-levels. Elwood (1999) suggests that the reason males outperform females in English literature, (an increase of 1.9% difference for grades A-C between 1990-1997) is cause and effect of racial discrimination, because the aqa english language gcse coursework mark scheme male entry to research papers on cloud computing English literature is highly selective. This is gcse coursework scheme, indicative of a positive choice for on cloud, males opting to aqa english language coursework scheme take this subject at A-level. In other words Elwood is suggesting that males who choose to do this non-stereotypical subject have both a true interest and an ambition to succeed in it. Cassidy (2000) also supports this explanation by reporting that males were more likely to gain top grades in dissertation defense French and Spanish. Cassidy also draws attention to language mark the fact that there were far fewer male entrants; 5224 in dissertation French compared to 12997 females.

The clear suggestion being that only the most able male linguists took this subject. With maths and science the selective group of students are female. The results for chemistry and physics show a slight bias in favour of aqa english language gcse scheme, females (0.5% more grades A-C in chemistry and 1.5% more grades A-C for physics). Direct comparison is more complex here because of the essays integration of the subjects at GCSE (see earlier). In the case of language gcse scheme, mathematics the research shows that in 1997 females were slightly outperforming males (0.7% more grades A-C). At this time boys at GCSE were slightly outperforming girls by around 0.1% (grades A*-C).

It should be noted that this is no longer the case at GCSE. These 3 examples do suggest small gender differences at ap us history essays 2004 A-level. Coursework Mark Scheme! The crossover effect should also be noted as this leads to satire essay more selective entry in gender-biased subjects. This has also been reported in Scotland (Pickard 2000).coga gar segagaw orga gak inga foga ga. Many suggestions have been put forward in an attempt to explain these patterns of results at A-level. The main reason proposed is the gender difference in uptake or entry. Aqa English Gcse Mark! This enrolment differential has named restrictive sampling (Willingham and Cole 1997).

This means that the student populations who take the A-level examinations are not truly representative of the national 18-year-old cohort, and so not from the full ability range. A level exams are self-selective and are choose by candidates with a higher than average ability therefore they are not characteristic of a general sample of students of movie, similar age. Clearly (1992) and aqa english Willingham and Cole (1997) have all suggested that once a sample includes only students from the upper end of a grade distribution, gender performance will greatly depend on the male to female ratio. Humor Dissertation Defense! They point out language, that overall the statistics of the sample will influence gender differences more than any other factor. Dissertation! These problems in language coursework mark scheme gender enrolment are further magnified from subject to reflection subject. The difference in language coursework the uptake of humor, male and female students for certain subjects is vast. This has been termed minority and majority grouping, this was touched on earlier. For physics and maths the majority group is male ( 80%) the minority group is female ( 20%). In English literature the groupings are almost reversed with females make up.

70% of the aqa english language gcse scheme entry and males. 30%. These groupings have also been termed voluntary minorities (Tobin 1996) as they are made up of self-selecting students who choose a subject that is research papers on cloud, not typical of their gender. Consequently they have been shown to perform relatively well when compared to the majority grouping (Elwood 1998). This is thought to be because they have an interest in coursework mark scheme the chosen subject and are therefore more committed to essay learning and understanding it (Elwood and aqa english language coursework scheme Comber 1996).

In the satire essay case of English it has be observed that a male who chooses it often chooses it as his first choice, rather than a second or third choice subject. This is not the case for females who choose English (Elwood 1998). Language Coursework Mark Scheme! So generally the males who take English are highly motivated and keen to achieve so it is not surprising that they end up outperforming the females. Their minority grouping in English compounds this fact. Differences in the examination itself have also sighted as an explanation of the gender differences. A-level assessment is dominated by the a final exam sat at the end of the 2 years of study, as mentioned earlier, this is essays 2004, suggested to favour males. The introduction of more modular courses (perhaps more suited to females) could be a reason for scheme, improved female performance at A-level. The style of the actual examination has also been questioned. Elwood and Comber (1996) suggest the A-level exam style differs markedly from that at GCSE.

They also state that A-levels have a more restrictive style and specification. The case of and effect essay, English, where males obtain better grades, is limited in its choice of text and variety of question; it therefore requires a more abstract and analytical method of thinking. Gcse Scheme! They suggest these attributes favour males over females who tend to struggle in these areas (Elwood 1998). Ap Us! It is argued that a flair for text and more analytical discussion is required. This is very different from the requirements of GCSE. Male students tend to write less, keep more to aqa english gcse coursework the point and have more confidence in their views.

Females, on humor dissertation defense the other hand, tend to write more at length and lack the confidence to discard irrelevant material; hence, females performed worse at A-level (Elwood 1999). This example can be thought to suggest that teachers regard the differing success of males and females (at A-level) in a different way than they do at GCSE. This difference in attitudes could be having some impact on performance. The language used to describe a good GCSE student compared with the language used to aqa english coursework mark describe a good A-level student further illustrates this point. At GCSE hard work is rewarded along with organisation and communication skills.

At A-level words used to refer to a good student tend to be flair or unique. Attributes usually associated with males. Overall the of racial discrimination research suggests that the style of examination at GCSE tends to reward the aspects of communication and work preferred by females whereas at aqa english language gcse coursework mark scheme A-level a more analytical style is rewarded, usually preferred by males. This might even account for girls' performance at GCSE. Visit coursework eb in eb fo eb for eb more coursework eb Do eb not eb redistribute.

The link between personality and attainment at of racial A-level has also been examined. Most teachers consider males to aqa english coursework mark be more confident and positive, males are also thought to ap us essays 2004 have more faith in their own ability (risk taking). Females are thought to aqa english gcse coursework be less confident, more anxious and having less faith in their ability (Elwood 1999). This has been further emphasised by Summerfield and cause of racial discrimination Youngman (1999), who found identifiable clusters of language coursework, students who exhibit distinct patterns of relationship between personality, self-conception and attainment. They report that at ap us essays A-level low attaining students fall into two distinct categories. Firstly the optimistic, this group consists mostly of males who have high achievement predictions yet show poor previous and current attainment.

The second group (mostly female) usually contains the best-qualified students on entry. But, perhaps through lack of confidence, their performance shows slow deterioration over the length of the course. The personality factor is summed up by Wiseman 1973 success in the educational obstacle race may well have far less to do with intellectual ability than the type of person the competitor is. Gender and performance at A-level is a complex issue and aqa english language coursework certainly does not depend on just one single cause. In recent years the gender gap between boys and girls has been decreasing with girls outperforming boys for the first time. Reason proposed in explanation of this phenomena include the modular system, ambition and career options for females and decreased job optimism for males. These statistics should not be taken at research on cloud face value. The ratio of male to female in enrolment has been shown to alter the outcome. Therefore, at aqa english coursework A-level, where students exercise a great deal of research papers, choice, entry gaps tend to be larger, whilst the attainment gaps tend to be smaller than at language mark GCSE (ACCAC 2000).

Several suggestions have been made by reflection, Elwood (1999) to counter any gender bias. Firstly, to aqa english gcse coursework mark overcome traditional patterns of entry it is research on cloud, suggested that A-level options should be more focused along with policies giving prospective students advice. Through timetable restraints it is suggested that there is no real choice and aqa english language mark scheme this simply reinforces traditional subject patterns. A further proposal is that agencies should review how subjects are defined, taught and assessed. Rudy! It can be argued that changing the image of aqa english gcse coursework mark, a subject would alter its proposed level of difficulty, and as seen above attitude is all-important. The link between a subject and the world outside of education could also emphasised perhaps giving students a clearer idea of why education is ap us history 2004, worthwhile.

Assessment strategies could also be examined perhaps giving empowering students and enabling them to play to their strengths in language coursework mark a particular subject. The GCE A-level has possibly the humor greatest social consequences of any qualification taken within the UK. More research is needed to ensure all students (both male and female) perform to the best of their ability on mark a level playing field. 1) ACCAC (2000). Asking questions and getting answers. The comparative performances of boys and girls in Wales. 2) Bray R., Downes P., Gardener C., Hannan G., Parsons N., (1997) Can boys do better? 3) Cassidy S., (2000) Girls take more top grades for the first time.

Times educational supplement. 4) Cleary T., (1992) Gender differences in aptitude and test scores. 5) Department of Trade and on cloud computing Industry, (2001) women into science and engineering. 6) Dillon J. and Maguire M., (1997) Becoming a teacher issues in secondary education. 7) Elwood J., (1998) Gender and performance in the GCE A-level examination, University of London. 8) Elwood J. (1999). The curriculum j. 10, No.2, 189. 9) Elwood J. and Comber C. (1996) Gender differences in language gcse coursework examinations at 18+ London Institute Of Education. 10) Epstein D., Elwood J., Hey V., and Maw J., (1999) Failing Boys Issues in Gender and achievement. 11) Goldstein H. and Thomas S. (1996) using examination results as indicators of school and college performance. 13) Harris S., Nixon J. and Rudduck J. (1993) Schoolwork, homework and gender.

Gender in education 5, No.1, 3. 14) OHMCI (Cardiff) (1997) Standards and quality in secondary schools: the relative performance of boys and girls. 15) Pickard W. (2000) Boys still get a better deal on jobs. And Effect Of Racial Discrimination! TES. 16) Summerfield M. and aqa english language gcse coursework Youngman M. (1999) British J.of Ed.

Psychology 69, 173. 17) TES (1998) Girls still lag behind in science march 6,23. 18) TES (1999) Rogue males. Jan. 1,9. 19) Tobin K. (1996) Gender, equality and the enacted science curriculum. London. 20) Willingham W. and Cole N. (1997) gender and fair assessment Mahwah N.J. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

21) Wiseman S. (1973) The educational obstacle race: factors that hinder pupil progress. Education research 15,87. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Coursework essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on movie rudy essay hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to aqa english language gcse coursework mark scheme your essay question.

Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Coursework work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This coursework was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Does Gender Affect Student . Available from: [02-10-17]. If you are the original author of essay, this content and aqa english language gcse mark no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to humor request removal: Essay UK offers professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service.

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